Skip to main content

Full text of "Proceedings of the United States National Museum"

See other formats

Uivision  OT  risnm, 
U.  S.  Nat»«nat  MuMum 











The  Scientific  publications  of  the  National  Museum  consist  of  two 
series — Proceedings  and  Bulletins. 

The  proceedings,  the  first  volume  of  which  was  issued  in  1878,  are 
intended  primaril}-  as  a  medium  for  the  publication  of  original  papers 
based  on  the  collections  of  the  National  Museum,  setting  forth  newly, 
acquired  facts  in  biology,  anthropology,  and  geology  derived  there- 
from, or  containing  descriptions  of  new  forms  and  revisions  of  limited 
groups.  A  volume  is  issued  annually  or  oftener  for  distrilnition  to 
libraries  and  scientific  establishments,  and,  in  view  of  the  importance 
of  the  more  prompt  dissemination  of  new  facts,  a  limited  edition  of 
each  paper  is  printed  in  pamphlet  form  in  advance.  The  dates  at 
which  these  separate  papers  are  published  are  recorded  in  the  table  of 
contents  of  the  volume. 

The  present  volume  is  the  thirty-third  of  this  series. 

The  Bulletin,  publication  of  which  was  begun  in  1875,  is  a  series  of 
more  elaborate  papers,  issued  separately,  and,  like  the  Proceedings, 
based  chiefiy  on  the  collections  of  the  National  Museum. 

A  quarto  form  of  the  Bulletin,  known  as  the  "Special  Bulletin,"  has 
been  adopted  in  a  few  instances  in  which  a  larger  page  was  deemed 

Since  li»02  the  volumes  of  the  series  known  as  "Contributions  from 
the  National  Herbarium,"  and  containing  papers  relating  to  the  botan- 
ical collections  of  the  Museum  have  been  published  as  Bulletins. 

Charles  D.  Walcott, 
Sec7'eta7'y  of  the  Sinithaoiifan  Institution. 

March  16,  1908. 



Bartsch,  Paul.     A  New  Fresh-water  Bivalve  (Corneocyclas) 
from  the   Mountains   of   Ecuador, — No.  1.58-1:.     Fel)ruary 

29,  1908" 681-682 

New  species:  Coriieoei/rhiti  davisl. 

.     New   Marine   MoUusks   from   the   West   Coast  of 

America.— No.  1.5(;-1.     Octoljer  23,  19( )T  « -   177-1.S8 

New  species:    Sella  monterei/ensis,  Bitt'nitii  tuinhlum,  ('erithioj)i<is  co.s- 

mia,  C.  pedroamt,  ^fetaxia  dUideiiia. 
New  subspecies:  Blttiuni  {Stylidium)  eschrichtl  iceluni,  B.  (X)   fxrJi- 
riichti  inonterei/msls,  B.  esurimsnniltlfiloftiim,  /'.  <ftadrifilahiiii  higeiii^. 

.     Notes  on  the  Fresh-water  MoHusk  Phmorbis  mag- 

niticus  and  Descriptions  of  Two  New  Forms  of  the  same 
Genus  from  the  Southern  States,— No.  1587.  March  4, 
1908  « 697-700 

New  species:  Planorbis  encosvimx. 

New  subspecies:  Planorhifi  eiicosndus  vaughani. 

.     The  West  American  Molhisks  of  the  Genus  Tri- 

phoris.— No.  1.569.     December  12,  1907  « 249-262 

New  species:  Trtphoris  montereyensis,  T.  pedroanus,  T.  adlipyrgns, 
T.  carpenteri,  T.  hemphilJi,  T.  caUdinensis,  T.  sfenrnsi,  T.  penhun- 
laris,  T.  evcolj^us,  T.  jMxnamensia,  T.  dalli,  T.  galapagensifi,  T.  chatJi- 
amensis,  T.  adam-'ii. 

.     ^V.^  under  Dall,  William  Healey - .  _  491-531: 

Bean,  Barton  A.     On  Ctenolucius  Gill,  A  Neglected  Genus 
of  Characin  Fishes,  with  Notes  on  the  Typical  Species.— 

No.  1588.     March  4,  1908  « 701-703 

.     See  under  Seale,  Alvin    .  I 229-248 

Caudell,  Andrew  Nelson.     On.  some  Earwigs  (Forticuli- 
dje)   collected    in    (niatemala    by    Messrs.    Schwarz     and 

Barber.— No.  1563.     October  23,  1907 « 169-176 

New  genus:  Arthrcedelus. 

New  species:  Cylmdrogasttr  diplatyoides,  Arthnedetns  harherl,  Sp<i- 
ratta  minuta,  Labia  schwarzi,  L.  hreviforceps,  Forficula  cacaoensis. 

"Date  of  pu])licatioii. 




Clark,  Austin  Hobart.  Descriptions  of  New  Species  of 
Recent  Unstalked  Crinoids  from  the  Coasts  of  Northeastern 
Asia.— No.  1561.     September  17,  1907  « 127-156 

New  species:  Antedon  multicolor,  A.  versicolor,  A.  propinqua,  A.  sep- 
arata, A.  flavopurpurea,  A.  callista,  A.  anthus,  A.  macropoda,  A. 
liana,  A.  villosa,  A.  pubescens,  A.  hepbumiana,  A.  lata,  A.  scalaris, 
A.  garrettiana,  A.  orion,  A.  minor,  A.  diadema,  A.  aster,  A.  alboflava, 
A.  ruber,  A.  diomedeie,  A.  tigrina,  A.  bowers i,  A.  abbotti,  A.  stylifer, 
A.  delicatissima,  A.  rubrofava,  A.  thetis,  A.  hawaiiensis,  Comatula 
maruc,  C.  solaster,  C.  serrata. 

New  names:  Comatula  orientalis,  Atelecri7ms  pourtalesi. 

.     Descriptions  of  New  Species  of  Recent  Unstalked 

Crinoids  from  the  North  Pacific  Ocean. — No.  1559.     Sep- 
tember 17,  1907  « 69-84 

New  species:  Decamelrocrinus  borealis,  Antedon  rara,  A.  hartlaubi, 
A.  tenelloides,  A.  asperrirna,  A.  perplexa,  A.  laodice,  A.  inexpectata, 
A.  rathbuni,  A.  brachymera,  A.  serratissima,  A.  marite,  A.  hondo- 
ensis,  A.  clio,  A.  erythrizon,  A.  fragilis,  A.  tenuis,  A.  ciliata,  A.  isis, 
A.  arclica,  A.  briseis. 

.     Inf rabasals  in  Recent  Genera  of  the  Crinoid  Family 

Pentacrinitid*.— No.  1582.     February  29,  1908  « 671-676 

.     The  Crinoid  Genus  Comatula  Lamarck;  with  a  Note 

on  the  Encrinus  parra?  of  Guerin. — No.  1585.     February 

29,  1908  « 683-688 

New  name:   Comaster  carpenteri. 

CusHMAN,  Joseph  A.     Fresh -water  Crustacea  from  Labrador 

and  Newfoundland.— No.  1589.     March  4,  1908« 705-713 

New  species:  Herpetocypris  testudinaria. 

Dall,  William  Healey.     Supplementary  Notes  on  Martyn's 

Universal  Conchologist.— No.  1565.    October  23,  1907 «._  _   185-192 

• and  Paul  Bartsch.     The  Pyramidellid  Mollusks  of 

the  Oregonian   Faunal   Area. — No.    1574.     December  31, 

1907  « 491-534 

New  species:  Turbonilla  {Turbonilla)  gilli,  T.  {Chemnitzia)  milricatoides,  T. 
{Strioturbonilla)  serrx,  T.  {Pyrgolampros)  taylori,  T.  (P.)  berry i,  T.  (P.)  lycdli, 
T.  (P.)  victor iana,  T.  (P.)  valdezi,  T.  (P.)  newcombei,  T.  (P.)  oregonensis, 
T.  (Pyrgiscus)  ca.nfieldi,  T.  (P.)  morchi,  T.  (P.)  antestriata,  T.  (P.)  eucosmo- 
basis,  T.  (P.)  castanea,  T.  {Mormula)  eschscholtzi,  Odostomia  {Chrysallida) 
cooperi,  0.  (C.)  asiricta,  0.  (C. )  montereyensis,  0.  (C)  oregonensis,  0.  {Ividia) 
navisa,  0.  {lolaea)  amianta,  0.  {Menesiho)  harfordensis,  0.  (M.)  exara,  O. 
{Evalea)  tillamookensis,  O.  {E.)  angularis,  (K  (E.)  jemetti,  0.  {E.)  columbiana, 
0.  (E.)  deliciosa,  0.  {E.)  iaconiaensis,  0.  (E.)  valdezi,  0.  {E.)  phanea,  O. 
(Amaura)  kennerleyi,  0.  (A.)  montereyetisis. 

New  subspecies:  Tarbonilla  {Turbonilla)  gilli  dehnontensis,  Odostomia  {Ividia) 
navisa  delmontensis. 

New  names:  Turbonilla  {Chemnitzia)  montereyensis,  Odostomia  {Menestho)  p)har- 

«Date  of  puV)lic-atioTi. 



Edwards,  Charles  Lincoln.  The  Holothurians  of  the  North 
Pacific  Coast  of  North  America  collected  b}^  the  Albatross 
in  1903.— No.  1558.     September  14,  1907  « 49-68 

New  species:   Chiridola  albatrossii. 

EiGENMANN,  CarlH.,  and  Fletcher  Ogle.  An  Annotated 
List  of  Characin  Fishes  in  the  United  States  National 
Museum  and  the  Museum  of  Indiana  University,  with  De- 
scriptions of  New  Species. — No.  1556.    September  10, 1907'^*.         1-36 

New  genus:  PJienacogrammus. 

New  species:   Curimatus  brevipes,  Frochilodus  beard,  Parodon  para- 

guayensiK,  P.  piradcabse,  Leporinus  parx,    Cheirodon    ribeiroi,  C. 

micropterux,  OdontostUhe  mirrocephalus,  Aphyocharax  rathbuni,  A. 

stromineus,  Holopristes  riddlei,  Hemigrammunmicropterus,  H.  trldens, 

H.  boulengeri,  H.  anisitsi,  H.  sanUr,  H.  inconstans,  Astyanax  em- 

perador,  A.  orthodus,  A.  atratoensis,  A.  megalops,  Charax  atratoen- 

New  subspecies:  Curimatun  leuciscus  bolivhe,  Astyanax  rutilns  vicara- 

New  si:)ecific  names:   Curimatus  boulengeri,  Leporinus  stemdachneri, 

Gilbertolus,  Evermannolus. 

Franklin,  Henry  James.  On  a  Collection  of  Thysanopte- 
rous  Insects  from  Barbados  and  St.  Vincent  Islands. — No. 

1590.     March  4, 1908  « 715-730 

New  species:  Euthrips  insular  is,  Anthothrips  gowdeyi,  Trichothrips 
niger,  Cryptothrips  fasciapennis. 

GiRTY,  George  H.  Descriptions  of  New  Species  of  Upper 
Paleozoic  Fossils  from  China. — No.  1557.     September  10, 

1907« - 37-48 

New  genus:  Carnegla. 

New  species:  Lonsdalela  chlnensis,  MicheUnea  favosltoldes,  Carnegla 
bassleri,  FIstullpora  willislana,  Geinilzella  chlnensis,  Batostomella 
meekana,  Fistulipora  waageniana,  Spirifer  blackwelderl,  Xotothyris 
willlsiana,  Aviculipeden  richthofenl. 

Herre,  Albert  Christian 157-167 

See  under  Jordan,  David  Starr. 

Hough,  Walter.  The  Pulque  of  Mexico. — No.  1579.  Feb- 
ruary 18,  1908" 577-592 

Jordan,  David  Starr,  and  Albert  Christian  Herre.  A 
Review  of  the  Cirrhitoid  Fishes  of  Japan. — No.  1562. 
October  23,  1907". 157-167 

New  genus:  Isobuna. 

and  Robert  Earl  Richardson.     A  Review  of   the 

Flat-heads,  Gurnards,  and  other  Mail-cheeked  Fishes  of  the 
Waters  of  Japan.— No.  1581.     February  28,  1908« 629-670 

New  genera:  Rogadlus,  Bambradon,  Eblsinus,  Dactyloptena,  DoAcocus. 
New  species:  Hoplichthys  gilberti. 

"Date  of  publication. 



Jordan,  David  Starr,  and  Robert  Earl  Richardson. 
Description  of  a  New  Species  of  Killifish,  Lucania  browni, 
from  a  Hot  Spring  in  Lower  California. — No.  1572.  De- 
cember 24,  1907  « 319-321 

New  species:  Lucania  browni. 

.     On   a   Collection   of    Fishes   from   Echigo, 

Japan.— No.  1570.     December  12, 1907" 263-266 

New  species:  Lefua  ecJdgonia,  Pallasina  eri/ngia,  Chloea  nakamurse. 

and  Alvin  Seale.     List  of  Fishes   collected  in  the 

River  at  Boytenzorg,   Java,    by  Dr.  Douglas   Houghton 

Campbell.— No.  1575.     December  24,  1907«  . .  - -  -  -    535-543 

New  species:  (ilossogobius  camjibellianus. 
Linton,  Edwin.     Notes  on  Parasites  of  Bermuda  Fishes. — 

No.  1560.     October  14,  1907  « 85-126 

New  species :  Echinorhynchus  medius,  Rhynchobothrium  spiracornutum, 
Otobothrium  penetrans,  Distomum  subtenue,  D.  gyrirms,  D.  lamelli- 
forme,  D.  trulla,  D.  levenseni,  D.  fenestratum",  D.  tomex. 

Lyon,  Marcus  Ward,  Jr.  Mammals  collected  in  Western 
Borneo  by  Dr.  W.  L.  Abbott.— No.  1577.  December  24, 
1907  « 547-572 

New  species:  Sciurus  sanggaus. 

New  subspecies:  Sciurus  borneoensis  palustris. 

Mason,  Otis  T.     Basketry  Bolo  Case  from  Basilan  Island. — 

No.  1566.     October  25,  1907  « 193-196 

Ogle,  Fletcher --         1-36 

.     See  under  Eigenmann,  Carl  H. 

Richardson,  Harriet.  On  Some  Isopods  of  the  Family 
Dajidie  from  the  Northwest  Pacific  Ocean,  with  Descrip- 
tions of  a  New  Genus  and  Two  New  Species. — No.  1586. 
February  29,  1908« 689-696 

New  genus:  Arthrophryxus. 

New  species:  Holophryxus  giardi,  H.  californiensis,  ArthrojjJiryxus 

Richardson,  Robert  Earl.     See  under  Jordan,  David  Starr  263-266 

.     See  under  Jordan,  David  Starr  _ . — -  319-321 

— .     See  under  Jordan,  David  Starr 629-670 

Seale,  Alvin  and  Barton  A.  Bean.     On  a  Collection   of 
Fishes  from  the  Philippine  Islands,  made  by  Maj.  Edgar 
A.  Mearns,  Surgeon,  U.  S.  Army,  with    Descriptions  of 
Seven  New  Species.— No.  1568.     November  21,  1907«  .  -  --   229-248 
New  genus:  Mearnsella. 

New  species:  Barbus  quinquemacidatus,  Mearnsella  alestes,  Easbora 
j)unctulatu,%  Polydactylus  opercular  is,  Cephalopholis  maculatus, 
Choerops  zarnboangae,  Cnllyodon  latifasciatus. 

«  Date  of  publication. 



Seale,  Allen.     See  under  Jordan,  David  Starr  . ...   58.5-543 

Stejneger,  Leonhard.      a  New  Geckoid  Lizard  from  the 

Philippine  Islands.— No.  1576.     December  24,  1907 " 54.5-546 

New  species:  Luperosaurus  macgregorl. 

■ .     A  New  Species  of  Flying  Lizard  from  the  Philippine 

Islands.— No.  1583.     February  29,  1908 « 677-679 

New  species:  Draco  mindanensi.'t. 

.     Two  New  Species  of  Toads  from  the  Philippines. — 

No.  1578.     February  18,  1908 « 573-576 

New  species:  Phiynixalus  anulatus,  Kalophrynus  siellatuK. 
Walsingham,  Lord.     Descriptions  of  New  North  American 
Tineid  Moths,  with  a  Generic  Table  of  the  Family  Blasto- 
basidffi.— No.  1567.     October  29, 1907 « ...^   197-228 

New  genera:  Valentinia,  CatacrypRh,  Cifnotea,  MeneMnmorpha,  fkrlo- 
preta,  Pseudoxylesthia. 

New  species:  Gelechia  laudatella,  Ethmia  albUogaia,  Valentinia  notliro- 
teSf.Blaslobasix  sp.,  Holcocera  nigrostriata,  II.  upliidiella,  Catacrypsin 
nuceUa,  C.  stygna,  C.  ursella,  C.  ifenica,  C.  inamqncua ,  C.  inorrisoni, 
Hypatopa  texanella,  II.  episcia,  H.  conia,  H.  fasciafa,  H.  oritex, 
MeneMomorpha  oblongata,  ColeopJiora  lapidicornis,  C.  vaganit,  Calo- 
pceta  glutinosi,  Ilyponomeuta  diaphorus,  Bucculatrix  eurotiella,  LUho- 
col  letis  cervina,  L.  ceriferx,  L.  leucothorax,  Ornix  innotata,  Tischeria 
albostraminea,  Scardia  gracillis,  PseudoxyleMhia  angustella,  Tinea 
sparsipunctella,  Ilomonymus  coloradellus. 

New  name:  Hypatopa. 

Williamson,  Edward  Bruce.  The  Dragonflies  (Odonata) 
of  Burma  and  Lower  Siam — 11.  Subfamilies  Cordulegas- 
terina>,  Chlorogomphinee,  and  GomphinjB. — No.  1571. 
December  13,  1907  « 267-317 

New  genus:  Burmagomphus. 

New  species:  Gomphidia  abbotti,  Gompkus  xanthenatus. 

Wilson,  Charles  Branch.  North  American  Parasitic 
Copepods  belonging  to  the  Family  C-aligida?.  Parts  3  and 
4. — A  Revision  of  the  Pandarin^e  and  the  Cecropinse. — No. 
1573.     December  31,  1907« 323-490 

New  genus  names:  Pholidopus,  Prosxtex. 
New  species:  Echthrogaleuft  torpedinis. 

.     North  American  Parasitic  Copepods:  New  Genera 

and  Species  of  Caliginse.  —No.  1580.     February  28, 19(  )8  ^' .     593-627 

New  genera:  Abasia,  Tuxophorus. 

New  species:  Caligus  ru/us,  Lepeophtheirus  longispinosus,  Parapjetaht.'i 
orcidentalis,  Abasia pseudorostris,  TuxopIioru.i  caligodes. 

•^'Date  of  publication. 


TEXT    FKil'HKS. 


(hiriinatis  hreripes^ 4 

Prochilodus  beani 5 

Leporimis  parse 8 

Hemigrammus  inconstan>< 17 

Astyanaj:  atratoensis 28 

Bramocharax  bramfordii 82 

Charax  sqnamosus 33 

Charax  atratooisis 34 

Chirulota  albatrossii.     a-c,  Calcareous  rods .  51 

Chiridota  albatrossii.     d-f,  Calcareous  rods 51 

Chiridota  albatrossU.     Stone  canal  and  niadreporite 52 

Ankyrodenna  jeff'reysii.     Spoon-like  rod  with  rudimentarj'  spire 52 

Cucumaria  caldgera.     Upper  surface  of  table  from  the  body-wall 55 

Cucumaria  calclyera.     Side  view  of  table  from  the  body-wall 55 

Cucumaria  calcigera.     Perforated  plate  of  the  introvert 56 

Cucumaria  calcigera.     Supporting  table  from  a  pedicel 56 

Cucumaria  calcigera.     Spinose,  perforated  tentacle  rod 57 

Cucumaria  calcigera.     Fragment  of  calcareous  ring  network 57 

Cucumaria  calcigera.     Stone  canal  and  madrei>orite 58 

Stichopus  cliallengeri.     Curved  supporting  rod  of  a  tentacle 66 

CirrJdtichthys  aureus 162 

Goniistius  zonatus 165 

Prospectus  of  Martyu's  Universal  Concliol(  igist 188 

Jacanese  bolo  case.     Front  view 193 

Jacanese  bolo  case.     Back  view 194 

Inside  of  Jacanese  bolo  case 195 

Outer  technic  of  Jacanese  T)olo  case 195 

Border  of  Jacanese  bolo  case 196 

Barbus  quinquemaculatus 230 

Mearnsella  alestes 232 

Basbora  jninctidatus 233 

Polydactylus  opercularis 234 

Cephcdopholis  maculatus 235 

Chcerops  zamboangse 237 

Callyodon  latifasciatus 238 

Scatophagus  argus,  young 246 

Lefua  ecldgonia 263 

Pallasina  eryngia 264 

Chloea  nakamurx 266 

Diagrammatic  wing  of  a   Dragonfly  of   the   Family    ^Eshnida'  showing   the 

nomenclature  of  the  venation 270. 


Wings  of  male  Anotoga^ter  sieholdii  from  Japan 276 

WingH  of  male  OrogompJius  atkinsoui.     De  Selys'  collection 277 

Wings  of  female  Orogomphus  atkinsoni.     De  Selys'  collection 278 

Wings  of  male  Ictinns  melienopii  from  Siam - 280 

Wings  of  female  Jcthms  melxnops  from  Siam 280 

Wings  of  male  (jomphidia  ahhotti  from  Siam 282 

fionipliidia  ahhotti  from  Siam.     A,  dorsal,  and  B,  lateral  views  of  male  abdomi- 
nal appendages.     9  and  10,  abdominal  segments 28-1 

WMngs  of  male  Sieboldius  japponicus  from  Siam 285 

Wings  of  male  Ilagenius  hrevistylus  from  North  America 286 

Wings  of  female  Davidius  fruhMorferi  from  Tonkin 287 

Wings  of  male  Macrogomphus  qnadratus  from  Big  Tambelan  Island,  China  Sea.  288 

WMngs  of  female  species  of  Mncrogomphus  from  Siam 288 

Macrogomphus  quadratus  from  Big  Tamlielan  Island,  ('hina  Sea.     A,  lateral, 
and  B,  dorsal  views  of  male  abdominal  appendages.     9  and  10,  abdominal 

segments 289 

Wings  of  male  Leptogomphus  semper i  from  Borneo 292 

Wings  of  male  species  of  Leptogomphus  from  Tonkin.     Martin's  collection 293 

Wings  of  male  Leptogomphus  indltus.     De  Selys'  collection 293 

Wings  of  female  Jjeptogomphus  incUtus.     De  Selys'  collection 294 

W^ings  of  male  Mierogomjjhus  chelifer.     De  Selys'  collec^tion 296 

Wings  of  female  Mkrogomphxis  chelifer.     De  Selys'  collection •. 296 

Wings  of  female  Cyclogomphvs  lieterostylus.     De  Selys'  collection 297 

Wings  of  AnisogompJius  occipitalis.     De  Selys'  collection 297 

Wings  of  female  Anisogomphus  occipitalis.     De  Selys'  collection 298 

Wings  of  male  Anormogomphus  heleropterus.     De  Selys'  collection 299 

Wings  of  male  Burmagomp  hus  vermiculatus  from  Burma 299 

Burmagomphus  rermiculatus  from  Burma.     A,  lateral,  and  B,  dorsal  views  of 
male  abdominal  appendages.     C,  profile  of  accessory  genitalia  of  abdominal 

segment.     9  and  10,  abdominal  segments 300 

Diagrams  representing  the  thoracic  color  pattern  of  some  oriental  Gomphinse.  302 

Wings  of  male  Flatggomphus  dolabratus.     De  Selys'  collection 304 

Wings  of  female  Platygomphus  dolabratus.     De  Selys'  collection 304 

Wings  of  male  Gomphus  .rardhenains  from  Burma 305 

Gomphus  xanthenatus  from  Burma 307 

Wings  of  female  Onychogomphus  annularis  from  Burma 308 

Wings  of  male  Onychogomphus  saundersii  from  Burma 310 

Onychogomphus  saundersii  from  Burma 311 

Wings  of  male  species  of  Onychogomphus  from  Burma 315 

Wings  of  male  Heterogomphus  cocJdnchinensis  from  Tonkin 316 

Wings  of  male  Merogomphus  paviei  from  Tonkin 317 

Lucania  hrowni 320 

Photograph  of  dorsal  fin  of  sand  shark,  showing  both  sexes  of  Pandarus  sinu- 

atus 326 

Ventral  surface  of  female  Pandarus  sinaatus,  showing  adhesion  pads 329 

Ventral  surface  of  first  three  pairs  of  swimming  legs  of  Edith rog( dens  denticulatus 

showing  accessory  adhesion  pads 330 

A  newly  hatched  Nauplius  of  Pandarus  sinuatns 333 

A  newly  hatched  Nauplius  of  Nesippus  alatus 336 

The  Metanauplius  of  Nesippus  alatus - 337 

The  mouth  tube,  maxilla',  and  mandibles  of  the  Metanauplius  of  Xesij^pns 

alatus .- 338 

The  first  and  second  maxillipeds  of  the  Metanauplius  of  Nesippus  alatus 338 



A  mandible  of  the  Metanauplius  of  Neftppus  alatns 338 

The  tirst  three  pairs  of  swimming  legs  of  the  Metanauplius  of  Nesipjym  alatux.  339 

A  Chalimus  of  Perissopus  communis 3-10 

The  four  pairs  of  swimming  legs  of  the  Chalimus  shown  in  the  preceding 

figure  341 

A  Chalimus  of  Permopus  cummium,  one-third  larger  than  the  one  in  Fig.  11..  342 

A  Chalimus  of  Perissopus  communis,  fully  developed 343 

Dorsal  view  of  a  female  Pandarus  simmtus,  showing  the  parts  of  tlie  body 387 

Dorsal  view  of  a  male  of  Pandarus  cranchii 388 

Section  of  the  genital  segment  of  Pandarus  sinuatus,  with  the  sixth  segment 

and  abdomen  still  attached.     End  view,  showing  the  distance  between  the 

dorsal  plate  and  the  abdomen „ 389 

The  genital  segment  and  abdomen  of  Pandarus  cranchii,  showing  anal  lamina' 

with  two  wings,  dorsal  and  ventral 392 

Rashord  lateristriata 539 

Glossogobius  camphellkmus 542 

Sketch  map  of  lower  Kapuas  River,  Western  Borneo 547 

A.  Last  two  maxillary  teeth  of  Lutra  barang,  adult  female,  Pulo  Lankawi. 

B.  Last  two  maxillary  teeth  of  Lulra  lovii,  adult  female,  Pulo  Saparo,  in 

Kapuas  River,  Western  Borneo 560 

Region  near  Tunol,  Durango,  Mexico;  Agaves  in  foreground,  prickly  pear  in 

middle  ground 578 

Natural  growth  of  agave,  prickly  pear,  and  cacti  on  hills  near  Tunol,  Durango, 

Mexico.     Workman  with  lever  on  shoulder 579 

Agave  plantation  near  City  of  Mexico;  Chapultepec  in  the  distance 580 

Large  agave  plant  prepared  for  incubation.     Near  City  of  Mexico 581 

Machete.     Handle  of  horn  riveted  to  iron  blade 581 

Huge  agave  showing  ])andera  impaled  on  point  of  leaf.     Collector  at  work 

with  siphon  and  skin  sack 582 

Collector  of  aguamiel  at  work  with  siphon 582 

Gourd  siphon  shod  with  horn.     Mnsquitec  Indians 583 

Siphon  made  of  tin.     Durango,  Mexico 583 

Scraper  of  wrought  iron.     Durango,  Mexico 583 

Skin  sack  for  transporting  aguamiel 584 

Collectors  of  aguamiel.     Zumpango,  Mexico 584 

Transportation  of  aguamiel  in  jars  slang  on  the  back.     Tepeaca,  Mexico 585 

Vat  house  and  workmen.  Hacienda  de  San  Antonio.     Ometusco,  Mexico 585 

Field  vat  for  preparation  of  pulque 586 

Sieve  for  straining  aguamiel,  Durango,  Mexico 586 

Pulque  shop  named  for  Queen  Xochitl,  Cuernavaca,  Mexico 588 

Tepache  vendor's  outfit  consisting  of  an  olla,  olla  ring,  and  two  cups.     Durango, 

Mexico 589 

Gusono  gnawing  the  agave 591 

Rogadius  asper 631 

Thiisanojihrys  spinosus 633 

Thysanophrys  japonicus 637 

Thysanophrys  crocodilus 639 

HopiVclithys  langsdorfii 646 

Hoplirhthys  gilherti 648 

Lepidotrigla  alata 651 

Ebis'mus  chelrophthalmus 665 

Dairocus  peterseni 668 

Radials,  Basals,  and  Infrabasals  of  hocrinus  decorus  (a  young  specimen) 672 




Radials,  Basals,  and  Infrabasals  of  Isucrinns  decorus  (a  mature  specimen) 672 

Radials,  Basals,  and  Infrabasals  of  Metacrinus  rotundus 673 

Ui^permost  columnar  of  Metacrinus  rotundus 673 

Isolated  Infrabasals  of  Metacrbtus  superhus 675 

Section  of  Calyx  of  Metacrinus  superhus,  showing  the  infrabasals  in  position 675 

Ventral  view  of  isolated  Infrabasals  of  Metacrinus  superbus 675 

Dorsal  view  of  isolated  Infrabasals  of  Metacrinus  superbus 676 

Corneocyclas  dawsi  Bartsch 682 

Holophri/xus  giardi.      Adult  female.     Dorsal  view.      Lateral  view.     Ventral 

view 690 

Holophryxus  giardi.     Immature  female  and  host 691 

Holophryxus  giardi.    Immature  female.    Dorsal  view.    Lateral  view.    Ventral 

view 692 

Holophryxus  calif orniensis.     Adult  female  and  host 693 

Holophryxus  califoryiiensis.     Male 694 

Arlhrophryxus  beringanus.     Adult  female.     Dorsal  view.     Ventral  view 695 

Arthrophryxus  beringanus.     Adult  male 695 

Ctenoludus  hujeta 703 


Facing  page. 

1.  Parasites  of  Bermuda  Fishes 126 

2.  Parasites  of  Bermuda  Fishes 126 

3.  Parasites  of  Bermuda  Fishes 126 

4.  Parasites  of  Bermuda  Fishes 126 

5.  Parasites  of  Bermuda  Fishes 126 

6.  Parasites  of  Bermuda  Fishes 126 

7.  Parasites  of  Bermuda  Fishes 126 

8.  Parasites  of  Bermuda  Fishes 126 

9.  Parasites  of  Bermuda  Fishes 126 

10.  Parasites  of  Bermuda  Fishes 126 

11.  Parasites  of  Bermuda  Fishes 126 

12.  Parasites  of  Bermuda  Ffshes 126 

13.  Parasites  of  Bermuda  Fishes 126 

14.  Parasites  of  Bermuda  Fishes 126 

15.  Parasites  of  Bermuda  Fishes 1 26 

16.  West  American  Mollusks 262 

17.  The  female  of  Perissopus  communis,  and  the  \ariety  stimpsoni 490 

18.  The  male  of  Perissopus  communis 490 

19.  The  female  of  Echthrogaleus  coleoptratus 490 

20.  The  female  of  Eclithrogaleus  denticulatus 490 

21.  The  female  of  Echtlrrogaleus  torpedinis 490 

22.  The  female  of  Dinematura  ferox 490 

23.  The  female  of  Dinematura  producta 490 

24.  The  female  of  Dinematura  latifolia 490 

25.  The  male  of  Dinematura  latifolia 490 

26.  The  male  of  Pandarus  brevicaudis 490 

27.  The  female  of  Pandarus  bicolor 490 

28.  The  male  and  female  of  Pandarus  cranchii 490 

29.  An  Adult  and  a  young  Female  of  Pandarus  smithii 490 

30.  The  male  and  a  young  female  of  Pandarus  sinithii 490 

31.  The  female  of  Pandarus  satyrus 490 

32.  The  female  of  Pandarus  sinuatus 490 


Facing  page. 

33.  The  male  of  Pandnrus  sinuatus 490 

34.  An  adult  and  a  young  female  of  Nesippus  alatns 490 

35.  The  male  of  Nesippus  alatus 490 

36.  The  male  of  Nesippus  curticaiidis 490 

37.  The  male  of  Ncsippvs  horealis 490 

38.  The  female  of  Cecrops  latreillil 490 

39.  The  male  of  Cecrops  latreiUii 490 

40.  The  female  of  Orthagoriscicola  muricata 490 

41.  The  male  and  a  Chalimus  of  Orthagoriscicola  muricata 490 

42.  The  female  of  Fh  Uorihragoriscus  serratus 490 

43.  The  male  of  PJrilorthragoriscvs  serratus 490 

44.  West  American  Turbonilla 534 

45.  West  American  Turbonilla 534 

46.  West  American  Odostomia 534 

47.  West  American  Pyramidellida3 534 

48.  West  American  Odostomia 534 

49.  The  male  and  female  of  Caligus  hnmulonis 628 

50.  The  female  of  Caligus  rufus,  new  species 628 

51.  The  female  of  LepeopJdheirus  inonacanthus 628 

52.  The  female  of  LepeopJdfieirus  longispinosus,  new  species 628 

53.  The  female  of  Farapetalus  occidentalis,  new  species 628 

54.  Tlie  male  and  female  of  Abasia  pseudorostris,  new  genus  and  species 628 

55.  The  female  of  Taxophorns  caligodes,  new  genus  and  species 62S 

56.  The  male  of  Tuxopliorus  caligodes,  new  genus  and  species 628 

57.  Species  of  Planorbis  from  North  Carolina  and  Louisiana 700 

58.  Fresh- water  Crustacea  from  Labrador  and  Newfoundland 714 

59.  Fresh- water  Crustacea  from  Labrador  and  Newfoundland 714 

60.  Fresh-water  Crustacea  from  Lalirador  and  Newfoundland 714 

61.  Fresh-water  Crustacea  from  Labrador  and  Newfoundland 714 

62.  Fresh-water  Crustacea  from  Labrador  and  Newfoundland 714 

63.  West  Indian  Thrips 730 

64.  West  Indian  Thrips 7.30 

65.  West  Indian  Thrips 730 


By  Carl  IL  Eigenmann  and  Fletcher  Ogle, 

Of  Indiana  University,  hu^jr  i''ig''on,  Indiana.    ■ 

In  the  following  pages  are  enumerated  the  Characin  fishes  belonging 
to  the  United  States  National  Mnseum.  They  are  principally  derived 
from  the  following  .sources: 

1.  A  series  of  Dr.  Chr.  Lutken's  species  from  the  collections  made 
by  J.  Reinhardt,  at  Lagoa  Santa  and  the  Rio  das  Velhas,  Brazil  (1850- 

2.  A  collection  of  the  United  States  and  Mexican  Boundary  Surve}' 

3.  A  collection  made  by  Lieut.  Lardner  Gibbon,  U.  S.  Navy,  in 
Bolivia  (1852). 

4.  A  collection  made  b}^  Capt.  T.  J.  Page,'  U.  S.  Nav}^,  in  Paraguay 

5.  The  collections  made  for  J.  C.  Brevoort  and  E.  C  Blackford, 
chiell}'  at  Para,  Brazil. 

6.  A  collection  by  Lieut.  N.  Michler  and  A.  Schott  from  the  Tru- 
ando  near  the  Rio  Atrato,  Colombia  (1857-58). 

7.  A  collection  from  the  Marauon  and  Napo-i'ivers,  Brazift,  made  by 
James  Orton  (1867). 

8.  The  collections  from  Panama  and  Nicaragua  made  by  Dr.  J.  F. 
Bransford  (1876). 

9.  A  collection  from  the  Nile  River,  Egypt,  made  by  the  Sentf  Ex- 
pedition (1899). 

Unless  otherwise  indicated  the  niunbers  are  those  of  the  catalogues 
of  the  United  States  National  Museum. 

The  National  Museum  also  contains  the  collection  from  the  Amazon 
River,  made  by  Prof.  J.  B.  Steere  in  1901. 

These  have  been  reported  on  elsewhere.^     The  collection  of  Page 

«See  Eigenmann  and  Bean,  Proc.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus.,  XXXI,  pp.  659-668. 

Proceedings  U.  S.  National  Museum,  Vol.  XXXIII— No.  1556. 
Proc.  N.  M.  vol.  xxxiii— 07 1 

PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vou  xxxiii. 

from  Paraguay  is  the  most  extensive,  and  at  the  time  it  was  made  was 
by  far  the  most  important  collection  from  that  region.  But  the 
numerous  new  forms  it  contained  when  it  was  made  have  since  been 
described  by  Perugia,  Boulenger,  and  Eigenmann  from  other 

A  small  but  very  interesting  series  is  that  which  was  made  by 
Michler  and  Schott  in  the  Atrato  Bai,'in.  Inasmuch  as  the  Atrato 
River  forms  part  of  the  probable  route  of  migration  of  the  eastern 
fresh- water  fishes  to  the  Pacific  slope  everything  from  that  part  of 
Colombia  is  of  great  interest. 

In  preparing  these  notes  use  has  also  been  made  of  the  collections 
of  Indiana  University,  which  include  the  following: 

1.  A  collection  by  H.  von  Ihering  from  Rio  Grande  do  Sul,  Brazil. 

2.  A  collection  by  H.  von  Ihering  from  Sao  Paulo,  Brazil. 

3.  Duplicates  of  the  collections  of  C.  F.  Hartt  from  the  Amazon 
Basin,  Brazil. 

•i.  Collections  of  the  Indiana  University  Expedition  to  Guatemala. 

5.  Various  collections  from  the  Paraguay  Basin  made  by  J.  D, 

6.  Duplicate  specimens  from  the  Mexican  collections  of  S.  E.  Meek. 

7.  Duplicate  specimens  from  the  Argentine  collections  of  J.  W. 
Titcomb  (1903-4). 

8.  A  collection  from  Trinidad,  made  by  Mr.  Lechmere  Guppy,  jr. 
We  have  also  examined  the  Princeton  University  collections  made  by 
Prof.  W.  B.  Scott  in  Buenos  Aires,  Argentina,  and  the  collection 
made  by  Mr.  O.  Riddle  in  Venezuela. 

The  following  new  names  appear  in  this  paper: 

Gilbertolus 'Eigenmann  (new  name). 
Evermannolus  Eigenmann  (new  name). 
Curimatus  boulengeri  Eigenmann  (new  name). 
Ourimatns  brevipes  Eigenmann  and  Ogle. 
Curimatus  leuciscus  holirue  Eigenmann  and  Ogle. 
Prochilodus  beani  Eigenmann. 
Parodon  Paraguay ensis  Eigenmann. 
Parodon  piracicabu'  Eigenmann. 
Leporinus  pane  Eigenmann. 

Leporinu,s ■steindachneri  Eigenmann  (new  name). 
Cheirodon  ribeirol  Eigenmann. 
Cheirodo))  ndcropterus  Eigenmann. 
OdontostUbe  inicrocephalus  P]igenmann. 
Aphyocharax  rathbuni  Eigenmann. 
Aphyocharax  stramineus  Eigenmann. 
Holopristes  riddlei  Meek. 
Hemiyrammus  micropterus  Meek. 
Hemigrammus  tridens  Eigenmann. 
Hemiyrammus  boulengeri  Eigenmann. 
Hemigrammus  anisUsi  p]igenmann. 
Hemigrammus  santiv  Eigenmann. 


Hemigrammus  inconstans  Eigenmann  and  Ogle. 
Astyanax  rutilus  nicaraguensis  Eigenmann  and  Ogle. 
Asiyanax  emperador  Eigenmann  and  Ogle. 
Astyanax  orthodus  Eigenmann. 
Astyanax  atratoensis  Eigenmann. 
Astyanax  megalnps  Eigenmann. 
Phenacogrammus  Eigenmann. 
Charax  atratoensis  Eigenmann. 

I  am  informed  that  the  names  GUhertella  and  EverinaneUa  proposed 
for  Characin  genera  are  preoccupied.  For  the  former  I  propose  the 
name  GiJhertolux  Eigenmarm;  for  the  latter,  Eve'nnannolw<  Eigenmann. 

Psectrog-aster  auratus  Gill. 

No.  5878.     Type  Bolivia,  Gibbon  collection. 
Psectrogaster  curviventris  Eigenmann  and  Kennedy. 

No.  2106.     Two  specimens,  ParagiKW,  Page  collection. 
Curimatus  albula  Quoy  and  Gaimard. 

No.  449.50.  Two  specimens,  Lagoa  Santa,  Brazil,  Reinhardt  col- 

Curimatus  boulengeri  Eigenmann,  ne^v  specific  name. 
For  ('nrhnatus  gnntlieri  Boulengek,  Eigennuum  and  I'Mgenniaiui. 
Curimatus  bimaculatus  Steindachner. 

No.  1639  (part).     Two  specimens,  Paraguay,  Page  collection. 

No.  2107.     Two  specimens,  Paraguay,  Page  collection. 
Curimatus  platanus  Gunther. 

No.  1639  (part).     One  specimen,  Paraguay,  Page  collection. 

Head  3.4;  depth  3.25;  D.  12,  counting  everything;  A.  10^;  scales 
between  53  and  57.     A  small  black  caudal  spot,  no  dorsal  spot. 
?  Curimatus  gilberti  Quoy  and  Gaimard. 

No.  39148,  A  specimen  42  nmi,  to  base  of  caudal.  From  Monte- 
video, Uruguay. 

Head  nearly  4;  depth  3|;  D.   12;  A.  9;  scales  6-36-5;  tail  with  a 
dusky  lateral  streak  ending  in  a  large  black  spot  in  front  of  the  caudal. 
Entire  back  with  obscure  dark  spots. 
Curimatus  brevipes  Eigenmann  and  Ogle,  ne-w  species. 

Tyjte. — Cat.  No.  35333,  U.S.N.M.  A  specimen  131  mm.  to  base  of 
caudal,  Peru?,  Orton  collection. 

Allied  to  C.  leucostictus.  Head  3.5;  depth  3|^;  D.  12,  including 
the  first  rudiment;  A.  10;  scales  8-47-6i  (above  ventrals).  Heavy, 
elongate,  rhomboidal.  Preventral  region  broadly  rounded,  without 
keels  and  without  a  median  series  of  scales;  postventral  region  and 
postdorsal  region  rounded;  predorsal  region  obscurely  ridged;  mouth 

Anterior  profile  very  slightly  concave,  strongly  convex  behind  the 
occiput;  eye  equal  to  snout,  3f  in  head,  2  in  interorbital;  scales  cre- 
nate;  caudal  apparently  entirel}^  naked.     Highest  dorsal  vny  probably 

4  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

little  longer  than  head,  less  opercle;  anal  emarginate,  itf?  highest  ray 
probabh'^  not  reaching  caudal;  ventrals  not  reaching  vent,  pectorals 



not  to  ventrals.     Brassy,  darker  above.     No  delinite  spots,  distal  part 
of  dorsal  and  a  line  between  every  two  of  the  last  seven  rays,  dotted; 
distal  part  of  anal  dotted. 
Curimatus  leuciscus  boliviae  Eig-enmann  and  Ogle,  ne-w  subspecies. 

Tyj>e. — Cat.  No.  4483;^,  U.8.N.M.     One  specimen  1>5  mm.  to  base  of 
caudal,  Bolivia,  Gibbon  collection. 

This  variety  differs  from  the  typical  species  in  having  but  57  scales 
in  the  lateral  line  instead  of  60-64,  in  the  absence  of  a  dusky  spot  at 
the  tip  of  the  occipital  process,  and  by  the  presence  of  a  dark  spot  on 
the  seventh  dorsal  membrane,  some  distance  from  its  base. 
Curimatus  knerii  Steindachner. 

No.  34697.     Probabl}^  from  Para,  Brazil,   presented  ))_y  J,  C.  Bre- 
Anodus  latior  Spix. 

No.  44836.     One  specimen,  Bolivia,  Gibbon  collection. 
Elopomorphus  elongatus   (Spix). 

No.  5926.     One  specimen  (type  of   J^.  jordani)^  Bolivia,  Gibbon 
Hemiodus  othonops  Eig-enmann  and  Kennedy. 

No.  2103.     One  specimen,  Paraguay,  Page  collection. 
Rhytiodus  microlepis  Kner. 

No.  5876.     One  specimen.  Bolivia,  Gibbon  collection. 
Distichodus  fasciolatus  Boulenger. 

No.  44815.     One  specimen,  Congo,  Africa,  collected  by  J.  H.  Camp. 
?  Distichodus  brevipinnis  Giinther. 

No.  52096.     One  specimen,  Nile-Atbara  Junction,  Sen ff -Expedition 
collection,  collected  by  Bashford  Dean. 

Head  4^;  depth  2t;  eye  5;  D.  2U;  A.  15;  scales  16-90-14.     Lower 
jaw  with  about  20  teeth.     Distance  between  dorsals  more  than  twice 


the  base  of  adipose;  base  of  dorsal  equals  length  of  head.     About  12 
indistinct  cross  bands,   their  lower  ends  more  or  less   disconnected 
to  form  a  series  of  spots  below  the  lateral  line,  the  first  spot  most 
prominent  and  in  part  on  the  lateral  line. 
Prochilodus  insig-nis  Schomburgk. 

No.  3070.     One  specimen,  Bolivia,  Gibbon  collection. 
Prochilodus  vimboides  Heckel. 

No.  26696.     One  specimen,   Brazil,  presented   l)y   the   Museum  of 
Comparative  7jOo]ogy. 
Prochilodus  beani  Eigenmann,  nevf  species. 

Tt/jh'. — Cat.  No.  1662,  L'.S.N.M.      A  specimen  about  195  mm.  long, 
153  to  end  of  lateral  line.     Truando,  Colombia,  collected  l)}-  A.  Schott. 

Cotype. — Cat.  No.   1662ri',  U.S.N.M.      A  specimen  about  195  mm. 
long,  160  mm.  to  end  of  lateral  line. 

Pig.  2.— PRocHiLOors  beani. 

Allied  to  lyrevis^  ruhrotientatus,  cepJialote.s,  magdalense.,  argentexts^ 
platensln^  and  scrofa. 

Head  3.8  in  length  to  end  of  lateral  line  (3.6  in  cotype);  depth  2f 
(3);  D.  11;  A.  11;  scales  8-4l:-7  (8-43-7).  Snout  slightly  projecting; 
eye  about  -t  in  head,  interorbital  not  quite  2;  snout  2f;  opercle  faintly 
striate;  suborbitals  covering  about  half  the  cheek;  fontanel  linear, 
extending  to  nares;  dorsal  inserted  over  tenth  scale  of  the  lateral 
line,  the  ventrals  below  the  tenth  or  eleventh;  height  of  dorsal 
equals  length  of  head  less  upper  lip,  equal  to  the  distance  between  the 
dorsals;  pectorals  reaching  ventrals;  highest  ray  of  anal  reaching  tip 
of  last;  scales  rough. 

Dorsal  with  numerous  paired  spots  before  and  behind  the  rays, 
these  more  conspicuous  backward,  sometimes  joined  into  lines,  absent 
from  first  two  or  three  rays;  caudal  luiiform  except  for  a  faint  spot  at 
the  base  of  its  middle  rays;  anal  and  upper  surface  of  pectorals  dusky; 

6  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NA  TIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

faint  stripes  along  the  rows  of  scales;  faint  dark  cross  shades.  These 
specimens  differ  from  the  specimen  of  scrofa  I'ecorded  by  Eigenmann 
and  Norris  from  Piracicaba  in  the  number  of  scales  (9-48-8),  the 
height  of  the  dorsal  (equals  head  less  snout  in  front  of  nares),  the 
extent  of  the  pectorals  (to  third  scale  in  front  of  ventrals).  There 
are  other  minor  differences,  but  the  two  forms  are  evidently  quite 
similar.  Origin  of  dorsal  over  the  eleventh  scale  of  the  lateral  line, 
origin  of  ventrals  below  the  fifteenth. 

Named  for  Mr.  Barton  A.  Bean,   Assistant  ^Curator,  Division  of 
Fishes,  United  States  National  Museum. 
Prochilodus  scrofa  Steindacliner. 

No.  21445.     One  specimen,  Paraguay,  Page  collection. 

No.  1632.     One  specimen,  Paraguay,  Page  collection. 

Parodon  paraguayensis  Eig-enmann,  new  species. 

Parodon   affinis   Eigenmann   and   Kennedy   (not   Steindachuer),  Proc.   Acad.   Nat. 
Sci.  Phila.,  1903,  p.  512.  7  Q 

Tijix'. — No.  9953,  I.  U.  Museum,  a  specimen  18  mm.  long  to  l)  of 
caudal.     Asuncion,  Rio  Paraguay.     Anisits. 

Cotypes. — No.  9953a,  Museum  of  Indiana  University.  Numerous 
specimens,  Asuncion.  Also  other  specimens,  Nos.  9952,  9975, 
and  10237,  Indiana  University  Mus.,  35  to  105  mm.  to  base  of  caudal, 
the  largest  105  mm.,  Asuncion;  and  Cat.  No.  1641,  U.S.N.M.,  one 
specimen  100  mm.  to  end  of  lateral  line.  Paraguay,  Captain  Page; 
and  Cat.  No.  2108,  U.S.N.M.,  112  and  105  mm.  to  end  of  lateral  line. 

Teeth  2-4,  4-2;  head  3.5  to  4;  depth  4.33-5.5;  I).  11  or  12;  A.  8; 
P.  12;  scales  4-42  to  44-4;  eye  3^-4  in  head;  snout  3;  interorbital 
about  equal  to  snout;  width  of  mandible  5-5^  in  the  length  of  the  head. 

Origin  of  dorsal  equidistant  from  tip  of  snout  and  tip  of  adipose  or 
a  little  posterior;  height  of  dorsal  equal  to  head  in  front  of  upper 
angle  of  gill  opening;  margin  of  dorsal  obliquely  truncate,  the  highest 
rav  extending  beyond  tip  of  last;  adipose  over  anal;  ventrals  under 
seventh  or  eighth  dorsal  ra}^  their  tips  2  or  3  scales  removed  from 
anus;  tips  of  pectorals  4  scales  removed  from  ventrals.  Scales  highlv 
iridescent;  a  dark  band  from  tip  of  snout  along  lateral  line  to  tip  of 
middle  caudal  rays,  a  silvery  band  below  it;  back  with  faint  dark 
cross  shades. 

Parodon  piracicabae  Eig-enmann,  new  species. 

Parodon   affinis   Eigenmann    and    Norris    (not    Steindachuer),    Kevista    Museum, 
Paulista,  IV,  1900,  p.  356. 

Type. — No.  9292,  Indiana  University  Museum,  108  mm.  to  end  of 
lateral  line;  Piracicaba,  von  Ihering. 

Cotypes. — No.  9292a,  Indiana  Universit}'  Museum,  105  and  100  mm. 
to  end  of  lateral  line.  Piracicaba.  Teeth  2-4.  4-2;  head  5;  depth  4^^; 
D.  12;  A.  8;  P.  14;  scales  4-41  or  42-3;  eye  3.6-4  in  head;  snout 
about  3;   interorbital  about  equal   to  snout;  mandibles  narrow,    the 


width  of  their  margin  6  in  the  length  of  the  head;  dorsal  and  ventral 
outlines  about  equally  arched". 

Origin  of  dorsal  about  equidistant  from  tip  of  snout  and  middle  of 
adipose;  highest  dorsal  ray  about  equal  to  length  of  head  in  front  of 
upper  angle  of  gill  opening,  its  margin  obliquely  truncate,  the  longest 
ray  scarcely  projecting  beyond  tip  of  last  ray;  origin  of  ventrals  l)elow 
seventh  to  ninth  dorsal  ray,  their  tips  one  or  two  scales  fron^  anus; 
tips  of  pectorals  about  6  scales  from  ventrals. 

A  dark  stripe  from  tip  of  snout  along  lateral  line  to  end  of  middle 
caudal  rays,  another  between  first  and  second  scale  below  dorsal  from 
occiput  to  adipose  dorsal;  a  silvery  band  below  the  lateral  band;  a 
dusky  spot  or  tw^o  in  front  of  the  dorsal;  back  with  faint  cross  shades. 

Anostomus  borellii  Boulenger. 

Anostontus  borclUi  Boulexger,  Boll.   Miis.  Univ.  Torino.,  XV,  1900  (Carandasinlio, 

near  Corumba). 
Anostomus  fasciatus  Eigenmann  and   Kennedy,  Proc.  Acad.   Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  1903, 

p.  512  (Eio  Paraguay  and  Estancia  la  Armonia).     Not  of  Spix. 

Cat.  No.  1632,  U.S.N.M.,  6  specimens,  about  125  mm.  to  end  of 
lateral  line,  Paraguay,  Page  collection. 

These  specimens  differ  from  the  tj-pe  of  ^1.  hordlil  in  having  9  or 
1(>  anal  ra3's  instead  of  8. 
Anostomus  isognathus  Kner. 

No.  2105.     One  specimen,  Paraguay. 
Schizodon  fasciatus  Spix. 

No.  34687.     One  specimen.  Para,  Brazil,  presented  by  J.  C  Brevoort. 

No.  44834.     One  specimen,  Bolivia,  Gibl^on  collection. 
Leporinus  trifasciatus  Steindachner. 

No.  4942.  One  specimen.  Uruguay  River  at  Saltro,  September  17, 
1860,  Page  collection. 

No.  1629.     One  specimen,  Paraguay,  Page  collection. 
Leporinus  frederici  Bloch. 

No.  1628.     One  specimen,  Paraguay,  Page  collection. 
Leporinus  reinhardti  Liitken. 

No.  44958,  probably  one  of  the  types,  Lagoa  Santa,  Brazil. 
Leporinus  meg-alepis  Giinther. 

No.  44951,     One  specimen  (one  of  the  types  of  L.  riKircgravli)^  Rio 
das  Velhas,  Brazil. 
?  Leporinus  myuscorum.  Steindachner. 

No.  1656.  Three  specimens,  Tiuando,  Colombia,  Michlerand  Schott 

D.  12,  12,  13;  A.  10:  lat.  line  39,  40,  41. 
Leporinus  striatus  Kner. 

No.  34660.     One  specimen,  presented  by  A .  C.  Brevoort  (?). 

No.  1657.  Two  specimens,  Truando,  Colombia,  collected  by  A. 



Leporinus  taeniatus  Iiutken.  • 

No.  44952,  One  specimen  (probably  one  of  the  types),  Rio  das 
Vellias,  Brazil. 

Lat.  line  37;  D.  13;  A.  9;  head,  4i;  depth  about  3f ;  a  dark  lateral 
band.  Dorsal  and  anal  rounded,  the  latter  reachino-  caudal.  A  sec- 
ond specimen,  labeled  taeniatus  by  Liitken,  from  Rio  das  Velhas, 
Brazil,  seems  to  be  distinct. 

Lat.  line  36,  D.  13;  A.  11;  head  4,  depth  about  4.     No  markinu-s 
apparent;  anal  and  dorsal  rounded,  the  former  reaching  caudal. 
Leporinus  parse  Eigenmann,  new  species. 

7}/pc'.—Ciit.  No.  34613,  U.S.N.M.  Specimen  76  mm.  to  the  end  of 
the  lateral  line.     Para,  Brazil.     Presented  ]\y  J.  C.  Brevoort. 

Cotype. — Cat.  No.  34613«  (part).  Specimen  63  mm.  to  end  of  the 
lateral  line. 

Cotyj)es. — Cat.  No.  34575,  two  specimens,  126  and  74  mm.  to  end  of 
the  lateral  lines,  respectivel}^     Presented  by  J.  C.  Brevoort. 

Fig.  3. — Lepokim  b  par.e. 

Allied  to  nattereri^  agassizii^  tnegalepis,  and  frederici. 

Head  4;  depth  3;  D.  12;  A.  10  or  11;  scales  5-37  to  39-5.  Com- 
pressed; profile  slightly  concave  over  eye,  convex  from  nape  to  dorsal; 
basis  of  dorsal  more  oblique  than  the  slope  posterior  to  the  dorsal;  eye 
3f-4;  snout  3,  interorbital  2-2.25;  maxillary  groove  extending  to  below 
the  point  midway  between  the  nostrils;  nostrils  close  together  or  more 
remote,  teeth  4-4,  rather  small  but  sharp;  dorsal  and  anal  rounded, 
highest  anal  rays  reaching  to  the  caudal,  much  beyond  tips  of  last  ray; 
highest  dorsal  ray  little  less  than  length  of  head;  caudal  short,  the 
upper  lobe  about  equal  to  the  highest  dorsal  ray;  pectorals  not  reacli- 
ing  ventrals  by  the  length  of  about  3  scales. 

A  small  dark  spot  just  behind  the  gill  openings  and  below  the  lateral 
line;  a  dark  spot  on  the  lateral  line  below  the  dorsal,  another  on  the 
lateral  line  in  front  of  the  anal,  and  a  third  just  in  front  of  the  caudal; 
traces  of  a  silvery  streak  along  the  lateral  line  as  in  Z.  nattererl; 
lighter  lines  following  the  rows  of  scales,  especially  below  the  lateral 
line;  back  with  faint  traces  of  darker  marblings. 


Leporinus  steindachneri  Eigenmann,  new  specific  name. 

Leporinus  affinis  Steindachner,  Siisswf.  Si'idostl.   Bras.,  II,  1875;  p.  18,  pi.  iii  (Rio 
Arassuahy,  tributary  of  the  Rio  Jequitinhonha).     Not  of  Giinther. 

Cliaracidiuni  fasciatum  Reinhardt. 

No.  44950,  Rio  das  Velhas,  Brazil,  Reinhardt  collection. 
Cheirodon  interruptus  Jenyns. 

A  comparison  of  the  specimens  recorded  by  Eigenmann  and  Ken- 
nedy" as  6'.  inten'-u plus  and  C.  insiyni.s,  with  a  specimen  of  caJllKruH 
from  Carandasinho,  received  from  the  British  Museum,  shows  them 
to  belong-  to  the  same  species.  It  is  possible  that  these  are  distinct 
from  the  C  interruj)tns  of  Jenyns,  but  we  are  unable  to  point  out  the 
Cheirodon  monodon  Cope. 

No.  11090,  Museum  of  Indiana  Universit}',  one  of  the  specimens 
recorded  by  Eigenmann''  as  Tetragonopterus  fasciatus  interruptus^ 
from  Rio  Grande  do  Sul,  Brazil,  seems  to  belong  to  this  species. 

Cheirodon  ribeiroi  Eigenmann,  ne'w  species. 

Type.  —  No.  10229,  Museum  of  Indiana  University.  Specimen  35 
mm,  to  base  of  caudal.  Puerto  Max,  Paraguaj^  Basin.  Collected  by 
J.  D.  Anisits. 

Head  3.4;  depth  3;  D.  11;  A.  26;  scales  5-33-1;  eye  2^,  much  larger 
than  in  C.  interruptus.,  equal  to  postorbital  portion  of  head,  greater 
than  interof bital ;  fontanels  reaching  a  little  beyond  middle  of  ej'e; 
teeth  black;  premaxillary  with  4  very  broad-tipped  teeth,  the  middle 
point  not  much  greater  than  the  lateral  ones;  each  ramus  of  the  man- 
dible with  4  teeth  (apparently  no  smaller  ones  on  the  sides);  maxillar}^ 
comparatively  long  and  slender,  reaching  be3"ond  anterior  margin  of 
the  eye;  pectorals  reaching  ventrals,  ventrals  not  to  anal;  adipose  lin 
well  developed;  dorsal  behind  the  ventrals.  A  black  line  concurrent 
with  the  back  from  eye  to  caudal  peduncle;  a  large  black  humeral  spot 
above  the  lateral  line,  just  posterior  to  base  of  pectorals;  caudal  spot 
occupying  the  entire  width  of  the  caudal  peduncle.  Another  much 
smaller  specimen  from  the  Arroj^o  Pypucu  probabh^  ))elongs  to  this 
species.     It  has  one  tooth  multicuspid  in  each  maxillar}. 

Named  in  honor  of  the  naturalist  of  the  Brazilian  National  Museum, 
Dr.  Alipio  de  Miranda  Ribeiro. 

Cheirodon  micropterus  Eigenmann,  new  species. 

Tetragonopterus  hetlottii  Ulrey,  in  part,  Ann.  N.  Y.   Acad.  Sci.,  VIII,   1895,  p.  286. 
Not  of  Steindachner. 

Type. — No.  11092,  Museum  of  Indiana  University.  Specimen  27 
mm.  to  base  of  caudal.     Santarem,  Brazil. 

«Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  1903.  &Ann.  N.  Y.  Acad.  Sci.,  VII,  p.  634. 

10  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxnr. 

Scales  6-31-4:;  A.  20;  head  about  4;  depths;  eye  2.6,  twice  as  long 
as  snout,  but  very  little  greater  than  interorbital;  maxillary  short, 
not  extending  beyond  front  of  eye,  with  two  teeth;  mouth  small,  teeth 
all  1)road-tipped  and  multicuspid,  about  5  in  each  premaxillary,  4  or  5 
in  each  ramus  of  the  lower  jaw.  Dorsal  profile  arched;  origin  of 
dorsal  midway  between  tip  of  snout  and  base  of  caudal.  Pectoral 
short,  just  reaching  ventral;  ventrals  not  to  anal.  No  humeral  spot; 
a  well  defined  caudal  spot  not  extending  to  the  ends  of  the  middle 
rays,  otherwise  plain. 

Odontostilbe  microcephalus  Eigenmann,  new  species. 

Type. — No.  11086,  Museum  of  Indiana  University.  Specimen  46 
mm.  in  total  length.  Rio  Pilcomayo,  Bolivia. 

Cotype. — No.  11086«,  Museum  of  Indiana  University.  Specimen 
45  mm.  in  total  length,  from  the  same  locality. 

Both  these  specimens  were  received  in  exchange  from  the  British 
Museum,  and  were  labelled  Cheirodon  pequira.  They  lack  the  com- 
plete dentition  and  the  peculiar  marking  of  the  dorsal  of  pequira. 
They  seem  to  represent  a  new  species  of  OdontoHt'dhe  in  its  narrowest 
sense;  that  is,  the  teeth  are  in  a  single  series,  the  maxillary  has  but 
few  teeth,  and  the  lateral  line  is  complete.  This  species  is  very  nearly 
allied  to  if  not  identical  with  fugitiva. 

Head  4.33;  depth  4;  D.  10;  A.  18-20;  scales  6-36-5;  eye  3  in  head, 
equal  to  interorbital. 

Elongate,  slender,  the  dorsal  and  ventral  profiles  very  little  arched; 
head  very  small,  slightly  convex;  frontal  fontanel  reaching  about  to 
middle  of  eye;  mouth  small,  the  maxillary  slender,  reaching  to  below 
margin  of  eye;  teeth  broad,  many  pointed,  the  middle  point  promi- 
nent, 5  in  each  premaxillary,  1  on  the  maxillary  and  6  graduated 
ones  on  the  mandibles;  cheeks  mailed,  a  narrow  naked  area  betw^een 
suborbitals  and  the  vertical  limb  of  the  preopercle;  origin  of  dorsal  in 
the  middle  of  the  length,  behind  the  base  of  the  ventrals;  pectorals 
not  reaching  ventrals,  ventrals  not  to  anal;  caudal  much  longer  than 
head;  lateral  line  decurved,  running  below  middle  of  body.  A  silvery 
latei'al  band,  a  dusky  spot  at  base  of  caudal. 
Aphyocharax  rathbuni  Eigenmann,  new  species. 
Aphyocarax  anisUsl  (part),  Eigenmann  and  Kennedy,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila., 

1903,  p.  517. 

TyjJe. — No.  10025  museum  of  Indiana  University;  specimen  26  mm. 
to  base  of  caudal,  Arroyo  Chagalalina,  Paraguay  Basin. 

Head  4;  depth  3;  A.  20;  D.  9;  scales  5-35-3;  eye  3  in  head,  about 
twice  as  long  as  snout;  mouth  minute,  maxillary  not  reaching  anterior 
margin  of  orbit,  its  free  surface  very  much  convex;  no  teeth  on  max- 
illary, about  5  on  each  premaxillary  and  about  6  on  each  side  of  the 
lower  jaw,  the  middle  one  much  the  largest,  the  next  two  graduated, 
the  lateral  ones  miiuite;  pectorals  not  quite  reaching  ventrals,  ventrals 


not  (]ulte  to  anal;  dorsal  over  posterior  third  of  ventrals.  Caudal 
margin  dusky;  anal  margin  to  the  anterior  lobe  black,  two  or  three 
spots  continuing  the  black  to  the  beginning  of  the  second  third  of  the 
first  full-lengtli  ra\"s;  ventrals  dusky;  dorsal  with  its  basal  half  and 
last  ra3's  black;  no  humeral  spot;  back  peppered,  a  f(^w  large  cells  on 
the  opercle. 

Named  in  honor  of  Dr.  Richard  Rathbun,  of  the  U.  S.  National 

Aphyocharax  stramineus  Eigernnann,  ne-w  species. 

.l;j//?/ocoara.c  aZiwr/; H.s  EiGENM ANN  and  Kennedy,  Proc.  Afad.  Nat.  S^ci.  I'liila.,  1903. 
p.  517.     Not  of  Giinther. 

Type. — No.  10030.  Museum  of  Indiana  University.  Specimen  25 
mm.  to  base  of  caudal,  Arroyo  Trementina.  " 

Head  4;  depth  3;  D.  10;  A.  19;  scales  5-35-3  (to  ventrals):  eye  2| 
in  head;  snout  little  more  than  half  the  e3'e  in  length;  dt)rsal  and  ven- 
tral outlines  equally  arched;  mouth  very  minute;  premaxillar}'  with  7 
teeth;  maxillary  short,  its  anterior  face  below  the  teeth  semicircular, 
about  2  teeth  on  its  upper  part;  al^out  9  teeth  on  each  side  of  the  lower 
jaw;  maxillar}^  reaching  to  below  posterior  nostrils:  pectoral  not 
reaching  ventrals  by  2  scales;  \entrals  not  to  anal;  origin  of  dorsal 
over  last  third  of  ventrals;  adipose  well  developed;  no  distinct  mark- 
ings on  tins.  A  comparison  of  this  specimen  with  specimens  of  A. 
aJhiirnuK  makes  it  certain  that  it  is  distinct. 

Holopristes  riddlei  Meek,  new  species. 

The  two  species  of  Holopristes  may  l)e  distinguished  as  follows: 

a  Humeral  spot  surrounded  by  a  bright  ring;  caudal  spot  dark  lirown,  tinw  other- 
wise plain;  a  sharp  gray  line  between  humeral  and  caudal  si>ots;  caudal  [)artly 
scaled,  the  peduncle  very  slender;  dorsal  posterior  to  origin  of  ventral;  6-8 
scales  of  the   lateral  line  perforate;  A.  26-28;  head  oj-:^?;  depth  2'^-2|;  scales 

5-31-3^ ocellifet: 

aa  A  humeral  spot,  no  caudal  spot;  dorsal,  anal,  and  ventrals  each  with  a  con.>^picu- 
ous,  jet-black  spot;  dorsal  spot  not  extending  upon  the  last  ray,  and  leaving 
base  and  tips  of  raj^s  hyaline;  anal  spot  covering  the  third,  fourth,  and  fifth  of 
the  rays  forming  the  anterior  lobe;  ventral  spot  leaving  the  outer  and  inner 
rays  and  bases  and  tips  of  all  the  rays  hyaline;  head  about  4;  depth  2.6;  scales, 
33;  A.  21-23;  eye  2.64  in  head;  snout  4.12;  maxillary  2.2;  pectorals  not 
reaching  ventrals,  ventrals  to  anal  « riddlei. 

This  species  is  named  for  Dr.  Oscar  Riddle,  who  collected  it. 

Genus  HEMIGRAMMUS  Gill. 

This  genus  differs  from  Astyana,/'  onl}'  in  the  incompleteness  of  its 
lateral  line.  One  of  its  species,  i7iconstaiis.,  here  described,  varies  in 
this  respect,  some  of  the  specimens  having*  the  lateral  line  complete, 

"  This  description  is  based  on  a  specimen  collected  by  Dr.  Oscar  Riddle  at  Los 
Ca.-:,ti]las,  Venezuela,  and  now  in  the  collections  of  the  Field  Columbian  Museum, 

12  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxin. 

others  not.  Whether  some  of  the  specimens  of  this  species  examined 
are  vsimply  abnornal  variations,  whether  the  species  is  normally  vari- 
able in  this  respect  or  whether  we  are  dealing  here  with  a  mutation  in 
the  Devriesian  sense  still  remains  to  be  seen.  If  the  species  normally 
varies  in  this  respect  it  forms  a  bridge  between  Astyanax  and  Ileiiu- 
granni)u><  and  the  latter  must  be  merged  with  the  former.  (A  similar 
condition  is  found  in  MopnJchausia^  one  of  whose  species,  agassizi!^ 
occasionally  presents  specimens  with  an  incomplete  lateral  line.)  For 
the  present  the  two  genera  may  be  kept  distinct.  The  species  of 
Hemigramnius  are  all  small,  none  of  them  reaching  a  length  of  4  inches. 
Most  of  them  are  much  smaller.  They  are  distributed  from  Oaxaca, 
Mexico,  to  the  Rio  de  la  Plata  and  from  Para  to  the  Peruvian  and 
Ecuadorian  Amazons.  The}^  are  not  recorded  from  the  Pacific  slope. 
As  the  species  are  all  small  we  may  expect  many  additions  to  the 
genus.  TI.  lutheni^  H.  unilineatus^  H.  gj'acilis  appear  the  most 
widely  distributed  species,  the  first  being  recorded  from  Rio  Grande 
do  Sul  and  the  Paraguay  Basin,  the  second  from  Trinidad  to  Bahia 
and  the  last  from  the  Rio  San  Francisco  to  the  Amazons.  Of  the 
19  species  I  have  been  able  to  examine  all  but  elegans  and  rolnistulus. 


a  Scales  30-36. 

h  Dorsal  conspicuously  marked  with  a  well-defined  black  spot;  anal  with  definite 


c  A  deep  humeral  spot;  dorsal  almost  entirely  black,  middle  caudal  rays,  last 

five  anal  rays  and  distal  two-fifths  of  the  remaining  anal  ra3\s  black;  D.  10 

or  11;  A.   27  or  28;  depth  2f-3;  head  3i-3f ;  eye  2f-2J;    scales  6  or  7-33 

or  34-5  or  6,  five  scales  with  pores;  maxillary  with  two  teeth,  each  with  3 

points  of  nearly  equal  length.     (Boulenger) callistus  (Boulenger)  1. 

cc  No  humeral  or  caudal  spots;  a  large  black  spot  on  the  upper  part  of  the 
dorsal,  sometimes  obsolete;  a  narrow  stripe  of  black  from  anus  along  margin 
to  the  tip  of  the  first  anal  rays;  head  3.75;  depth  2.75;  eye  3  in  the  head; 

scales  6-34-5 ;  five  teeth  in  maxillary uniiineaius  ( Gill ) ,  2. 

bb  Dorsal  without  well-defined  markings. 
d  Anal  with  black  markings. 

e  A  milk-white  stripe  on  the  fore  edge  of  the  anal,  and  a  rather  broad 
violet  stripe  immediately  behind  it;  a  faint  lateral  l)and;  A.  24;  head 
3i-3f ;  depth  2|-2|;  scales  5  or  5i-30  or  31-4. 

elegans,  (Steindachner),  3. 
(hi  Anal  without  definite  dark  markings. 

/No  humeral  spot,  caudal  spot  usually  developed.     (See  ulreyi. ) 

g  Maxillary  without  teeth;  anal  rays  17-19;  height  of  anal  nearly 
equal  to  the  length  of  its  base;  4-7  perforated  scales  in  the  lateral 
line;  pectoral  nearly  to  ventral;  caudal  deeply  lobed;  a  large, 
diffuse,  dark  caudal  spot  extends  to  the  end  of  some  of  the  rays 
and  fades  out  anteriorly;   an  inconspicuous  silvery  lateral  band; 

depth  4;  scales  32-30  to  32-2i nanns  (Reinhardt),4. 

gg  Maxillary  with  2-4  conical  or  3-pointed  teeth. 

h  No  caudal  spot,   maxillary   with   two  minute  conical  or   slightly 
notched   teeth;   dorsal  and  anal  falcate,  caudal  widely  forked; 


anal  23-25;  a  suiall  l)lack  humeral  spot,  a  blackish  line  along 
the  middle  of  the  side  and  a  black  line  along  the  base  of  the 
anal;  dorsal  blackish  at  the  end;  depth.  22 -2|;  head  3^-3-2 ;  eye 
2  in  the  head;  D.  10;  scales  32-33,  pores  8  or  9;  no  maxillary 

teeth •ulre-i/i  ( Boulenger) ,  5. 

hh  Sometimes  a  caudal  sjiot  not  extending  to  the  end  of  the  rays, 
fading  out  forward;  maxillary  with  t^\o  minute  conical  teeth; 
a  more  or  less  conspicuous  silvery  lateral  band;  caudal  deeply 
lobed;  dorsal  behind  the  ventrals,  the  pectorals  extending  to  the 
ventrals,  ventrals  to  anal;   A.  21-24;  head  41;   depth  4;  scales 

5-32  or  33-4,  6-12  scales  with  pores gracilis  (Reinhardt) ,  6. 

hhh  Maxillary  with  four  conical  ornotched  teeth;  no  lateral  band;  a 
small  dark  spot  at  base  of  each  caudal  lobe,  tins  all  plain;  head 
3.85;  depth  2.66;  D.  9;  A.  19...  riddlei  Meek,  new  species,  7.« 
ggg  Maxillary  teeth  with  4  or  more  points. 

(  Maxillary  with  one  4-pointed  tooth;  a  single  median  caudal  sjjot 
continued  to  end  of  middle  caudal  rays;  dorsal  over  ventrals, 
pectorals  not  nearly  reaching  ventrals,  ventrals  not  to  anal; 
a  black  lateral  line;  dorsal  scales  margined  with  black;  head  4; 
depth  3.2;  .scales  32,  pores  developed  on  10  scales;  A.  24. 

micropterus  Meek,  new  species,  8.  & 
a  Maxillary  with  two  5-pointed  teeth;  abroad  black  band  across 
base  of  caudal,  extending  forward  to  a  blunt  point,  and  back- 
ward as  three  prongs,  a  short  one  along  the  edge  of  each  lobe 
and  a  longer  one  along  the  middle  rays  but  not  reaching  the 
end  of  the  rays;  a  dark  lateral  band;  no  humeral  spot;  depth 
3,  head  about  3f;  eye  2^..  tridens  Eigenmann,  new  species,  9. 
ff  Caudal  and  humeral  spots  both  developed. 
j  Maxillary  teeth  conical  or  3-pointed. 

k  Maxillary  with  one  notched  and  two  conical  teeth ;  humeral 
spot  indistinct,  small;  a  small,  inconspicuous,  silvery-gray 
lateral  band,  margined  above  by  a  sharp,  blue-gray  line; 
a  well-defined  caudal  spot;  eye  very  large,  2  in  head; 
snout  3^;  A.  20-23;  head  3|;  depth  3;  scales  5-30  or  31-3, 

7-16  scales  perforate schmardie  (Steindachner),  10. 

kk  Maxillary  with  one  3-pointed  tooth. 

I  Anal  22;  scales  about  30;  maxillary  2.75  in  head;  a  narrow 

black  lateral  line  lying  deeper  than  the  caudal  spot  and 
not  continued  with  it;  caudal  spot  well  defined,  not 
quite  reaching  to  end  of  middle  rays;  lower  half  of  caudal 
blackish;  basal  two-thirds  of  anal  dusky;  ventrals  reach- 
ing past  origin  of  anal;  pectorals  past  base  of  ventrals. 
houlengeri  Eigenmann,  new  species,  11. 

II  A.  25-26;-  scales  33-36;  mouth  large,  maxillary  ,'5  in  head, 

caudal  spot  rather  abruptly  continued  to  the  end  of  the 
middle  caudal  rays,  gradually  narrowed  in  front  into  a 
dark  lateral  line;  lower  caudal  lobe  hyaline;  distal 
third  of  anal  dusky;  ventrals  to  anal,  pectorals  to  origin 

«  Based  on  specimens  collected  by  Dr.  O.  Riddle  at  Los  Castillas,  on  the  Orinoco, 
and  now  in  the  collections  of  the  Field  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

&  Based  on  specimens  collected  by  Dr.  Oscar  Riddle  at  Los  Castillas,  on  the  Orinoco, 
and  now  in  the  collections  of  the  Indiana  University,  and  of  the  Field  Museum 
of  Natural  History. 


of  ventrals;  scales  6-33  to  36-5  or  6;  lateral  line  devel- 
oped on  10-25  scales. 

anisitsi  Eigenmann,  new  species,  12. 
kkk  Maxillary  with  5  small  stout  teeth;  anal  rays  27;  humeral 
spot  not  surrounded  by  a  bright  border;  a  greenish  lat- 
eral band,  humeral  and  caudal  spots  indistinct;  middle 
of  caudal  fin  blackish;  body  brown,  muzzle  black;  max- 
illary reaching  to  middle  of  the  pupil;  dorsal  behind  the 
ventrals;  head  3^;  depth  2 J;  eye  3  in  the  head;   scales 

7-3.5-6 robustulus  Cope,  13. 

jj  Maxillary  teeth  multifid. 

m  Anal  20-22;   maxillary  3  in  head;    eye  3.25  in  head, 

equals  interorbital;  maxillary  with  two  3-  to  5-pointed 

teeth;  depth  3;  head  3.6;  scales  5-32-4;  pectorals  not 

reaching  ventrals. .  santo Eigenmann,  new  species,  14. « 

mm  Anal  24-26;  mouth  small. 

n  Maxilliary  with  two  broad,  7  or  more  pointed  teeth! 
eye  equals  interorbital,  2.75  in  head;  depth  2.3-2.6 
in  the  length;  head  3.7-4.4;  scales  30-33;  a  humeral 
spot;  a  distinct  silvery  lateral  band  ending  in  a 
caudal  spot  which  may  or  may  not  be  continued  to 

the  end  of  the  rays littkeni  Boulenger,  15. 

mmm  Maxillary  with  one  very  broad-tipped  tooth  much 
shorter  than  eye;  A.  24-26;  depth  2.6-2.75;  head 
4;  scales  6-32  or  33-5;  an  obscure  humeral  spot, 
an  indistinct  lateral  band;  a  conspicuous  caudal 
spot  which  is  not  continued  on  the  middle  caudal 
rays;  fins  dusky;  lateral  line  complete  or  incom- 
plete  inconstans,  new  species,  16. 

fff  No  caudal  spot;  maxilliary  with  two  minute,  conical  teeth;  the 
liumeral  spot  intense  dark  brown  surrounded  by  a  bright  ring,  round 
or  vertically  o\'al;  a  sharply  marked  blue-gray  line  along  sides  to 
base  of  caudal;  dorsal  behind  the  ventral;  pectorals  reaching  ven- 
trals, ventrals  to  anal;  eye  2-2J  in  head;  snout  4;  A.  22-24;  head 
35-3|;  depth  3J-3f ;  scales  5-31  or  32-3,  5-7  scales  with  pores. 

hellottii  (Steindachner),  17. 
ffff  No  caudal  or  true  humeral  spot,  a  very  conspicuous  dark  lateral  band 
expanded  anteriorly  and  bordered  above  by  a  very  evident  silvery 
band;  anai  with  the  first  six  rays  elongate;  maxilliary  with  4  conical 
teeth,  reaching  nearly  to  the  center  of  the  pupil;  D.  10;  A.  20-23; 
head  3^;  depth  3;  eye  2J  in  head;  lat.  line  32-34. 

heierorhabdus  (Ulrey),  18. 
«/(  Scales  40-48. 

0  Anal  rays  40^6;  scales  10-40  to  45-8;  head4|;  depth 
2^;  lateral  line  with  interruptions  to  the  last  fourth 
of  the  anal;  a  narrow  dusky  lateral  band;  maxil- 
lary with  one  minute,  3-pointed  tooth. 

kennedyi  Eigenmann,  19. 
00  Anal  rays  25  to  27;  scales  45-48;  head  3^;  depth  22 ; 
D.  11;  much  compressed;  no  lateral  bands  or  spots; 
dorsal  with  a  conspicuous  spot  on  the  basal  half  of 
the  anterior  rays;  maxillary  with  5  notched  or 
conical  teeth compressus  Meek,  20. 

« Based  on  Liitken's  Tetragonopterus  interruptus. 


HemigTammus  nanus  Lutken. 

No.  44958.  Four  specimens  from  Lagoa  Santa,  Brazil,  presented  by 
Dr.  Chr.  Liitken.  These  are  probably  some  of  the  types.  No  maxil- 
lary teeth. 

Hemigrammus  gracilis  Liitken. 

No.  44959.  Four  specimens,  probably  from   Lagoa  Santa,  Brazil, 
presented  b}^  Lutken.     A  microscopic  preparation  shows  the  maxillary 
to  have  two  conical  teeth,  scarcely  projecting  beyond  the  margin  of 
the  jaw. 
Hemigrammus  micropterus  Meek,  ne-w  species. 

Type. — No.  1OS02.  Museum  of  Indiana  University.  Specimen 
thirteen-sixteenths  inch  long;  Los  Castillos,  Venezuela;  Oscar  Riddle, 

Head  4;  depth  3.2;  A.  24;  scales  4-32-4;  maxillary  reaching  to 
front  of  pupil;  eye  2f  in  head;  interorbital  about  equal  to  eye;  max- 
illary^ with  a  single,  4-pointed  tooth.  Pectorals  reaching  within  one 
scale  of  the  ventrals,  ventrals  not  quite  to  anal;  origin  of  dorsal  over 
origin  of  ventrals.  Scales  of  the  back  with  rather  broad  dark  mar- 
gins, a  black  lateral  line,  most  intense  above  anal,  not  quite  reaching 
the  caudal  spot,  which  extends  to  the  end  of  the  middle  ra3^s. 
Hemigrammus  tridens  Eigenmann,  new  species. 

Type. — No.  11262,  Museum  of  Indiana  University.  Specimen  20 
nmi.  to  base  of  caudal.  Arroyo  P^^pucu,  Paraguay  Basin,  collected 
by  J.  D.  Anisits. 

Cotype. — No.  11262a,  Museum  of  Indiana  University,  specimen  18 
mm.  to  base  of  caudal.  Arroyo  Pypucu,  Paraguay  Basin,  collected 
by  J.  D.  Anisits.  Head  3.4;  depth  3;  A.  16-19;  lateral  line  probably 
between  30  and  35;  eye  2.4  in  head,  considerably  longer  than  the 
width  of  the  interorbital.  Maxillary  extending  to  below  eye,  nearl}^ 
to  the  pupil,  with  two  5-pointed  teeth,  the  points  nearly  equal  in 
length;  premaxillary  teeth  with  five  long  points,  the  middle  one  much 
the  largest.  Origin  of  dorsal  behind  the  ventrals,  about  equidistant 
between  base  of  middle  caudal  raj'S  and  middle  of  eye.  Anal  short, 
its  origin  about  equidistant  from  base  of  middle  caudal  rays  and  origin 
of  pectorals.  Ventrals  reaching  anal,  pectorals  not  to  ventrals.  A 
rather  broad,  blackish  band  overlying  a  deeper  black  line;  a  jet-black 
band  across  end  of  tail,  continued  forward  to  a  blunt  median  point 
and  backward  along  the  edge  of  each  caudal  lobe  and  along  the  middle 
caudal  rays,  but  not  to  their  tips. 
Hemigrammus  boulengeri  Eigenmann,  new  species. 
Tetragonopierus  fasciutus  interruptus  Eigenmann,  part,  Ann.  N.  Y.,  VII,  1894,  p.  634 

(Rio  Grande  do  Sul) .     Not  of  Lutken. 

Tyj)e. — No.  11073,  Museum  of  Indiana  Universit3\  Specimen  36  mm. 
to  base  of  caudal,  45  over  all.     Rio  Grande  do  Sul,  Brazil,  von  Ihering. 

Head   3.33;    depth  2.66;   A.  about  22;  lateral  line  about  30;  eye 

16  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxm. 

2.6  in  head;  maxillary  2. 75;  interorbital  2.75.  Maxillary  with  one 
3-pointed  tooth;  ventrals  reaching  past  origin  of  anal,  pectorals  past 
base  of  ventrals;  highest  anal  raj^  1^  in  the  base  of  anal.  Humeral 
spot  vertically  elongate,  distinct;  a  narrow,  black  lateral  line  lying 
deeper  than  the  caudal  spot  and  not  connected  with  it;  caudal  spot 
well  defined,  not  quite  extending  to  end  of  middle  rays;  lower  half  of 
caudal  with  many  pigment  cells,  blackish,  upper  half  hyaline;  basal 
two-thirds  of  anal  dusky. 

Named  for  Dr.  G.  A.  Boulenger,  of  the  British  Museum  of  Natural 

Hemigrammus  anisitsi  Eigenmann,  new  species. 

Hemifjrammus  liltkeni  Eigenmaxn  and  Kennedy,  part,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila., 
1903,  p.  519  (Estancia  la  Armenia).     Not  of  Boulenger. 

Tyjye. — No.  10182,  Museum  of  Indiana  University,  a  specimen  37 
mm.  long,  Villa  Rica,  J.  D.  Anisits. 

Cotypes. — No.  10182a,  three  specimens  as  above. 

Cotypes. — No.  9995,  Museum^of  Indiana  University.  Ten  specimens 
22  mm.  long,  Estancia  la  Armonia,  J.  D.  Anisits. 

Head  3.5;  depth  2.75;  A.  21-26;  lateral  line  33-36;  eye  about  2.75 
in  head,  greater  than  interorbital.  Mouth  comparatively  large,  max- 
illary not  nearly  reaching  to  end  of  first  suborbital,  about  3  in  head, 
having  a  single,  3-pointed  tooth.  Highest  anal  ray  1.5  in  the  anal 
basis;  ventrals  to  anal,  pectorals  to  origin  of  ventrals;  origin  of  dor- 
sal equidistant  from  base  of  middle  caudal  rays  and  front  of  eye. 
Caudal  spot  forming  a  band  on  the  end  of  the  caudal  peduncle,  faint- 
est above  and  below,  rather  abriqjtly  continued  posteriorly  to  the  end 
of  the  middle  caudal  ra3^s,  gradually  narrowed  in  front  into  a  dark 
lateral  line;  caudal  lobes  hyaline;  humeral  spot  vertically  elongate; 
distal  third  of  anal  dusk}'^,  basal  two-thirds  of  anterior  rays  free  from 

Named  for  Prof.  J.  D.  Anisits,  of  Asuncion,  Paraguay. 

Hexnigrammus  santse  Eigenmann,  new  species. 

Tetragonopterus  rivularis  interrupta  LtJTKEN,  Velhas-Flodens  Fiske,  XIII,  1875,  p.  215 
(Lagoa  Santa). 

Type.— C&t  No.  55652,  U.S.N.M. 

A  comparison  of  specimens  sent  by  Doctor  Liitken  to  the  National 
Museum,  No.  11960,  from  Lagoa  Santa  shows  that  two  of  the  speci- 
mens have  a  complete  lateral  line  and  two  have  it  interrupted.  They 
represent,  respectively,  'Liitken''s  Jusciatus  and  interru2Jt us.  There  is 
no  doubt  but  that  these  specimens  are  specifically  and  genericall}'  dis- 
tinct. The  latter  is  a  Heinigraiiiinus  and  differs,  aside  from  the  generic 
characters,  in  the  proportions  and  color.  In  1894  I  recorded  speci- 
mens of  H.  interruptiLS  from  Rio  Grande  do  Sul,  Brazil.  A  reexam- 
ination of  these  in  connection  with  Liitken's  specimens  shows  that  they 
are  not  specifically  identical  with  Liitken's  specimens,  and  probably 
represent  two  distinct  species,  hoidengeri  and  lutkeni.    Liitken's  speci- 



mens  which  may  be  called  santdd  have  the  following-  characters:  Depth 
2.6;  head  3.5;  A.  21;  eye  3.5,  slio-htly  longer  than  snout;  interorbital 
3  in  head;  maxiliar}^  slight]}-  longer  than  interorbital;  scales  6-30-3^. 
A  second  specimen:  scales  5-33-3^. 
HemigTammus  inconstans  Eig-enmann  and  Og-le,  new  species. 

7]/7A.— Cat.  No.  3J:5i»l,  U.S.N.M.,  presented  by  J.  C.  Brevoort, 
Para  (?),  Brazil.  One  specimen,  44  mm.  long-  to  base  of  caudal  (58 
over  all). 

Tt/pe.— Cat.  No.  55652,  U.S.N.M. 

Scales  6-32-4i;  A.  26;  laterallineonleft«iJ  +  4 +  j^  +  3 +7  +  7  +  ^, 
on  right  IS  -\-  14  +^;  one  maxillary  tooth. 

Cottjpe. — One  specimen  39  nun.  to  base  of  caudal  (50  over  all). 
Scales  6  +  32  +  5;  A.  26;  lateral  line  on  left  i^:>  +  1  +  ;^  +  16  +  =?, 
on  right  17  +  2  +  7  +  9  +  3. 

Cotype. — One  specimen  45  nun.  to  base  of  caudal  (about  57  ov^er  all). 
Scales  6  +  32  +  5;  A.  26;  lateral  line  complete. 

Fig.  4. — HEMiyRAMMUs  inconstans. 

Cotype. — ^One  specimen  38  mm.  to  base  of  caudal  (about  51  over  all). 
Scales  6  +  32  +  5;  A.  26;  lateral  line  complete. 

Cotype. — One  specimen  37  mm.  to  base  of  caudal  (47  over  all). 
Scales  6  +  33  +  5;  A.  24;  lateral  line  complete  to  the  last  two  or  three 
scales,  which  are  without  pores. 

Depth  2.6-2.75;  head  about  4;  eve  equals  interorbital,  2f-3  in  head; 
snout  4  in  head;  maxillary  not  reaching  to  end  of  first  suborbital, 
much  shorter  than  ej^e,  with  a  single  tooth. 

Origin  of  dorsal  behind  base  of  ventrals,  pectorals  reaching  slightly 
beyond  base  of  ventrals;  ventrals  nearly  or  quite  to  anal.  Highly 
iridescent;  an  obscure  vertical  humeral  spot,  an  indistinct  lateral  band; 
a  conspicuous  caudal  spot  which  is  not  continued  on  the  middle  rays. 
Fins  all  dusky.     This  species  is  evidently  very  closely  related,  if  not 

«  Those  in  italics  with  pores, 
Proc.  N.  M.  vol.  xxxiii— 07 2 

18  PROdEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.  vol.  xxxiii. 

identical,  with  Cope's  Astyanax phoenicopterus.  There  seems  no  doubt 
that  the  five  specimens  before  us  belong  to  the  same  species,  although 
they  do  not  have  the  same  generic  characters.  Of  the  species  of 
Ilemigr'cunmuH  it  approaches  Jiltheni  most  closely. 

Tetragonopterus  argenteus  Cuvier. 

No.  39403.     One  specimen,  Brazil,  collected  by  H.  H.  Rusby. 
No.  44831.     One  specimen,  Bolivia,  Gibbon  collection. 
No.  1631.     Paraguay,  Page  collection. 

Genus  ASTYANAX  Baird  and  Girard. 

In  the  difiicult  and  highly  interesting  group  of  Characins  there  is 
no  more  difficult  nor  more  highly  interesting  genus  than  Astyanax. 
Its  divergence  toward  Ilemigramnms,  which  is  like  an  Astyanax  with 
an  incomplete  lateral  line,  toward  Iletn'Jynjco)}^  which  is  like  an 
Astyanax  with  a  completely  denticulated  maxillary,  toward  Moeiik- 
hausid.,  which  is  like  an  Astyamix  with  a  scaled  caudal;  and  especially 
to\f  2i,rdi  Petersliis  (which  appears  to  be  its  African  counterpart),  together 
with  its  universal  distribution  in  tropical  and  subtropical  America,  all 
indicate  its  central  position  in  the  system  of  Characins.  Some  of  its 
species  are  well  marked,  but  for  the  most  part  there  are  groups  of 
species  within  which  the  specific  characters  are  not  well  fixed.  The 
most  notable  of  these  groups  is  that  centering  in  Astyanax  rutilm. 
This  is  a  widel}^  variable,  univer.sally  distributed  species,  with  which 
throughout  its  distribution  there  are  allied  closely  related  species.  In 
the  south  are  iherlngli^fasciatus,  cuvleri,  and  perhaps  others.  In  the 
north,  notably  in  Central  America,  Mexico,  and  Peru,  there  is  an  espe- 
cially trj'ing  series  of  species,  varieties,  or  local  forms.  It  will  require 
much  larger  series  representing  a  much  wider  array  of  localities  than 
are  at  my  command  to  finally  describe  the  status  of  these  forms.  Those 
of  the  northernmost  localities,  north  of  central  Mexico,  represented 
b}^  specimens  with  a  small  number  of  anal  rays — from  20  to  25 — may 
readily  be  set  aside  as  viexlcanm.  From  southern  Mexico  there  have 
been  vecovdiQA  fasciatus  {  —  rutilus)  and  aeneus  (Oaxaca).  Through  the 
courtesy  of  Prof.  S.  E.  Meek,  I  have  been  able  to  examine  many 
specimens  from  Perez,  all  of  which  appear  to  be  xneus,  and  others 
from  Montzorongo,  some  of  which  are  seneus^  and  others  with  a  larger 
eye  and  maxillary  extending  considerably  beyond  origin  of  e3^e  may  ( ?) 
represent  rutilus. 

From  the  Pacific  slope  of  Guatemala  have  been  recorded  rutilus^ 
micropldhalmuH^  and  luiwiJh.  I  am  not  acquainted  with  either  of  the 
two  latter.  From  the  Atlantic  slope  probably  come  rutilus,  seneus^ 
and  hrevimmius ;  the  last,  a  species  with  few  anal  rays,  is  probably  a 
mexicanus.  From  Nicaragua  have  been  recorded  mrstedii,  which  is 
not  distinguishable  from  s'neus  or  rutilus.,  and  nicaraguensis^  which  is 
distinguished  by  the  increased  number  of  maxillary  teeth. 


Astyanax  cuvieri  Lutken. 

No.  41!>61.  Rio  das  Velhas  (?),  Brazil,  Lutken.  Two  specimens 
agree  with  Liitken's  (Velhas  Flodens  Fiske)  tig.  13.  They  are  marked 
eurierl.  They  differ  conspicuously  from  specimens  of  rutilus  from 
Para  and  Rio  Grande  do  Sul.  In  the  largest  specimen  (19  mm.  to 
base  of  caudal)  we  have  depth  3.33;  head  3.66;  A.  29;  scales  7-37-5; 
eye  2.5;  maxillary  long,  equal  to  length  of  eye;  snout  1;  interorbital 
3.66.  Liitken's  figure  11  represents  a  form  intermediate  between  the 
typical  rutilus  and  the  specimens  at  hand. 

Astyanax  ihering-ii  Boulenger. 

No.  39132.  La  Paz,  Montevideo,  Uruguay,  collected  ))y  W.  E. 

No.  39117.  One  specimen,  Montevideo,  Uruguay,  collected  by 

Astyanax  fasciatus  Cuvier. 

No.  1889.  Museum  of  Indiana  University,  Rio  Grande  do  Sul,  Bra- 
zil,    a  102  mm.  to  base  of  caudal.     Depth  2-^;  A.  21;  eye  3.6,  equal 
to  snout;  maxillary  longer  than  eye,  3+  in  head;   bon}'  interorbital, 
•2.66  in  head;  an  oval  humeral  spot. 

1)  76  mm.  to  base  of  caudal.  Depth  2.6;  A.  21;  eye  2.8;  snout  1; 
maxillary  a))out  length  of  eye;  bony  interorbital  2.8  in  head. 

e  73  nnu.  to  base  of  caudal.  Depth  2.66;  A.  25;  eye  2.8;  snout  3i; 
maxillary  not  quite  as  long  as  eye;  bon}^  interorbital  2.8. 

On  account  of  the  small  eye  and  wide  interorbital  the  first  of  these 
specimens  can  readily  be  distinguished  from  specimens  of  A.  rutilus^ 
but  otherwise,  as  stated  under  ^1.  rutilus^  there  is  such  an  intergrad- 
ing  between  the  two  species  that  we  are  very  doul>tful  whether  they 
are  distinct. 

No.  11960  (part).  Lagoa  Santa,  Brazil.  Presented  l)y  Dr.  Chr. 

These  specimens  represent  Liitken's  A.  rhularis.  They  agree  very 
closely  with  the  specimens  of  ^1.  fasciatus  from  Rio  Grande  do  Sul. 

a  70  mm.  to  base  of  caudal.     Depth  3.25;  head  1;  A.  21;  e3'e  3.75, 
equal  to  snout;  interorbital  3  in  head;  maxillar}^  e(jual  to  interorbital. 
Scales  6-33-3i.     A  second  specimen  has  anal  23;  scales  6-36-3. 
Astyanax  rutilus  (Jenyns). 

lam  not  at  all  sure  that  rutilus  andyasciatus  are  distinct  species.  I 
have  numerous  specimens  from  a  variety  of  localities.  In  the  more 
southern  ones  and  those  along  the  southeast  coast  of  Brazil  there  are 
a  few  in  which  the  number  of  anal  rays  is  slightly  less  than  in  those 
from  the  Paraguay  River.  In  depth  there  is  a  wide  diflerence,  ranging 
from  the  variety  jequitinkonhce^  whose  depth  is  3  in  the  length,  to 
specimens  from  Tiete,  in  which  it  is  2.25.  In  a  small  specimen.  If 
inches,  from  Piracicaba,  the  depth  is  even  1  in  the  length.     The  shoul- 

20  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxm. 

der  spot  differs  very  widely  in  distinctness.  A  similar  condition  exists 
at  the  northern  end  of  the  range  of  this  widely  distributed  species. 
Specimens  from  Nicaragua  {(crstedH)  are  not  distinguishable.  A  bet- 
ter marked  variety  is  the  many-toothed  nlcdraguensia.  Still  further 
north  comes  xneas^  and  tiuall}'  inexicanus.  It  will  take  a  large  series 
of  specimens  to  demonstrate  the  validity  of  these  varieties. 

I  add  details  of  a  numljer  of  specimens  in  the  museum  of  Indiana 
University  and  the  National  Museum. 

Specimens  collected  by  elohn  W.  Titcomb  for  the  U.  S.  Fish  Com- 
mission at  Cordova,  Argentine,  are  like  those  collected  b}"  Page  in 
Asuncion,  Paraguay. 

a  88  mm.  to  base  of  caudal.  Depth  2f;  A.  27;  ej^e  3  in  head; 
maxillar}^  ver}-  slightly  longer  than  eye;  bony  interorbital  8  in  head; 
shoulder  spot  not  evident. 

h  94  mm.  to  base  of  caudal.  Depth  2.8;  A.  30;  eye  3.2  in  head; 
maxillary  equal  to  eye;  bony  interorbital  2.9  in  head;  shoulder  spot 

c  101  mm.  to  base  of  caudal.  Depth  2.75;  A.  28;  eye  3  in  head; 
maxillary  equal  to  ej^e;  bon}^  interorbital  3.2  in  head;  shoulder  spot 

No.  9267.  Museum  of  Indiana  University.  Rio  Tiete,  Brazil,  Von 
Ihering  collection. 

a  90  mm.  to  base  of  caudal.  Depth  2f ;  A.  27;  eye  3;  maxillary 
slightl}^  shorter  than  eye;  snout  3.7;  interorbital  equal  to  eye;  scales 
6-36-6.     A  very  faint  humeral  spot. 

h  and  c  are  much  deeper. 

I  97  mm.  to  base  of  caudal.  Depth  2.25;  A.  26;  eye  3.1;  maxil- 
lary equal  to  eye;  snout  4  in  head;  interorbital  2.8;  humeral  spot 
scarcely  evident;  scales  6-34-5. 

c  99  mm.  to  base  of  caudal.  Depth  2.25;  A.  24;  ej'e  3.3;  maxil- 
lary equal  to  ej^^e;  snout  4  in  head;  interorbital  2.8;  humeral  spot 
scarcely  evident;  scales  6-34-(). 

These  specimens  are  all  nuich  deeper  than  the  usual  rutiJus. 

No.  10788.  Museum  of  Indiana  University.  Rio  Tiete,  Brazil,  Von 
Ihering  collection. 

a  63  mm.  to  base  of  caudal,  78  mm.  to  tips  of  caudal.  Depth  2.5; 
A.  23;  eye  3;  maxillary'  slightl}^  shorter  than  ej^e;  snout  4;  interor- 
bital equal  to  eye;  scales  5-35-5.  A  vertical  humeral  spot;  caudal 
band  almost  obsolete. 

h  48  mm.  to  base  o,f  caudal.     Depth  2.66;  A.  25;  scales  5-35-5. 

These  specimens  are  much  slenderer  than  the  older  ones  from  the 
same  place.  Caudal  band  reduced  to  the  minimum;  shoulder  spot 
well  developed. 

No.  10786.  Museum  of  Indiana  University.  Rio  Grande,  a  tribu- 
tary of  the  Parana. 


117  mm.  to  base  of  caudal.  Depth  2.()H;  A.  28;  eye  3.1;  maxillaiy 
equal  to  snout;  snout  3.0;  interorbital  2.0;  humeral  spot  faint;  scales 

No.  10T8T.  Museum  of  Indiana  University.  Rio  Camaguam,  Rio 
Grande  do  Sul,  Brazil, 

73  mm.  to  base  of  caudal.  Depth  2|;  A.  30;  eye  2.75;  maxillary 
equals  four-tifths  diameter  of  ej^e;  interorbital  3  in  head;  snout  4; 
humeral  spot  faint;  scales  7-39-()  (tt  above  ventrals). 

No.  92!>1:.  Museum  of  Indiana  University.  Rio  Grande  do  Sul, 

This  was  considered  ])y  Eig'enmann  and  Norris  to  be  scahrip/nnis', 
but  may  ha  fasclatus  or  rutHiis. 

Depth  2.6;  A.  25;  cj^e  2.5;  maxillary  three-fourths  as  lono-  as  eye; 
snout  4;  interorbital  3+  in  head.     Humeral  spot  faint;  scales  7-34-5^. 

No.  9285.  Museum  of  Indiana  Universitv.  Piracicaba.  This  was 
considered  by  Eigenmann  and  Norris  to  \>q, je<pMt'in}ion]va' . 

a  92  mm.  to  base  of  caudal.  Very  similar  to  10787.  Depth  2f ; 
A.  30;  C3^e  3,  ver}-  slightly  longer  than  the  maxillary;*  snout  4.2; 
interorbital  3.2;  humeral  spot  not  evident;  .scales  (5-35-0. 

J)  95  mm.  to  base  of  caudal.  Depth  3;  A.  29;  ej^e  3,  equal  to  the 
maxillary;  snout  4;  interorbital  3.25;  no  evident  humeral  spot. 

c  11  mm.  to  base  of  caudal  =  new  species  ^  Depth  4;  A.  24  at  least; 
eye  3,  equal  to  maxillary  in  length;  snout  3.75;  interorbital  3;  very 
faint  humeral  spot;  scales  5-39-4. 

No.  9268.     Museum  of  Indiana  University.     Taubate. 

82  mm.  to  base  of  caudal.  Depth  2.5;  A.  29;  eye  3.2,  equals  length 
of  maxillar}^;  snout  4  in  head;  bony  interorbital  2.G;  humeral  spot 
faint;  scales  8-39-6. 

Anal  rays  and  scales  in  other  specimens  in  the  nuiseum  of  Indiana 
University  from  Paragua}^  are  as  follows: 

From  Asuncion,  A.  25-30;  scales  5-37  to  38-4. 

From  Villa  Rica,  A.  24-27;  scales  34  to  35. 

From  Arroyo  Chagalalina,  A.  25;  scales  30. 

From  Bahia  Negra,  A.  20  to  27;  scales  35  to  30. 

No.  1624.     Three  specimens,  Paragua}^  Page  collection. 

a  93  mm.  to  base  of  caudal.  Depth  3;  A.  30;  eye  3  in  head,  snout 
3.60;  maxillary  equals  length  of  eye;  bony  interorbital  3+  in  head. 

1>  101  mm.  to  base  of  caudal.  Depth  3;  A.  30  (3+27);  eye  3  in 
head,  snout  4;  maxillary  equals  length  of  eye;  bony  interorbital,  3^^ 
in  head. 

c  103  nun.  to  base  of  caudal.  Depth  3;  A.  31;  eye  3  in  head,  snout 
3.8;  maxilhuy  equals  length  of  eye;  bony  interor])ital,  3+  in  head. 

No.  3004.  One  specimen,  Paraguay,  Page  collection.  95  mm.  to 
base  of  caudal.  Depth  2|;  A.  30;  eye  3  in  head,  snout  4;  maxillary 
equals  length  of  eye;  bony  interorbital  3  in  head. 

22  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxm. 

No.  34590.  Locality  probably  Para,  Brazil,  presented  by  J.  C. 

a  52  mm.  to  base  of  caudal.  Depth  2.06;  A.  28;  eye  2.75,  maxillary 
nearly  equals  eye;  interorbital  3;  a  faint  humeral  spot;  scales  6-38-T 
(5  above  ventral). 

1)  70  mm.  to  base  of  caudal.     Depth  2|;  A.  30;  scales  0-37-6. 

c  57  mm.  to  base  of  caudal.     Depth  2f;  A.  21);  scales  6-39-6. 

No.  34589  (part).  Para,  Brazil,  presented  l)v  J.  C.  Brevoort.  Three 
specimens,  A.  28,  29,  and  29. 

No.  8225.  Napo  or  Maranon,  Brazil,  Orton  collection.  This  speci- 
men is  108  mm.  long-  and  is  probably  the  Astyaiia.e  cdrollme  of  Gill. 
The  only  serious  discrepancy  seems  to  be  in  the  leng'th  of  the  maxil- 
lary, which  Gill  says  extends  to  the  end  of  the  first  suborbital  l)elow 
the  vertical  from  the  anterior  margin  of  the  pupil. 

Length  to  base  of  caudal,  85  nun.;  depth  32  mm.;  head  from  tip  of 
snout  to  end  of  opercle  22  mm.;  eye  ^^\\  interorbital  8;  A.  26;  scales 
6-36-5;  maxillary  reaching  ])eyond  origin  of  eye,  not  to  end  of  first 
suborbital;  no  teeth  on  maxilUuy.  Caudal  spot  continued  to  end  of 
middle  rays;  humeral  spot  faint. 

No.  1659  (part).  Eight  specimens,  112-141  mm.  long,  Truando, 
Colombia,  Michler  and  Schott  collection. 

These  specimens  are  in  all  essential  characters  ^1.  ratUus. 

They  average  larger  than  specimens  from  other  localities. 

a  A.  27,  D.  10;  scales  0-38-5^. 

I  A.  27,  D.  11;  scales  0-38-6. 

c  A.  28,  D.  11;  scales  0-38-5^. 

d  A.  20,  D.  11;  scales  6-38-5. 

e  A.  31,  D.  12;  scales  6-38-5. 

/  A.  27,  D.  11;  scales  6-37-5i. 

g  A.  28,  D.  10;  scales  6-38-5. 

h  A.  29,  D.  11;  scales  6-37-5. 

The  depth  ranges  from  2f-2|;  head  4-4^;  eye  3;  maxillary  a1)out 
equal  to  the  eye;  interorbital  2^-3. 

No.  32515.  Two  specimens,  Truando  (^),  Colombia,  A.  Schott.  A. 
29-30;  scales  6-37-7;  7-37-6.  Averag-e  number  of  anal  rays  of  all 
the  Truando  specimens  28.3. 

No.  19904.  Two  specimens,  115  and  120  mm.  to  base  of  caudal. 
West  coast  of  Central  America.     A.  29;  scales  7-37-6  to  ventrals. 

No.  19906.     Twenty-three  specimens.     Central  America.    A.  28-32. 

No.  19913.     Central  America. 
Astyanax  rutilus  cerstedii  Liitken. 

Two  series  of  si)ecimens  from  Nicaragua  represent  Liitken's 
species.  They  are  intermediate  between  typical  rKtilus  and  semens^ 
and  could  without  violence  be  placed  either  with  rutilus  or  with 


The}"  are  as  follows: 

No.  oTSiiS.     Nicaragua,  Central  America,  Branst'ord  collection. 

Beginning-  with  the  largest  of  the  11  specimens  under  this  number, 
we  have  the  following: 

a  A.  29;  scales  T-3S-(i;  a  humeral  spot,  a  band-like  caudal  spot; 
depth  2|. 

h  A.  31;  scales  8-3T-T;  a  huiueral  spot,  a  band-like  caudal  spot; 
depth  2|. 

G  A.  32;  scales  7-?-?;  a  humeral 'spot,  a  ))and-like  caudal  spot; 
depth  2|. 

d  A.  30;  scales  7-38-T;  a  humeral  spot,  a  band-like  caudal  spot; 
depth  2|. 

The  anal  ra\"s  in  detail  are  one  with  27,  five  witii  21>,  two  with  30, 
one  with  31,  two  with  32;  average  2i>.7.  JVIaxillary  usiudly  with  2 
teeth,  sometimes  but  one. 

No.  39918.  Nicaragua,  presented  by  L.  F.  II.  Birt:!  Eight 

A  humeral  and  a  caudal  spot,  the  latter  distinct  and  band-like;  scales 
lost  at  origin  of  lateral  line,  and  the  coiuit,  therefore,  uncertain. 

A.  30;  scales  7-34-6;  depth  2f. 

A.  28;  scales  7-35-0;  depth  2|. 

A.  28;  scales  7-37-6;  depth  3. 

The  anal  ra3"s  are,  one  with  27,  three  with  29,  two  with  30,  two  with 
31;  average,  29.5.     Maxillar}"  alwa3^s  with  2  teeth. 

Astyanax  rutilus  nicaraguensis  Eigenmann  and  Ogle,  new  subspecies. 

Type— Cut.  No.  55653,  U.S.N.M.  From  Nicaragua,  Biansford 

Cotypes. — Several  specimens  from  the  same  source. 

Maxillar}'  slender,  having  2-7  teeth,  in  the  latter  case  the  teeth 
extending  along  more  than  half  the  length  of  the  bone.  Of  35  speci- 
mens, there  are  9  with  2  teeth,  2  with  3  teeth,  5  with  4  teeth,  5  with 
5  teeth,  5  with  6  teeth,  5  with  7  teeth,  3  with  8  teeth,  and  one  with  9 
teeth  on  the  maxillary. 

Three  have  27  anal  rays,  twelve  have  28,  eight  have  29,  ten  have  30, 
three  have  32;  average  29. 

It  is  possible  that  the  specimens  with  numerous  maxillary  teeth  are 
all  males. 

In  general  characters  the  specimens  agree  with  the  specimens  iden- 
titied  as  a>rstedii.,  and  those  with  but  two  maxillary  teeth  are  indistin- 
guishable from  them.  The  fact  that  such  a  large  per  cent,  of  specimens 
have  a  large  number  of  maxillary  teeth  entitles  them  to  a  separate 
Astyanax  rutilus,  variety? 

No.  43597.     Two  specimens.     Mexico,  presented  by  A.  Duges.» 

A.  28;  scales  8-37-5;  depth  3. 


A.  29;  scales  7-37-5;  depth  3. 

In  one  the  interorbital  is  distinctly  less  than  the  diameter  of  the  eye, 
in  the  other  just  equal  to  it;  the  maxillary  about  equal  to  the  eye,  which 
is  2f  in  the  head.  The  pectorals  extend  a  little  bej'ond  the  origin  of 
the  ventrals. 

These  specimens  and  the  next  one  have  much  larger  ej-es  than  speci- 
mens of  a^neus  from  Mexico.  I  am  not  able  to  say  definitel}'  what  the 
name  of  the  variet}^  should  be.  Specimens  collected  b}^  Meek  at  Mont- 
zorongo  and  labeled  »neus  belong  in  part  to  seneus  and  in  part  to  this 
large-eyed  variet3^ 

No.  44946.  One  specimen.  Veracruz,  Mexico,  collected  by  A.  L. 
Herrera.     A  caudal  band  and  a  humeral  spot?. 

•A.  31;  scales  8-38-7;  depth  2f;  eye  2f;  maxillarj^  not  equal  to  the 
eye;  interorbital  not  quite  equal  to  eye;  eye  2f  in  head. 
Astyanax  rutilus  aeneus  Giinther. 

We  have  been  able  to  examine  a  ver}^  large  series  of  specimens  of 
this  species  collected  by  Prof.  S.  E.  Meek  in  Mexico  and  by  Newton 
Miller  in  Guatemala. 

No.  10928.  Museum  of  Indiana  University.  Montzorongo,  Mex- 
ico; Meek  collection. 

No.  10929.  Museum  of  Indiana  University.  Perez,  Mexico;  Meek 

No.  11129.  Museum  of  Indiana  University.  Sulphur  River,  3^ 
miles  west  of  Puerto  Barrios,  Guatemala,  collected  by  Newton  Miller. 

No.  11130.  Museum  of  Indiana  University.  Rio  Motagua  at  El 
Rancho,  Guatemala. 

No.  11131.  Museum  of  Indiana  University.  Rio  Tenedores  at 
Tenedores,  Guatemala. 

No.  11132  and  11135.  Museum  of  Indiana  University.  RioKilagua 
at  Los.Amates,  Guatemala. 

No.  11133.  Museum  of  Indiana  University.  RioGualan  at  Gualan, 

No.  11134.  Museum  of  Indiana  University.  Rio  Motagua  at  Gua- 
lan, Guatemala. 

No.  11136.  Museum  of  Indiana  ITniversity.  Rio  Managua  at  Alge- 
ria, Guatemala. 

No.  11137.  Museum  of  Indiana  Universitv-  Brook  east  of  Los 
Amates,  Guatemala. 

No.  11138.  Museum  of  Indiana  University.  Swamp  one-half  mile 
east  of  Los  Amates,  Guatemala. 

Specimens  from  Guatemala  are  broader  headed  than  those  from 

1  doubt  very  much  whether  specimens  of  yasc^W'^s  and  nie.vicanus^ 
rtitilus^  (Fr.'^ted/'/\  and  «^??(??i.s',  if  freshh"  collected,  similarly  preserved, 
and  mixed  in  one  heap,  could  be  separated  specifically. 


Of  twenty  specimens  from  No.  11134  selected  at  random  two  have 
25  anal  raj's,  two  have  26.  five  have  27,  six  have  28.  one  has  29,  two 
have  30,  and  two  have  31;  average  27.8. 

Of  twenty  specimens  from  No.  10929  one  has  23  ra3's,  three  have  25, 
seven  have  26,  seven  have  27,  two  have  28;  average  26.25. 

Of  ten  specimens  from  No.  11136  one  has  25  anal  ra3%s,  four  have  27. 
two  have  28,  three  have  29;  average  27.8. 

It  is  seen  from  the  above  that  the  Mexican  specimens   are   more 
nearl}'  like  niexlcanus  than  the  Guatemalan  specimens,  having  26.25 
rays,  as  compared  with  27.8. 
Astyanax  mexicanus  (Filippe). 

No.  836.     Nineteen  specimens,  collected  by  C  B.  Kennerly. 

No.  869.  One  specimen,  Rio  Nueces,  Texas,  collected  b}^  J.  D. 

No.  869.  Two  specimens.  Devils  River,  Texas,  collected  by  A.  D. 
Graham.     Type. 

No.  870.  Eight  specimens,  Rio  Leone,  Texas,  collected  by  J.  D. 
Graham.     A.  20-24. 

No.  871.     Three  specimens,  collected  b}'  fl.  D.  Graham. 

No.  875.  Fourteen  specimens,  Comanche  Springs,  Texas,  collected 
b}"  J.  D.  Graham, 

No.  875.  Eight  specimens.  Elm  Creek,  Texas,  collected  by  J.  D. 

No.  876.  Twenty-four  specimens,  Devils  River,  Texas,  collected  hj 
J.  D.  Graham. 

No.  877.  Twenty-nine  specimens,  Brownsville,  Texas,  collected  b}" 
Captain  Van  Vliet. 

No.  881.  Three  specimens,  Rio  Seco,  Texas,  collected  by  C.  B. 

No.  882.  Eight  specimens,  Comanche  Spring,  Texas,  collected  by 

No.  884.  Eleven  specimens,  Caderita,  Texas,  collected  by  D.  N. 
Couch.     Type.     A.  21-24. 

No.  885.  Five  specimens,  China,  near  Leon.  Texas,  collected  by 
D.  N.  Couch.     Type. 

No.  886.  Eight  specimens,  Caderita,  near  Leon,  Texas,  collected  by 
D.  N.  Couch. 

No.  8796.     Twenty-one  specimens.     (?)     (?) 

No.  8969.  Twenty-two  specimens,  Stockton,  Texas,  collected  by  P. 

No.  20095.  One  specimen,  Rio  Grande,  Texas,  collected  by  J.  H. 
Clarke.     Type. 

No.  20264.  Thirtv-four  specimens,  Matamoras,  Texas,  collected  bv 
L.  B.  Couch. 

26  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxm. 

No.  34597.  Two  specimens,  Mexico,  collected  by  A.  Duges.  A. 

No.  44641.  Five  specimens,  Las  Moras  Creek,  Texas,  collected  by 
E.  A.  Mearns. 

No.  49076.  Thirty-five  specimens.  Fort  Clai-k,  Texas,  collected  by 
E.  A.  Mearns. 

No.  (?).     Four  specimens,  (i)  collected  by  C.  B.  Kennedy.     Type. 

No.  (?).  Six  specimens,  near  Monterey  (?),  collected  by  D.  N. 

The  anal  rays  in  specimens  at  random  from  different  localities  were 
as  follows: 

Two  have  20  rays;  two  have  21;  ten  have  22;  seventeen  have  23; 
seventeen  have  24;  two  have  25;  average  23. 

Astyanax  fischeri  Steindachner. 

Through  the  courte.s}-  of  Prof.  C.  H.  Gilbert  I  have  been  able  to 
examine  a  large  number  of  specimens  from  the  Pacific  slope  of  Panama. 
These  specimens  present  the  following  characteristics: 

A  vertical  humeral  spot  bordered  in  front  and  behind  by  a  light 
area;  a  second  vertical  .spot  behind  the  light  area;  a  lateral  band  silvery 
or  plumbeous  ending  in  a  caudal  spot  on  the  last  (5)  rows  of  scales, 
not  continued  on  the  middle  caudal  rays;  caudal  and  anal  narrowly 
margined  with  dusky;  all  markings  more  or  less  distinct. 

Maxillary  with  1  to  3  teeth;  eye  3-3.2  in  head,  1-1.25  in  the  inter- 
orbital,  distinctl}"  longer  than  snout;  maxillary  equals  length  of  snout. 
Dorsal  behind  the  ventrals.  Head,  4;  depth,  2.4-2.7;  scales,  6i-7i; 
34  to  37-5i  to  6i;  A.  23  to  26. 

The  scales  and  anal  in  a  number  of  specimens  are  as  follows: 
Scales  7-37-6;  A.  26.  Scales  7-36-6;  A.  28. 

Scales  7-35-6;  A.  25;  female.     Scales  7-37-5;  A.  27. 

Scales  7-37-6;  A.  25. 
Scales  7-35-5;  A.  27;  male.         Scales  6-35-5;  A.  23. 

Scales  7^35-6;  A.  25. 
Scales  7-35-5;  A.  25.  Scales  7-36-6;  A.  25. 

In  one  small  specimen  the  scales  are  7-35-7;  A.  27. 

One  specimen,  Panama,  presented  by  Capt.  J.  M.  Dow. 

No.  16678.  Rio  Frijole,  Panama,  Bransford  collection.  A.  24-29, 
usually  25-27. 

Nos.  16680,  16681.  Empire  Station,  Panama,  Bransford  collection. 
A.  24-27;  scales  6  or  7—34  to  37-5. 

Astyanax  emperador,  new  species. 

Type. — Cat.  No.  55651,  U.S.N.M.  A  specimen  52  mm.  to  base  of 
caudal;  Empire  Station,  Panama. 

Cotypes. — No.  55651c/,  U.S.N.M.  Two  specimens  37-35  mm.  long  to 
base  of  caudal.     Empire  Station,  Panama,  Bransford  collection. 


Scales  8-4:5-7;  8-40-6;  8-39-7;  A.  29,  28,  29;  head  3. 6  or  3.5; 
depth  2.7-3;  e}^^  hirge,  2.8-2.6  in  head;  interorbital  3.25  in  liead; 
maxillary  long-,  equal  to  eye,  having  two  narrow  teeth. 

Elongate,  body  deepest  a  little  behind  origin  of  pectorals;  dorsal 
placed  behind  the  origin  of  ventrals,  its  origin  equidistant  from  front 
of  eye  and  ])ase  of  middle  caudal  ra^^s.  Highest  dorsal  ray  equal  to 
head  without  opercle:  pectorals  reaching  ventrals,  ventrals  to  anal. 

A  faint  humeral  spot;  caudal  spot  distinct,  not  reaching  end  of 
middle  caudal  rays.     A  silver^'  lateral  band. 

This  species  is  closely  related  to  fischi>ri,  with  which  the  specimens 
were  confounded.     They  differ  in  the  smaller  scales. 

Astyanax  bimaculatus  ( Linnaeus ) . 

No.  34437.  Five  specimens.  Para,  Brazil,  presented  by  J.  C. 

No.  34453.  One  specimen,  Para,  Brazil,  presented  by  J.  C. 

No.  34591.  Five  specimens  (?),  Brazil,  presented  by  J.  C.  Brevoort. 

No.  36764.  Five  specimens,  British  Giiiana,  British  Museum. 

No.  44957.  Four  specimens,  Lagoa  Santo,  Brazil,  presented  by  Chr. 

Astyanax  bimaculatus  lineatus  (Perugia). 

Nos.  1621,  1695,  and  3065,  and  one  without  number;  five  specimens. 
Paraguay,  collected  by  Page. 

Astyanax  orthodus  Eig-enmann,  new  species. 

Type. — Cat.  No.  55655,  U.S.N. M.  Specimen  92  mm.  long  to  origin 
of  caudal,  Truando,  Colombia,  Michler  and  Schott,  collectors. 

This  species  is  identical  with  Astyimax  himaculatus  in  apparently 
all  characters  except  the  teeth.  In  hvmaeulatas  the  teeth  of  the  inner 
series  of  the  premaxillary  are  convex  behind;  the  denticles  correspond 
to  this  convexity  and  are  therefore  arranged  in  a  curve.  This  curve 
varies  from  a  crescent  to  U -shape  in  a  specimen  from  Piracicaba.  In 
orthodus  the  anterior  and  posterior  surfaces  of  the  teeth  are  al'ke,  the 
denticles  being  arranged  in  nearly  a  straight  line.  These  species  differ, 
therefore,  as  M'tcralestes  differs  from  Myletes. 

Head  4;  depth  2f ;  D.  11;  A.  33;  scales  6-40-6  above  ventrals,  8 
above  origin  of  anal.  Dorsal  and  ventral  profiles  equally  curved,  the 
ventral  curve  continuous,  the  dorsal  profile  very  slightly  concave  over 
the  eyes;  eye  a  little  more  than  3  in  the  head;  interorbital  2i:  maxil- 
lary distinctly  longer  than  in  a  specimen  of  hhnaculatus  of  the  same 
size,  longer  than  eye,  a  little  less  than  3  in  the  head;  maxillary  with  a 
single  tooth. 

In  the  position  of  the  dorsal,  equidistant  from  tip  of  snout  and  base 
of  upper  caudal  rays,  and  the  position  of  the  ventrals  the  specimen 
agrees  exactly  with  one  of  hlinaculatus  of  equal  size  from  Rio  Grande 




do  Sul.     Pectorals  reaching  to  ventrals:  vcMitrals  to  near  anal;  anal 
basis  convex;  adipose  well  developed. 

A  longitudinal  oval  humeral  spot,  ?u>f  surrounded  by  a  light  area; 
caudal  spot  contiiuied  to  end  of  middle  Vdys. 

Astyanax  abramis  ( Jenyns). 

Nos.  h}'2i  and  162j}.  Two  specimens,  Paraguay,  collected  l)y  Page. 
Astyanax  stilbe  ( Cope ) . 

No.  84589  (})art).  kSeveral  specimens,  probal)ly  froui  Para,  presented 
by  J.  C.  Brevoort. 

Astyanax  atratoensis  Eig-enmann,  new  species. 

Ti/jM'. — Cat.  Mo.  1()59,  II.S.X.M.  Specimen  105  mm.  long  over  all, 
Truando,  Colombia,  Michler  and  Schott,  collectors. 

Cotype.'i.  —  Fouv  specimens,  respectively  100,  75,  68,  and  ()8  mm,  to 
base  of  caudal.     The  longest  specimen  was  probably  over  120  mm.  in 

Fui.  5.— Astyanax  atratoensis. 

total  length.  All  from  Truando,  Colombia.  Very  closely  related  to 
its  neighbor  in  the  Cauca,  AKfijana,!'  caucanus  Steindachnei". 

It  differs  from  it  in  the  general  shape,  scales,  and  the  presence  of  a 
maxillary  tooth.  D.  I,  10  or  11;  A.  ?>S  or  ?>9;  scales  8  or  9-36  to 40-10 
or  11  to  anal,  8  or  9  to  the  ventrals;  depth  2-2.2;  head  8.66-4;  eye 
2.8-3  in  head,  snout  -4;  interorbital  2.66. 

Much  compressed,  the  postventral  surface  trenchant;  subrhomboidal, 
the  dorsal  profile  being  e(iually  arched  with  the  ventral,  the  anal  basis 
being  nearly  parallel  with  the  predorsal  profile;  profile  slightly  con- 
cave over  the  eye,  nape  not  sharply  convex  as  in  Tetragonopterus. 

Interorbital  distinctly  convex,  the  fontanel  extending  to  over  the 
anterior  border  of  the  eye;  cheeks  entirely  covered;  mouth  moderate, 
the  slender  maxillary  not  extending  much,  if  any,  be3^ond  origin  of 
eye;  premaxillary  with  four  teeth  in  the  outer  row  and  five  in  the 


inner;  inner  surface  of  the  inner  teetii  convex,  the  points  being 
arranged  in  a  curved  line,  the  middle  point  distinctly  largest;  maxil- 
lar}"  with  one  small  tooth;  cheeks  entirely  mailed. 

Dorsal  over  the  eleventh  scale  of  the  lateral  line,  origin  of  ventrals 
under  the  ninth;  dorsal  pointed,  the  anterior  rays  longest;  caudal 
deeph^  forked,  anal  basis  long,  its  origin  nearer  base  of  pectorals  than 
to  the  end  of  the  anal;  ventrals  nearly  reaching  anal,  pectorals  beyond 
origin  of  ventrals.  Scales  regular,  cycloid,  decreasing  regularly  in 
size  from  the  back  to  the  origin  of  the  anal. 

Iridescent;  a  well  marked  verticaily  oval  humeral  spot;  a  silvery 
lateral  band,  a  small  caudal  spot,  not  continued  on  the  middle  rays. 

Astyanax  multiradiatus  Eigenmaiin  and  Kennedy. 

No.  1<'>22  (part).     One  specimen,  Paraguay,  Page  collection. 
Astyanax  meg-alops  Eigenmann,  new  species. 

Type. — Cat.  No.  5192,  Museum  of  Indiana  University.  Specimen 
42  mm.  to  base  of  caudal,  Itaituba,  Brazil. 

Scales  5-35-4;  A.  28;  depth  2.60;  head  3.6;  e3'e  5  in  snout,  2.3  in 
head;  interorbital  3  in  head;  maxillary  long,  nearly  as  long  as  eye, 
with  3  small  teeth.  Deepest  at  origin  of  dorsal,  compressed.  Dorsal 
high,  its  longest  ray  longer  than  head,  its  origin  over  base  of  ventral, 
much  nearer  tip  of  snout  than  base  of  caudal;  pectorals  extending  a 
little  beyond  base  of  ventrals;  ventrals  not  to  anal.  Colors  appar- 
ently much  faded;  a  conspicuous,  well-defined  silvery  lateral  l)and; 
traces  of  a  vertical  humeral  spot;  no  caudal  spot.  Related  to  A.  l>ald- 
Nannaethiops  iiniteeniatus  (Gunther). 

No.  12679.     One  specimen,  (laboon  River,  Africa,  presented  l)}^  the 
British  Museum. 
Myletes  dentex  Linnaeus. 

No.  52092.  One  specimen,  Atbara  River,  Egypt,  Senii'-Expedition 

No.  52U91.  Two  specimens,  Atbara  River,  Egypt,  Sen tf -Expedition 

Myletes  baremose  Joannis. 

No.  52084.     Two  specimens,  Atbara  River,  Egpyt,  Senff-Expedition 
Brycinus  macrolepidotus  Cuvier  and  Valenciennes. 

No.  52085.  One  specimen,  Nile  River,  Atbara  Junction,  Egypt, 
Senfi- Expedition  collection. 

No.  52093.     One  specimen,  Atbara  River,  Egypt,  Senil'-Expedition 
Brycinus  nurse  Riippell. 

No.  52089.  One  specimen,  Atbara  River,  Egypt,  Senff-Expedition 


No.  52088.  One  specimen,  Atbara  River,  Egypt,  Senflf-Expedition 

No.  52090.  One  specimen,  Atbara  River,  Egypt,  Senti'-Expedition 

No.  5208<).  Two  specimens,  Atbara  River,  Egypt,  Senff- Expedition 

No.  52087.  Two  specimens,  Atbara  River,  Egypt,  Senff-Expedition 

Bryconsethiops  microstoma  Giinther. 

No.  •I'     One  specimen,  Congo,  Africa,  collected  by  J.  H.  Camp. 

PHENACOGRAMMUS  «  Eigenmann,  new  genus. 

This  genus  differs  from  Mlcralestes  as  Tlerakjrnmrivim  differs  from 
Astyanax^  and  as  Cheirodon  differs  from  Odontostilhe^  etc.  It  is 
Micralestes  with  an  incomplete  lateral  line. 

Type. — Micralestes  interrwptus  Boulenger. 
Brycon  reinhardti  Iiiitken. 

No.  44955.  One  specimen,  Rio  das  Velhas,  Brazil,  presented  by 
Dr.  Chr.  Liitken. 

Brycon  dentex  Gunther. 

No.  39.909.     One  specimen,  Nicaragua,  collected  by  L.  F.  H.  Birt. 

No.  22154.     One  specimen,  Nicaragua,  Bransford  collection. 

No.  16884.     Two  specimens,  Lake  Nicaragua. 
Brycon  striatulus  Kner. 

No.  5932.     Two  specimens  in   bad  condition,  Aspinwall,  Panama, 
collected  by  Russell. 
Brycon  hilarii  (Cuvier  and  Valenciennes). 

No.  1613.     One  specimen,  Paragua}^,  Page  collection. 

No.  1614.     One  specimen,  Paraguaj^^,  Page  collection. 

Markiana  nigripinnis  (Perugia). 

No.  1627.     One  specimen,  Paragua}^,  Page  collection. 
Gasteropelecus  sternicla  Linnaeus. 

No.  34454.     Para,  Brazil,  presented  by  J.  C.  Brevoort. 

The  premaxillar}^  teeth  in  two  of  these  specimens  are  strictly  in  a 
single  series,  very  regularly  arranged  and  graduated;  no  teeth  in  the 
maxillary.  In  two  others  the  teeth  are  crowded,  one  on  each  side 
being  forced  forward  to  form  an  anterior  series.  There  are  appar- 
ently no  maxillary  teeth. 

No.  1602.     Guiana,  collected  by  J.  Wyman. 

Premaxillary  teeth  in  a  single  series;  no  maxillary  teeth. 

«  From  (pEvac,^  deceptive;  an(l  ypa/j-iui],  line. 


Genus  THORACOCHAROX  Fowler. 

Type. —  Gasteropeleetis  stellatus  Kner. 

In  the  Proceedings  the  Academy  of  National  Sciences  of  Philadel- 
phia (1906,  p.  152)  Fowler  describes  this  as  a  new  subgenus  with  the 
character  ''anterior  profile  of  back  convex."  It  deserves  generic  rank 
with  the  following  characters: 

Breast  expanded  into  a  large,  sharp-edged  disk. 

Premaxillary  teeth  in  two  separate  series,  the  outer  series  consisting 
of  two  teeth  on  each  side;  the  pair  of  middle  teeth  enlarged,  between 
the  front  and  second  series  of  teeth,  projecting  over  the  lower  jaw 
when  the  mouth  is  closed;  maxillary  with  several  large,  divergent 
canine-like  teeth. 

This  genus  is  like  a  G aster opelecus.,  with  two  series  of  premaxillary 
teeth  and  several  canine-like  teeth  on  the  maxillary. 

Chalcinus  angulatus  Agassiz. 

No.  1616.     Two  specimens,  Paragua}",  Page  collection. 

No.  1696.     Two  specimens,  Paraguay,  Page  collection. 

No.  5558.     One  specimen,  Bolivia,  Gibbon  collection. 

Nos.  3451:5,  31455,  and  34689.  Three  specimens.  Para,  Brazil,  pre- 
sented by  J.  C  Brevoort. 

Piabucus  melanostomus  Holmberg-. 

No.  2101.     One  specimen,  Paraguay,  Page  collection. 
Piabucina  panamensis  Gill. 

No.  16676  (type).  One  specimen,  Atlantic  side  of  Panama,  Bransford 

No.  16677  (tj^pe).  One  specimen,  Rio  Frijoli,  Panama,  Bransford 

Ichthyoborus  microlepis  Gunther. 

No.  52083.  One  specimen,  Atbara  River,  Egypt,  Senli'-Expedition 
collection,  B.  Dean,  collector. 

Hydrocyon  forskalii  Cuvier. 

No.  52095.  Two  specimens,  Atbara  River,  Egypt.  Senff-Expedi- 
tion  collection. 

No.  52094.  One  specimen,  Nile-Atbara  elunction,  Egypt.  Senff- 
Expedition  collection. 

Hydrolycus  pectoralis  Gunther. 

No.  39402.     Brazil,  collected  by  H.  H.  Rusby. 
No.  5686.     Bolivia,  Gibbon  collection. 

Rhaphiodon  vulpinus  Spix. 

No.  55667.  One  specimen,  760  mm.,  Paraguay,  collected  by  E. 


PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         voi.  xxxm. 

Bramocharax  bransfordii  ( Gill) . 

No.  16885.     Three  specimens,  Lake  Nicaragua,  l^ransford  collection. 


Fig.  6. — Bramocharax  bransfokdii. 

Boeboides  g'uatemalensis  Gunther. 

No.  39958.     Two  specimens,  Rio  San  Juan,  Nicaragua,  collected  by 
T.  L.  H.  Birt. 
Roeboides  prog-nathus  ( Bouleng-er ) . 

No.  1619  (part).     Paraguay,  Page  collection. 

No.  44835  (part).     Marmora  River,  Bolivia,  Gibbon  collection. 

Roeboides  myersii  Gill. 

No.  21426.     One  specimen,  Napo  or  Maraiion  River,  Brazil,  Orton 
collection  (i).     One  of  the  types. 
Roeboides  xenodon  Reinhardt. 

No.  44962.     One  specimen,  Rio  das  Velhas,  Brazil. 
Cynopotamus  argenteus  Valenciennes. 

No.  lt'>19  (part).     One  specimen,  Paraguay,  Page  collection. 
Cbarax  sanguineus  (Cope). 

No<-8^^55r    Four  specimens,  Napo  and  Maranon  rivers,  Brazil,  Orton 
Charax  gibbosus  Linnaeus. 

No.  1603.     One  specimen,  Guiana,  collected  by  J.  AVyman. 

No.  1619  (part).     Three  specimens,  Paraguay,  Page  collection. 

Subgenus  C YRTOCH^RAX  ITowler. 

Type. — Anacyrtus  Cope. 

This  is  a  subgenus  of  Charax.,  proba))ly  synonymous  with  Cynoiw- 
tamus.,  and  was  described  by  Fowler"  as  a  new  genus  with  the 
character  "scales  rough,  very  small  or  about  100  in  lateral  line. 
No  palatine  teeth."  It  may  further  be  described  as  compressed, 
elongate,  of  moderate  depth;  dorsal  near  middle  of  body  over 
the  origin  of  the  long  anal;  pectoral  overlapping  ventral;  dorsal 
profile  gibbous  on  occiput,  concave  in  front;  mouth  large,  oblique, 

«Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  1906,  p.  454. 



the  niaxillaiy  in  the  adult  extending  beyond  tlie  e3^e;  maxillary 
with  a  series  of  nearl}"  equal,  conical  teeth;  preniaxillary  with  a 
canine  at  each  end  and  a  double  series  of  small  teeth  between,  of  which 
the  inner  series  is  composed  of  two  teeth ;  mandible  with  a  single  series 
of  teeth  which  are  small,  conical  along  the  sides  and  larger  on  its 
anterior  half,  four  of  which  are  canines.  One  of  these  is  near  the 
front,  1)ut  lateral  to  the  anterior  premaxillar}'  canhie;  another,  the 
smallest  of  the  series,  is  directed  outward  more  than  the  rest  and 
nearly  half  wa}^  to  the  third,  which  is  the  largest,  received  in  a 
groove  of  the  upper  jaw  in  front  of  the  posterior  premaxillary 
canine;  the  last  is  about  as  far  back  of  the  posterior  premaxillary 
canine  as  the  last  mentioned  is  in  advance  of  it. 

This  subgenus  includes,  besides  the  type,  the  squamosus  Eigenmann 
and  Kennedy,  the  caliurusi  and  ntratoensis  of  Eigenmann,  and  probably 
the  amazonus  of  Giinther. 
Charax  limsesquamis  Cope. 

No.  44835  (part).     One  specimen,  Marmcra  River,  Bolivia,  Gibbons 

No.  1694.     One  specimen,  Paraguay,  Page  collection. 


Charax  squamosus  Eigenmann  and  Kennedy. 

No.  44837.  One  specimen,  La  Plata,  Argentina,  collected  by  S.  S. 

Charax  atratoensis  Eigenmann,  new  species. 

Type— Cut.  No.  1604,  U.S.N.M.  Specimen  300  mm.  to  end  of  lat- 
eral line,  Truando,  Colombia,  Michler  and  Schott  collection. 

Cottjpe.—^o.  1604,  U.S.N.M.  Specimen  217  mm.  to  end  of  lateral 
line,  Truando,  Colombia. 

This  species  greatly  resembles  Cynopotamus  inagdaloix.^  but  has 
onlv  a  single  series  of  teeth  in  the  lower  jaw  and  the  cheeks  are  not  so 
completely  covered  by  the  suborbitals.  It  is  allied  to  C.  s^juamosus, 
Proc.  N.  M.  vol.  xxxiii— 07 8 



VOL.  xxxm. 

with  a  shorter,  blunter  head,  and  to  C.  limsesquamis^  from  which  it 
differs  in  little  but  the  length  of  the  anal. 

D.  11;  A.  47-50;  head  3|-3f ;  depth  a  little  more  or  less  than  3. 
Scales  25-110  to  112-25;  eye  4i  to  (>  in  the  head;  snout  3i-3f ;  inter- 
orbital  4. 

Profile  very  strongly  concave,  the  occiput  greatly  arched;  distance 
from  tip  of  snout  and  tip  of  maxillary  equal  to  distance  from  tip  of 
snout  through  upper  margin  of  eye  to  edge  of  preopercle;  suborbitals 
extending  back  to  vertical  limb  of  preopercle,  leaving  only  a  small 
area  behind  the  end  of  the  maxillary  exposed;  teeth  as  in  other  mem- 
bers of  the  genus. 

Fig.  8.— Charax  atratoensis. 

Pectorals  extending  past  middle  of  ventrals  to  anal  in  smaller  speci- 
men, not  quite  so  far  in  the  larger.  Entire  surface  of  the  scales  very 

A  silvery  lateral  band,  a  faint  humeral  spot  in  the  smaller  specimen, 
a  large  caudal  spot,  not  continued  to  the  end  of  the  rays.     Highly 
Salminus  maxillosus  Cuvier  and  Valenciennes. 

Nos.  1630  and  1631.  Three  specimens,  Paraguay,  Page  collection. 
Acestrorhynchus  falcatus  (Blocli). 

The  species  A.  falcatus  Avas  based  on  a  specimen  from  Surinam  with 
aii:d  rays  20;  MiiUer  and  Troschel  gave  the  lateral  line  as  80  and  the 
an^il  as  30.  Cuvier  and  Valenciennes  had  3  (4)  specimens,  one  from 
Surinam  and  two  from  Mana.  One  (not  stated  which)  had  lateral  line 
80,  the  others  at  least  100  "cent  vingt"  at  one  place,  and  ''a  cent"  in 
another,  I  have  a  specimen  from  Surinam  (Cat.  No.  24670  U.S.N.M.) 
Bloch's  type  locality  with  lateral  line  82-85  and  A.  27,  which  is  very 
prol)ably  the  f (/leaf us  of  Bloch.  This  specimen  differs  notably  from 
other  specimens  in  the  Indiana  University  and  National  Museum 
collections,  and  from  the  falcatus  of  recent  authors,  and  should  be 
kept  di.>tinct  from  them.     It  is  very  probable  that  the  smaller  scaled 


specimens  in  my  possession,  and  referred  to  by  recent  authors  under 
the  nmnej'alcatu.s^  should  be  referred  to  theyero,/'  of  Giiuther. 
Acestrorhynchus  falcirostris  ( Cuvier ) . 

No.  12712.     One  specimen. 
Acestrorhynchus  ferox   (Giinther). 

No.  1039.-  Two  specimens,  Paraguay;  Page  collection. 

No.  16-10.     One  specimen,.  Paraguay ;  Page  collection. 

No.  2102.     One  specimen,  Babia;  Page  collection. 

No.  3-1464.     Two  specimens.  Para  ( ?),  Brazil;  presented  b^^  E.  G. 
Blackford  and  J.  C.  Brevoort. 

Nos.  33768  and  33769.     Two  specimens,  Para  (?),  Brazil;  presented 
by  J.  C.  Brevoort. 
Acestrorhynchus  lacustris  (Liutken). 

No.   44963.      One    specimen,    Lagoa    Santa,    Brazil;    presented    by 

?  Acestrorhamphus  jenynsii  (Giinther  j. 

No.  39141.      One   specimen.  La   Paz,   Montevideo,    Urugua}-;   col- 
lected ])y  W.  E.  Safford. 

Serrasalmo  marginatus  Valenciennes. 

No.  1611.     Seven  specimens,  the  largest  225  mm.  long. 
No.  2112  (part).     Paraguay;  Page  collection. 

Serrasalmo  brandti  Lutken. 

No.  44964.     One  specimen,  217  nun.  long.  Lagoa  Santa,  Brazil;  pre- 
sented by  Dr.  Chr.  Lutken. 

Serrasalmo  spilopleura  Kner. 

No.  2111.     One  specimen,  Paraguay;  Page  collection. 
Pygocentrus  altus  Gill. 

No,  21432.     One  specimen,  15.5  mm.  long.     Napo  or  Maranon  River, 
Brazil;  Orton  collection. 

This  is  probably  the  type;  the  species  is  very  close  to  /"'.  plraya  if 
not  identical  with  it. 
Pyg-ocentrus  nattereri  Kner. 

No.  1612.     Four  specimens,  Paraguay;  Page  collection. 

No.  5856.     One  specimen,  Brazil;  Gibbon  collection. 

?  Pyg-ocentrus  scapularis  (Giinther). 

No.   33227.     One   specimen.    South  America;    presented   by  J.    (1 
Metynnis  hypsauchen  (Miiller  and  Troschel). 

No.   33772.     Five  specimens.  South  America;   presented  by  J.  C. 

These  specimens  probabh"  belong  to  this  species.     They  have  D.  16, 
16,  17,  18,  and  18;  A.  39,  39,  40,  40,  43;  abdominal  serne  34,  38,  39, 

36  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxni. 

39,  40;  depth  about  1.25.     Adipose  at  least  equal  to  its  distance  from 
the  dorsal,  two-thirds  or  three-fourths  as  long  as  the  dorsal. 

?  No.  307l.  One  sjiecinien  (in  too  poor  condition  for  satisfactory 
examination),  Trinidad,  Bolivia. 

Myleus  levis  Eigenmann  and  McAtee. 

No.  1613.     One  specimen,  Paragua;  Page  collection.     D.  29;  A.  38; 
abdominal  serra>  38  +  9. 
Mylossoma  albiscopus  (Cope). 

No.  5888.     Two  specimens,  Paraguay. 
?  Piaractus  brachypomus  Cuvier. 

No.  26462.  One  s})ecimen  skin,  about  550  mm.  long,  Paraguay; 
Page  collection. 

This  specimen  and  one  in  the  museum  of  Indiana  University,  540 
mm.  long,  lack  an  adipose.  D.  16;  A.  24;  abdominal  serne  54+6; 
gill-rakers  about  half  the  length  of  the  eye. 

Sarcodaces  odoe  Bloch. 

No.  44824.     Several    specimens    in    bad    condition,    Leopoldville, 
Hoplias  malabaricus  Blocb. 

No.  26695.  Two  specimens,  Brazil;  presented  Iw  the  Museum  of 
Comparati  V  e  Zoo  logy . 

No.  34432.  Two  specimens.  South  America;  presented  by  J.  C. 

No.  34696.     One  specimen;  presented  by  J.  C.  Brevoort. 

No.  6033.     Two  specimens.  Island  of  Trinidad;  collected  by  Th.  Gill. 

No.  1663.  One  specimen,  Truando,  Colombia;  Michler  and  Schott 

No.  44959.  One  specimen,  Lagoa  Santa,  Brazil;  presented  by  Chr. 

Hoplerythrinus  "  unitaeniatus  Spix. 

No.  33764.  Three  specimens,  South  America;  presented  by  J.  C. 

No.  5882.     One  specimen.  Island  of  Trinidad;  collected  by  Th.  Gill. 

«The    genus   Ophiocephalops    recently    proposed    by   Fowler    is    a    synonym  of 



By  Cteorgp:  II.  Girty. 

Custodian  of  Carboniferous  Incertehrate  Fossils,  United  Stales  Xafional  Museum. 

The  Carnegie  Expedition  to  China,  in  charge  of  ]Mr.  Bailey  Willis, 
obtained  a  small  number  of  Carboniferous  fossils,  which  were  placed 
in  my  hands  for  study.  My  report  was  finished  over  a  year  ago, 
})ut  the  publication  of  the  paleontologic  results  has  been  held  up  for 
the  completion  of  another  portion  of  the  investig-ation.  As  an  indefi- 
nite, perhaps  a  long,  time  may  elapse  before  the  full  report  passes  the 
press,  it  seemed  desirable  to  fix  such  species  as  appeared  to  be  new  by 
a  preliminary  pnl)lication  of  the  descriptions,  to  be  followed  by  the 
reprint  with  illustrations  in  the  final  report. 


LONSDALEIA   CHINENSIS,  new  species. 

Des(Tij)t'i(m. — This  species  occurs  in  lai'ge  masses,  one  fragmentary 
specimen  having  a  length  of  18  mm.  and  a  width  somewhat  greater. 
The  corallites  are  irregularl}^  polygonal,  so  that  it  is  diflicult  to  name 
an  average  size,  unusual  length  in  one  direction  being  compensated  by 
narrowness  in  another.  Perhaps  8  mm.  represents  the  average  in 
nearl}^  sj-mmetrical  corallites. 

Our  specimens  do  not  separate  into  constituent  cells,  but  break 
across  the  walls.  In  sections  the  latter  appear  to  be  rather  thick,  with 
denticles  projecting  inward  from  both  sides,  and  a  dense  median  line. 

Structurally  each  corallite  is  made  up  of  three  zones  inclosed  within 
an  outer  wall.  The  external  zone  consists  of  vesicles  without  septa, 
the  median  of  septa  and  tabuhe,  while  the  center  is  occupied  by  a 
pseudocolumella  having  a  vesicular  structure.  The  outer  zone,  which 
is  rather  thick,  is  formed  bv  large  cysts,  which,  as  usual,  present  the 
convex  side  upward  and  slope  strongl}"  downward  toward  the  center. 
The  inner  surface  of  this  zone  is  well  marked.     The  septate  portion  is 

Proceedings  U.  S.  National  Museum,  Vol.  XXXIII— No.  1557. 


38  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NA  TIONAL  MUSEUM.         tol.  xxxiii. 

clearl}^  defined,  and  has  a  nearly  circular  shape,  irrespective  of  the 
asymmetry  of  the  corallite  as  a  whole.  This  portion  is  rather  constant 
in  size,  and  in  few  instances  does  it  attain  a  diameter  of  more  than 
4  mm.  The  septa,  which  number  from  25  to  27,  are  irreg'ular.  They 
are  often  alternately  long  and  short,  but  in  parts  of  the  same  corallite 
may  be  equal,  or  in  appearance  replaced  by  vesicular  tissue.  Not 
inf requentl}'  one  of  the  smaller  (secondary)  septa  is  seen  to  bend  to  one 
side  and  to  become  confluent  with  a  primar}^  one.  The  interseptal 
loculi  are  rather  abundantly  partitioned  by  what  in  cross  sections  looks 
like  dissepimental  tissue,  but  in  realit}"  has  more  the  nature  of  nearl}^ 
flat  horizontal  tal)ula3.  As  previously  remarked,  the  septa  are  often 
so  contorted  that  they  can  not  be  distinguished  from  the  interseptal 
plates  with  which  thc}^  intersect. 

The  pseudocolumella,  which  occupies  the  central  area,  is  fairly  dis- 
tinct from  the  surrounding  structures  and  consists  of  relatively  small 
concentrically  arranged  cysts,  which  are  nearly  vertical  in  position, 
but  with  the  upper  end  distinctl}"  inclined  toward  the  center.  The 
ends  of  the  septa  reach  nearly  or  quite  to  the  pseudocolumella,  and 
some  of  them  appear  to  connect  with  the  plates  which  compose  it. 

As  members  of  the  genus  LifJiostrotion^  Lonsdale  described  and  fig- 
ured a  number  of  Lonsdaleias  from  Uralian  Russia,  some  of  Avhich 
may  be  related  to  the  form  under  consideration.  Lonsdale  discrim- 
inated his  species  upon  characters  which  are  not  shown  in  ordinary 
conditions  of  preservation,  not,  for  instance,  in  the  Chinese  material, 
and  at  the  same  time  failed  to  give  precise  data  regarding  features 
which  I  was  able  to  ascertain.  On  this  account  a  satisfactory  compari- 
son of  the  present  form  with  his  species  can  not  be  made.  It  seems 
to  be  distinct  from  the  American  and  European  types  whose  descrip- 
tions I  have  seen.  No  species  belonging  to  the  genus  has  as  3'et  been 
described  from  China. 

Locality  and  Jiorizon. — Pennsylvanian  (Wu-shan  limestone);  near 
Ta-ning-hien,  East  Ssi-ch'uan  (Stations  1  and  2). 


Of  this  species  our  collection  contains  a  single  specimen,  which  pre- 
sents the  followino-  characters: 

Descriptio7i. — The  shape  appears  to  have  been  hemispherical,  with 
a  flat  base  and  a  width  greater  than  the  height.  The  latter  dimension 
is  estimated  at  about  40  mm.,  and  the  entire  width  at  about  80  nnii. 
The  corallites  are  rather  regular  in  size  and  shape,  and  usually  small, 
few  of  them  attaining  a  diameter  of  2i  mm.  The  septa  are  closely 
approximate,  11  to  13  occurring  in  the  space  of  5  mm.  They  are  on 
the  whole  rather  regular,  but  arc  distinctly  convex  and  not  infre- 
quently confluent.     Mural  pores  appear  to  be  present,  but,  as  shown 


in  trunsvorse  sections,  they  are  rather  rare  and  their  arrangement  has 
not  been  determined, 

An}^  statement  as  to  septa  depends  upon  the  interpretation  of  certain 
appearances  in  thin  sections.  The  bounding*  walls  are  not  thick  and 
show  a  dense  median  line,  which  is  usuall}^  more  or  less  wavy.  On 
either  side  of  the  median  line  is  a  tolerably  thick  layer,  intermediate 
in  transparency  between  the  material  filling-  the  intertabular  spaces 
and  that  of  the  median  plate.  The  inner  edge  of  this  supplementary 
wall  is  somewhat  strongly  denticulate,  the  projections  being  in  some 
places  rather  regular  and  in  other  portions  of  the  same  corallite  al)sent 
or  irregular.  Whether  these  projections  arc  really  denticles  or  are 
continuous  ridges  has  not  been  ascertained.  The  ta))uhv  show  the 
same  degree  of  transparenc}'  iis  the  supplementary  wall,  the  projec- 
tions of  which  can  apparently  with  justification  be  interpreted  as 
pseudosepta,  the  dense  median  line  l)eing  the  plane  of  cleavage  sepa- 
rating the  truh'  doulde- walled  corallities.  It  is  hardl}-  possible  to 
count  the  pseudosepta  or  to  ascertain  the  average  number  present. 

At  first  sight  one  might  well  feel  somewhat  doubtful  where  to 
place  this  species,  whether  in  ]:'}ivo,ntes  or  Mlckel'nwa^  the  unusually 
small  size  of  the  corallites  certaiidy  suggesting  the  former  genus,  as 
well  as  the  mural  pores,  which  appear  to  be  rather  rare.  Some  sup- 
port might  also  be  found  in  the  character  of  the  tal>uh«,  which,  if 
they  are  somewhat  too  convex,  too  irregular,  and  too  confluent  for 
Fwrnsites^  possess  these  features  in  too  slight  a  degree  for  typical 
MicJn'lhwa.  On  the  other  hand,  the  somewhat  fluted  condition  of 
the  median  plate,  which  may  be  connected  with  the  development  of 
pseudosepta,  together  with  the  apparent  presence  of  well-developed 
pseudosepta  themselves,  seem  to  distinguish  it  structurally  from 
FavositeH.  The  range  of  the  latter  genus,  furthermore,  appears  to 
terminate  with  horizons  early  in  the  Mississippian,  while  the  present 
form  is  of  much  later  occurrence.  Michelhiea^  on  the  other  hand,  is 
already  known  in  upper  Carboniferous  and  Permian  (?)  terrains.  On 
this  account  it  has  seemed  that  the  form  under  consideration  should 
be  denied  to  Favosltes  and  placed  with  AUchellnea. 

Kayser  figures  an  unidentitied  species  of  Michelhiea  from  China 
which  difl'ers  from  the  present  one  in  the  much  greater  size  of  the 
corallites.  By  the  same  character  Mlclielinea  favositoides  may  be 
distinguished  from  other  mem])ers  of  the  genus  known  to  me,  even 
from  the  small-celled  Kussian  species  M.  coneinna  Lonsdale. 

Local /fy  and  horizon. — Pennsylvanian  (Wu-shan  limestone);  near 
Ta-ning-hien,  East  Ssi-ch'uan  (kStation  3). 

40  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

CARNEGIA,  ne^Ar  genus. 

The  characters  of  this  oenus  are  included  in  the  diagnosis  of  the 
type  species  as  given  below: 

Ty2)e  of  the  genu><. —  Carnegla  hasslerl. 

CARNEGIA    BASSLERI/'  new  species. 

This  name  is  introduced  for  what  appears  to  be  a  new  genus  of 
Stroniatoporoid  corals.  Until  Waagen  and  Wentzel  described  some 
forms  from  the  Salt  Range  of  India  the  know  n  occurrence  of  this  group 
would  have  warranted  the  statement  that  it  passed  out  of  existence 
before  the  commencement  of  Carboniferous  time.  The  discovery  of 
a  different  but  related  type  in  an  area  so  close  geographicall}",  and  in 
strata  of  such  similar  age  as  are  those  of  India  and  China,  is  thus 
deprived  of  most  of  its  surprise.  The  Chinese  form  possesses  charac- 
ters which  forbid  joining  it  with  any  of  the  established  genera  whose 
descriptions  have  been  before  me,  and  it  represents,  with  little  doubt, 
a  new  genus.  On  the  other  hand,  as  but  a  single  specimen  is  known, 
and  as  in  this  group,  more  than  in  many  others,  the  difficulty  is  great  of 
distinguishing  ])etween  specific  and  generic  characters  without  the  com- 
parisons which  several  genericall}^  related  species  afford,  1  have  adopted 
the  plan  of  including  the  genus  and  species  in  a  single  description. 

Description. — The  growth  of  Carnegla  hassleri  is  in  small  lenticular 
masses,  having  a  slight  thickness  relative  to  their  spread.  One  exam- 
ple, for  instance,  has  a  thickness  of  but  4  mm.  and  a  diameter  of  35 
mm.  The  structure  is  tine  and  dense,  and  seems  to  be  entirely  without 
the  lamellate  appearance  which  gives  this  group  its  name. 

In  transverse  section  the  coenosteum  is  seen  to  be  made  up  of  walls 
and  apertures,  both  possessing  a  ver^-  irregular  and  tortuous  pattern. 
The  walls  are  especially  vermicular  and  inosculating,  giving  off  dis- 
connected spurs  and  dividing  the  inclosed  space  into  small  separate 
apertures.  The  entire  course  of  the  walls  seems  to  be  made  up  of 
curves,  and  the  outlines  of  the  apertures  are  of  course  correspond- 
ingh^  curvilinear.  The  walls  are  relatively  thick,  and  where  projecting 
spurs  are  given  off  these  often  appear  to  be  rounded  and  enlarged  at 
the  disconnected  end,  as  if  terminating  in  a  pillar.  Similar  enlarge- 
ments can  be  observed  also  in  other  portions  of  the  walls.  The  zooidal 
apertures  are  nearly  equal  in  size,  and  the  whole  structure  seems  to 
be  quite  regular,  but  not  infrequently  several  of  the  apertures  are 
confluent,  although  the  larger  one  thus  formed  is  so  tortuous  that  it 
fails  to  have  this  appearance  in  the  tout  ensemble  of  the  section. 
Astrorhizse  appear  to  be  entirely  absent. 

In  longitudinal  section  the  skeleton  is  seen  to  be  composed  of  con- 
tinuous zooidal  tubes  and  continuous  walls,  the  latter  being,  as  already 

«This  species  is  named  after  Mr.  R.  S.  Bassler. 


.shown  in  transverse  section,  relativel}^  thick.  The  zooidal  tubes  are 
rather  closely  tabulate,  and  the  walls  are  perforated.  The  perfora- 
tions are  of  unequal  sizes  and  irregular  distribution.  It  is  without 
doubt  owing'  to  these  interruptions  in  the  radial  walls  that  in  cross 
section  two  or  more  of  the  zooidal  tubes  appear  to  be  connected  into 
a  single  large  vermicular  one.  Sometimes,  owing  perhaps  to  the 
influence  of  tabulte  and  porous  developments,  the  walls  in  longitudinal 
section  have  a  nodose  appearance,  somewhat  as  in  Stenopora.  Of 
course  the  two  genera  are  otherwise  widely  different  and  have  different 

In  the  lower  part  of  the  coenosteum  the  zooidal  tubes  are  narrow 
and  bent  inward  toward  the  point  of  origin,  as  in  colonies  of  com- 
pound corals  and  bryozoans.  In  this  region  the  walls  are  thin  and 
the  pores  and  tabulre  much  less  plentiful. 

This  form  appears  to  be  but  distantly  related  to  those  descri])ed 
from  the  Salt  Range  of  India,  and  it  presents  more  structural  affinities 
with  the  older  geims  Stronudopora.  From  this,  however,  it  is  clearly 
distinguished  by  the  pattern  of  the  apertures  and  by  the  absence  of 
astrorhiza?  and  of  latilaminie.  The  zooidal  tubes  and  bounding  walls 
are  much  more  continuouslj'  and  regularly  developed  and  the  walls 
themselves  apparently  somewhat  different  in  construction.  Thej^ 
appear  to  l)e  dense,  and  but  for  the  local  thickening,  which  may  repre- 
sent radial  pillars,  structureless.  Carnegia  seems  to  belong  to  the 
Stromatoporidfe,  but  to  be  distinctly  different  from  any  of  the  genera 
at  present  assigned  to  that  family. 

Locality  and  horizon. — Pennsylvanian  (Wu-shan  limestone);  near 
Liang-ho-k'ou,  East  Ss'i-ch'uan  (Station  7). 


FISTULIPORA   WILLISIANA,"   new  species. 

Description. — This  species  grows  in  thin,  epithecate  expansions, 
occurring  in  considerable  numbers  in  the  limestone  of  which  it  appears 
to  constitute  a  paleontologic  feature  of  some  importance.  The  largest 
fragment  seen  measures  15  nun.,  but  the  original  size  may  have  been 
considerably  greater.  The  thickness  of  the  typical  specimen  is  but 
little  over  one-half  mm.  The  grow^th  is  irregular  and  contorted. 
MaculfB  are  present,  but  their  size  and  distribution  have  not  been 
determined.  The  zooecia  are  quite  small;  they  occur  six  or  seven  in  a 
distance  of  2  mm.,  and  are  situated  at  intervals  of  about  one  or  two 
times  their  own  diameter.  A  lunariura  is  well  developed.  Mesopores 
are  usually  large  and,  as  a  rule,  separate  the  zooecia  in  single  rows. 
They  are  about  the  size  of  the  zooecia  themselves,  and  in  some  cases 
are  even  larger. 

«  This  species  is  named  for  Mr.  Bailey  Willis. 


This  species  is  distinguished  b}^  its  thin,  lamellate  growth  and  b}^ 
the  small  size  of  the  zo(jecial  tubes. 

Locality  and  Iwrizon. — Pre-Pennsylvanian  (i');  near  Ta-miau-ssi, 
East  Ssi'-chu'an  (Stations  6,  8,  and  9). 

GEINITZELLA   CHINENSIS,  new  species. 

Description. — The  growth  of  this  species  is  dendroid,  specimens 
occurring  in  long  cylindrical  trunks,  from  which,  in  some  instances, 
spring  smaller  branches.  All  the  specimens  examined  are  fragmen- 
tar}^,  the  largest  having  a  length  of  110  nmi.  They  vary  nmch  in 
point  of  size.  The  largest  yet  noted  has  a  diameter  of  17  mm.,  but 
the  average  is  nearer  15  mm.  In  some  specimens  low  monticules, 
more  or  less  distinctly  elongated  in  a  transverse  direction,  form  a 
noticea1:)le  feature,  which  may  have  been  present  in  all.  The  mature 
region,  where  the  cells  had  a  horizontal  direction,  measures  -1  mm.  in 
a  large  example. 

In  thin  sections  the  species  shows  the  usual  structural  variation 
where  difierent  stages  of  development  are  examined.  From  seven  to 
eight  cells  occur  in  a  linear  distance  of  2  mm.  The  acanthopores  are 
large,  and  var}^  greath^  in  number  and  appearance  in  sections  made  at . 
diiferent  points  of  the  same  zoarium.  In  longitudinal  section  a  few 
scattered  diaphragms  occur  just  before  the  cells  thicken  their  walls 
and  bend  into  a  horizontal  direction. 

This  species  is  closely  related  to  GeinitzeUa  columymris  Schlotheim, 
as  identified  by  Waagen  and  Wentzel  in  India,  but  it  hardly  seems 
that  the  Chinese  form  can  be  immediatel}^  placed  with  that  species. 
Waagen  and  Wentzel  state  that  G.  coluinnari)<  rarely  attains  a  size  of 
5  mm.,  and  that  a  diameter  of  but  2  mm.  is  often  met  w^ith.  The 
Chinese  form  is  thus  seen  to  be  at  least  three  times  as  large.  So  far 
as  observed  also,  it  is  never  incrusting,  a  mode  of  growth  which  the 
Indian  form  is  said  to  exhibit.  In  thin  sections,  however,  the  two 
species  are  extremely  similar.  One  distinction  which  appears  to  exist 
is  that  the  cells  are  a  little  larger  in  the  Chinese  form.  Waagen  and 
Wentzel  do  not  state  this  character  in  their  description,  and  certain 
discrepancies  which  appear  to  exist  between  different  degrees  of  mag- 
nification said  to  be  represented  by  their  figures,  make  it  impossible 
to  obtain  altogether  reliable  measurements  from  that  source.  Appar- 
enth"  G.  coluniiiaris  presents  nine  or  ten  cells  in  2  mm.  The  presenc^e 
or  absence  of  tabuhe  is  not  stated  in  the  text  of  their  description,  but 
none  are  represented  in  their  figures.  The  Chinese  form  certainly 
possesses  tabulae,  and  it  seems  likely  that  they  will  also  be  found  in 
that  from  India. 

With  the  differences  above  noted  it  seems  inadvisable  to  refer  the 
Chinese  form  to  G.  colimuiaria.,  though  it  is  possible  that  it  will  prove 


no  moro  than  a  varioty,   better  marked,   however,  than  any  of  the 
varieties  recognized  by  Waag-en  and  Wentzeh 

Locality  and  Jwrlzon. — Pennsylvanian  (Wu-shan  limestone);  near 
Ta-ning-hien,  East  Ss'i-ch'uan  (Stations  1  and  -i). 

BATOSTOMELLA   MEEKANA,"  new  species. 

This  form  has  not  been  found  free,  and  the  following  description 
has  been  drawn  up  from  thin  sections.  It  evidently  cylin- 
drical, probably  branching,  stems,  of  which  some  grow  to  a  diameter 
of  \  nun.,  while  others  were  only  about  3  mm.  thick. 

DcHei'lptlon. — The  cells  are  slightl}^  oval  in  outline,  one  diameter 
being  a  little  greater  than  the  other.  In  the  mature  region  the}"  are 
separated  by  intervals  about  equal  to  one-half  their  own  diameter,  and 
number  about  five  in  2  mm.  longitudinally.  The  acanthopo re-like 
granules  are  relatively  few,  and  as  a  very  prevalent  rule  occur  in 
single  rows  between  the  apertures.  On  the  average  about  eight  sur- 
round each  cell,  but  as  they  vary  greatly  in  distribution  sometimes 
more  (as  many  as  12  and  13)  and  sometimes  less  can  be  counted.  They 
are  also  ver^'  irregular  in  point  of  size,  some  having  a  diameter  twice 
or  even  three  or  four  times  as  great  as  others.  Very  often  the}" 
appear  to  be  in  two  well-marked  grades  of  size,  but  sometimes  another 
intermediate  grade  can  be  recognized,  and  it  seems  likely  that  there  is 
no  absolute  classitication  to  which  they  can  be  reduced  in  this  respect. 
AVhile  in  a  general  way  the  large  and  small  granules  appear  to  be  reg- 
uhirly  distril)uted,  no  definite  system  or  arrangement  can  be  made  out. 
In  sections  longitudinal  to  the  tubes,  the  thickened  or  mature  region 
is  quite  shallow,  about  twice  the  width  of  the  apertures.  The  latter, 
however,  here  appear  of  much  smaller  diameter  than  in  the  transverse 
section,  being  only  about  half  as  wide  as  the  intercellular  granulifer- 
ous  spaces,  which  therefore  present  nearly  square  areas  in  thin  sec- 
tions cut  longitudinally. 

This  form  is  structurally  very  closely  related  to  Rhomhopora  lepi- 
dodendrotdes,  but  is  clearly  distinct  from  that  widely  distributed 
American  species.  Kayser  identitied  Rhomhopora  lepldodendroides 
in  the  Lo  Ping  fauna.  From  this  BatostomeUa  VK-ekcuia  seems  to  be 
distinct,  as  it  without  nuich  question  is  if  the  Lo  Ping  form  is  cor- 
rectly identihed.  Of  the  two  species  of  Rlioinhopora  described  by 
Waagen,  from  India,  it  may  be  distinguished  from  R.  ■polyporata  by 
the  much  smaller  number  of  granules.  Though  more  similar  to  R. 
ohll(pia^  it  also  difiers  in  several  particulars.  It  is  a  more  robust  form. 
The  cells  are  more  nearly  circular  and  apparently  of  larger  size,  since, 
according  to  Waagen's  figure,  only  about  three  occur  longitudinally  in 
2  mm.     Furthermore,  Waagen  states  that  the  granules  are  all  of  a  size 

"This  species  is  named  for  Mr.  F.  B.  Meek. 

44  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxm. 

in  his  species,  which  is  conspicuously  not  the  case  in  the  one  under 

Locality  and  horizon. — Pennsylvanian  (Wu-shan  limestone);  near 
Ta-ning-hien,  East  Ssi-ch'uan  (Station  4). 


Description. — Of  this  species  our  collection  contains  liut  one  speci- 
men, which  displays  the  following  characters:  The  form  is  that  of  a 
hollow  c}' Under,  the  diameter  of  which  is  25  nmi.,  the  length  of  the 
fragment  being  45  mm.  The  thickness  of  the  zoarium  varies  some- 
what, but  has  an  average  of  about  5  mm.  It  can  not  be  determined 
whether  the  original  shape  was  incrusting,  hollow  cylindrical,  or  solid 
cjdindrical.  So  far  as  can  be  observed,  there  is  no  epitheca  upon  the 
inner  surface,  nor  is  there  any  flexing  of  the  cells  toward  a  point  of 
origin.  From  this  circumstance  it  can  perhaps  be  inferred  that  the 
original  form  was  a  solid  cj'^linder,  of  which  the  axial  portion,  includ- 
ing the  immature  region  of  the  cells,  has  by  some  means  been  destroyed. 

In  thin  sections  the  ztecial  tubes  are  seen  to  occur  about  four  in  the 
space  of  2  mm.  Their  distril)ution,  however,  is  quite  irregular.  They 
have  ver}^  thick  walls,  which  in  some  cases  are  almost  in  contact  and 
in  others  are* separated  by  distances  equal  to  about  the  inner  diameter 
of  the  tubes.  In  the  region  of  macule  their  distance  is  sometimes  two 
or  three  times  the  diameter.  The  cells  are  of  course  nearly  circular, 
and  as  a  rule  separated  by  rather  large  mesopores  in  single  rows. 
Near  the  surface  the  spongy  tissue  of  the  mesopores  gives  place  to 
solid  investment,  in  which,  though  the  inner  portion  of  the  tulles  has 
still  a  circular  section,  the  outer  boundary,  more  or  less  clearly  shown, 
is  sharply  polygonal.  A  lunarium  is  as  a  rule  entirely  absent,  but  in 
rare  cases  indistinct  but  cei'tain  traces  of  the  structure  can  be  observed. 
It  is  also  more  or  less  regularly  developed  in  young  stages.  Tabulse 
are  rather  few  and  distant,  and  they  are  developed  at  ver}^  irregular 
intervals.  The  vesicles  observed  in  longitudinal  sections  vary  greatly 
in  size.  As  a  rule  thej^  are  but  gently  convex,  the  upper  and  lower 
surfaces  often  being  nearly  iiat  and  parallel. 

This  species  is  clearly  distinct  from  American  forms  of  similar  geo- 
logic age,  and  also  from  J^.  paralitica.,  the  only  species  described  by 
Waagen  and  Wentzel  from  the  Salt  Range.  It  is  also  ver}^  distinct 
from  F.  tuherosa.,  a  member  of  the  Lo  Ping  fauna  descril)ed  ))v  Kayser. 

Locality  and  horizon. — Pennsylvanian  (Wu-shan  limestone);  near 
Ta-ning-hien,  East  Ssi-ch'uan  (Station  2). 

"This  species  is  named  for  Mr.  William  Waagen. 



SPIRIFER   BLACKWELDERI,  "  new  species. 

This  form  has  been  obtained  at  two  localities,  and  occurs  in  consid- 
erable alnindance  in  the  shape  of  casts  of  separate  valves.  The  fol- 
lowing characters  have  been  observed: 

De><crlpt'wn. — The  shape  of  the  ventral  valve  is  subquadrate.  The 
convexity  is  high,  the  beak  large,  erect,  gibbous.  The  area  is  well 
defined,  high,  and  concave.  The  foramen  is  large,  its  width  at  the 
base  being  almost  one-third  that  of  the  whole  area.  The  cardinal 
angles  are  rounded  and  the  cardinal  line  considerably  shorter  than  the 
greatest  width.  A  narrow  and  moderately  deep  sinus  traverses  the 
shell,  becoming  gradually  broader  and  less  well  defined  toward  the 
front.  The  sinus  is  not  divided  b}^  plications,  nor  do  an}"  ribs  mark 
the  sides.  On  the  interior  there  are  two  strong  dental  plates,  but  no 

The  dorsal  valve  is  transversely  subelliptical  in  outline.  The  car- 
dinal extremities  are  rounded,  and  the  hinge  line  is  shorter  than  the 
greatest  width.  The  beak  is  small  and  depressed.  A  moderately 
high,  rather  well-defined  mesial  fold  passes  downward,  gradually 
widening  in  its  course. 

The  surface  lacks  ribs  either  upon  the  sides  or  on  the  fold  and 
sinus,  but  is  marked  by  very  fine  radiating  strife. 

I  know  of  no  Carboniferous  species  which  reall}^  requires  compari- 
son with  the  present.  In  general  appearance  it  suggests  a  Rdicidaria^ 
such  as  R.  Ilneata,  but  the  fine,  continuous,  lira'  can  hardly  be  inter- 
preted as  marks  left  hy  the  spines  which  characterize  that  group. 

The  development  of  fine  sul)sidiary  line  seems  to  be  a  much  more 
common  feature  in  the  English  Rettcularias  (see  R.  llneata  var. 
reticulata),  judging  from  Davidson's  description  and  figures,  than  in 
the  American,  where  it  is  essentially  unknown.  We  have  at  least  one, 
though  a  little  known,  form  possessing  this  character,  which  was 
apparently  described  by  Swallow  as  Spirujera  jrt'oat!.  1  am  not  pre- 
pared to  speak  positively  as  to  the  internal  structure  of  this  type,  but 
dental  plates  and  septa  seem  to  be  absent  or  but  slightly  developed. 
In  the  American  RetlcuJavlas  (R.  pseadolineata^  etc.),  and  I  suppose 
in  the  European  ones,  there  is  a  median  septum  in  both  valves,  while 
the  ventral  valve  possesses  long  dental  plates  as  well.  The  Chinese 
shell  thus  difl'ers  in  structure  from  the  Jineatas  group  of  Sjnrlfers^ 
although  it  shows  some  points  of  superficial  resemblance. 

iS'.  hiackioehlerl  difi'ers  from  S.  Uneatus  as  identified  by  Kaj^ser  from 
Chinese  specimens,  as  well  as  from  any  other  Chinese  species  identi- 
fied or  described  by  him,  nor  can    it  be  found  among  the  shells  de- 

«This  species  is  named  for  Mr.  Eliot  Blackwelder, 

46  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxm. 

scribed  by  Waagen  from  India  or  b}^  Tschernyschew  from  Rus- 
sia. In  fact,  closer  parallels  can  be  drawn  with  certain  Silurian 
forms,  such  as  Spirifer  radiatus,  than  with  those  usually  found  in  the 
Carboniferous.  In  the  radiatus  group,  as  in  S.  hlackwelder!^  the  ven- 
tral valve  possesses  dental  plates,  Imt  while  socket  plates,  and  some- 
times a  low  septum,  are  found  in  the  dorsal  valve  of  the  former,  that  of 
S.  hlackwelderi  appears  to  be  without  those  structures. 

Locality  and  horizon. — Pennsylvanian  (Wu-shan  limestone);  near 
Ta-ning-hien,  East  Ssi'-ch'uan  (Stations  1  and  2). 

NOTOTHYRIS  WILLISIANA,"  new  species. 

Description. — Shell  small,  subspherical.  Ventral  valve  subovate, 
gibbous,  rapidly  and  rather  suddenly  contracting  at  the  beak,  which 
is  strongly  deflected  and  truncated  h}^  a  relatively  large  foramen. 
Toward  the  front  this  valve  is  marked  by  a  narrow,  moderatel}^  strong 
but  shallow  sinus  extending  about  half  the  length.  There  should  be 
other  modifications  of  the  mesial  portion  to  correspond  with  the  plica- 
tions on  the  accompanying  valve,  but  if  present  the}^  are  obscured  in 
the  typical  specimen.  On  each  side  of  the  sinus  traces  of  some  six  or 
seven  ribs  are  found.  Only  about  four  of  these  are  developed  as  pli- 
cations on  the  shell,  the  remainder  appearing  on  the  margin,  as  den- 
ticulations.  Even  these  four,  however,  are  obscure,  and  decrease  in 
intensity  in  proportion  to  their  distance  from  the  sinus. 

The  dorsal  valve  is  subcircular  in  outline,  highly  gibbous.  Beak 
small,  pointed,  slightly  prominent.  There  is  a  strong,  deep,  ill- 
defined  mesial  sinus,  which  projects  in  front  as  a  sort  of  linguiform 
extension  corresponding  to  a  deep  emargination  of  the  front  of  the 
opposite  valve.  The  sinus,  which  dies  out  long  before  reaching  the 
hinge  line,  is  subdivided  by  a  strong  mesial  fold,  extending  about  as 
far  from  the  edge  as  the  sinus  itself,  and  each  of  the  two  channels 
thus  formed  is  apparently  again  subdivided  b}^  an  obscure  plication 
limited  to  the  marginal  region.  On  each  side  of  the  sinus  there  are 
about  six  plications,  shown  rather  by  denticulations  at  the  edge  of  the 
shell  than  by  folds  upon  its  surface. 

Internal  structure  unknown.     Shell  strongly  and  finely  punctate. 

As  only  a  single  specimen  of  this  form  was  found,  it  was  impractica- 
ble to  mutilate  it  for  the  purpose  of  ascertaining  its  internal  structures; 
therefore  the  generic  position  of  the  species  is  somewhat  conjecturaL 
The  shell  structure  and  configuration  consigned  it  at  once  to  the 
Terebratulidai,  and  in  the  character  last  mentioned  it  much  more 
closely  resembles  the  genera  Notothyris  and  IIemi2)ty china  than  the 
plicated  Diela.Km  as.  It  is  somewhat  uncertai  n  whether  this  fossil  should 
be  regarded  as  having  a  dorsal  sinus  in  which  a  mesial  rib  has  been 

«  This  species  is  named  for  Mr.  Bailey  Willis. 


developed,  or  a  dorsal  fold  with  two  deep  channels  upon  its  sides,  but 
the  former  interpretation  seeni.s  to  be  more  natural.  Upon  that  view 
the  species  under  consideration  would  be  one  of  the  antijdicata;^  and 
its  generic  position  would  be  with  Nototliyrk  in  preference  to  Hemlp- 
tijcJuna.  On  one  side  of  the  specimen  may  be  noticed  an  appearance 
similar  to  that  often  observed  in  Dlelasmd  when  fracture  or  cleavage 
takes  place  along  the  dental  plates,  but  in  the  present  case  this  may 
be  due  to  exfoliation  of  the  thick  shell.  Of  coui'se  the  presence  of 
dental  plates  would  debar  this  form  from  Nototliyrh  and  Heialptychlna 

In  its  specific  relations  this  form  ditiers  sufficiently  from  any  of  the 
species  whose  descriptions  have  come  into  ui}-  hands  to  make  a  detailed 
comparison  unnecessary.  It  is  perhaps  as  near  to  X.  inflata  Waagen 
and  iVi  djoidfensis  Abicli  as  any. 

Locality  and  horizon — Penns3dvanian  (Wu-shan  limestone),  near 
Liang-ho-k'ou,  East  Ssi-ch\ian  (Station  7). 


AVICULIPECTEN?    RICHTHOFENI,"  new   species. 

Description. — What  appears  to  ))e  the  left  valve  of  this  species  pre- 
sents the  following  characters:  Size  small,  general  shape  semielliptical, 
slightl}^  inclined  backward.  Length  and  breadth  approximately  equal. 
Hinge  line  nearly  as  broad  as  the  greatest  width.  Outline  somewhat 
retracted  below  the  ill-defined  wings,  but  spreading  again,  and  with 
the  sides  and  front  broadly  rounded. 

The  surface  is  marked  by  angular  ribs  situated  at  relativel}'  wide 
intervals.  The  flat  interspaces  are  marked  by  very  fine  radiating 
lira?.  New  ribs  are  introduced  interstitially,  probably  by  the  enlarge- 
ment of  one  of  the  lira?.  The  whole  is  crossed  b}^  fine,  somewhat 
lamellose  concentric  lirte. 

A  shell  supposed  to  represent  the  left  valve  has  an  outline  similar 
to  that  of  the  right,  but  of  course  is  inclined  in  an  apparentl}^  oppo- 
site direction.  There  is  no  byssal  sinus,  and  the  bi'oad  wings  are 
undefined.  The  convexity  is  a  little  lower  than  that  of  the  right 
valve,  and  the  beak  less  prominent. 

The  surface  is  without  ribs  or  radial  marking,  and  is  in  fact  nearly 
smooth,  showing  only  delicate,  somewhat  unequal  and  irregular  con- 
centric lines. 

This  species  is  represented  in  our  collections  bv  a  number  of  right 
valves  and  only  two  left  valves.  All  the  larger  examples  of  the  right 
valve  are  imperfect,  so  that  measurements  can  not  be  made,  but  the 
length  indicated  is  certainly  less  than  15  mm.     The  large  specimens, 

«This  species  is  named  for  Baron  von  Richthofen. 

48  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

SO  far  as  one  can  bo  told,  do  not  differ,  except  in  size,  from  the 
smaller  ones. 

It  can  not  be  definitely  stated  that  the  Hatter  and  nearly  smooth 
shell  here  described  as  the  right  valve  of  the  species  reallj'^  had  that 
relation.  The  correspondence  in  size  and  shape,  however,  and  occur- 
rence in  the  same  beds  render  this  interpretation  quite  probable.  If 
so,  however,  it  is  certain  that  the  form  under  consideration  is  not 
an  Aviculipecten^  since  a  l)yssal  sinus,  which  is  well  developed  in  that 
genus,  is  here  inconspicuous  or  absent. 

In  shape  and  sculpture  this  form  recalls  to  a  certain  extent  some  of 
the  liussian  species  of  Avlcula.  x\.  hazajiensis  De  Verneuil,  of  the 
Russian  Permian,  is  perhaps  the  nearest  of  these,  though  it  is  still  con- 
siderably different.  Avicula  elegcmttda  Stuckenburg,  of  the  Gschelian, 
is  still  more  different. 

Locality  and  horhon. — Post-Penns^'lvanian  (!!)  (Kui-chou  series); 
near  Ta-ning-hien,  East  Ssi-ch'uan  (Station  5). 

IN  1908. 

By    Charles    Lincoln    Edwards, 

Of  Trinity  ('allege,  Hartford,  Connecticut. 

This  paper  is  based  on  a  collection  of  Holothurians  made  by  the 
Bureau  of  Fisheries  steamer  Albatross  along-  the  north  Pacific  coast  of 
North  America  during  the  Alaska  salmon  investigations  of  1903.  The 
collection  contains  eleven  species,  one  of  which,  Chlridota  alhatrossii,  is 
a  new  form.  The  specimens  have  been  added  to  the  general  collection 
of  the  United  States  National  Museum. 

The  s3'nony nw  is  given  only  for  the  species  discussed.  The  literature 
bearing  on  such  forms  is  appended.  In  filling  out  the  habitats  I  am 
particularly  indebted  to  the  important  work  of  Ludwig,  published  in 

I.  CHIRIDOTA  LiEVIS  (Fabricius)  1780. 

June  20,  1903. — One  tentacle-crown  and  one  body  fragment;  Station 
4193;  lat.  49°  20'  30"  N.,  long.  123°  35'  40"  W.;  18  to  23  fathoms; 
bottom,  temperature  50.3°,  green  mud  and  fine  sand. 

Habitat. — Eastern  coast  of  North  America  from  Massachusetts  (lat. 
42°  N.)  to  Labrador  (Ayers,  1852;  Stimpson,  1853;  Packard,  1860; 
Verrill,  1861,  1866;  Selenka,  1867;  Bush,  1883;  Lampert,  1885; 
Ganong,  1884,  1886,  1890?;  Whiteaves,  1901).  West  coast  of  Green- 
land to  lat.  69°  N.  (Fabricius,  1780;  Liitken,  1857;  Stimpson,  1863; 
Norman,  1876;  Duncan  and  Sladen,  1881;  Ludwig,  1882).  West  and 
north  of  West  Spitzbergen  to  lat.  80°  N.  (Ljungraan,  1879).  Nor- 
wegian coast  to  Finmark  (Vahl,  1806;  M.  Sars,  1850,  1861);  Dan- 
ielssen,  1861;  Bidenkap,  1899;  Ostergren,  1902).  Murman  coast 
(Jarzynsky,  1885).  Kara  Sea  (Stuxberg,  1886).  Ludwig,  1900  (p. 
165),  gives  the  entire  range  from  lat.  70°  W.  to  68°  E.,  but  Clark, 
1902,  reports  this  species  from  Sitka  and  \\\q  Alhatross  Alaska  Salmon 
Investigations,  1903,  from  the  Gulf  of  Georgia,  Halibut  Bank,  Van- 
couver Island,  British  Columbia,  so  that  now  it  can  be  given  as  cir- 
cumpolar.     Depth,  0  to  27  fathoms,  exceptionally  to  45  fathoms. 

Proceedings  U.  S.  National  Museum,  Vol.  XXXIII— No.  1558. 
Proc.  N.  M.  vol.  xxxiii— 07 4  49 

50  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NA  TIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

2.   CHIRIDOTA   ALBATROSSII    Edwards,  new  species. 

June  25, 1903. — No  tentacle-crown,  but  twelve  body  fragments;  Sta- 
tion 4201,  138  to  145  fathoms;  bottom,  temperature 45. 5°,  soft  gray  mud, 
sand,  broken  shells.  July  6. — Three  tentacle-crowns  and  eleven  body 
fragments;  Station  4223;  lat.  55°  1'  9"  N.,  long.  130^  42'  3"  W.;  48  to  " 
57  fathoms;  bottom,  temperature  44. G"',  soft,  green  mud.  July  7. — 
One  body  fragment;  Station  4226;  lat.  55^  36'  18"  N.,  long.  131'-  37' 
16"  W.,  31  to  62  fathoms;  bottom,  temperature  44.8°,  rocky.  July 
7. — One  tentacle-crown  and  one  body  fragment;  Station  4228;  lat,  55° 
36'  15"  N.,  long.  131°  42'  30"  W.;  41  to  134  fathoms;  bottom,  temper- 
ature 47.8°,  gravel,  sponge.  July  7.— One  body  fragment;  Station 
4232;  lat.  55°  35'  36"  N.,  long.  131°  53'  49"  W.;  77  to  93  fathoms; 
bottom,  temperature  43.3°,  green  mud,  sponge,  rocky.  July  9. — One 
bodyfragment;  Station  4239;  lat.  55°  28' 35"  N.,  long.  131°46' 48"  W.; 
206  to  248  fathoms;  bottom,  temperature  48.8°,  coarse  sand,  rocky. 

These  specimens  resemble  C.  Za?i'?.s' (Fabricius)  in  many  respects,  but 
the  presence  of  rods  in  the  anterior  part  of  the  bodj^  wall,  the  greater 
size  of  the  body,  and  the  larger  number  of  wheel-papill?e  constitute 
the  chief  differential  characters  of  this  new  species. 

In  1851  Pourtales  described  a  CJuridota  from  Florida  under  the 
name  of  Synapta  Totifera.  Pourtales's  species  also  has  rods  in  addition 
to  the  wheels,  but  it  is  much  smaller  than  alhatrossii  and  lives  among 
the  branches  of  coral  in  shallow  water. 

Generally  C.  hvvis  has  been  taken  from  rather  shallow  water  (up  to 
27  fathoms,  only  exceptionally  up  to  50  fathoms,  Ludwig,  1900,  p.  165), 
while  these  specimens  come  from  a  range  of  31  to  248  fathoms. 

Body. — Elongated,  cylindrical.  One  fragment  21.5  cm.  long  and 
9  mm.  in  diameter,  whole  posteriorly,  has  some  of  the  detached  ends 
of  gonads  in  the  anterior  coelom,  where  it  is  broken  off  from  the 
tentacular  piece,  so  it  may  represent  approximately  the  length  of  the 
individual  in  alcohol.  But  in  this  specimen  the  body  wall  is  greatly 
contracted,  as  shown  by  the  many  thickened  folds  and  the  crowded 
dorsal  wheel-papilhe.  Therefore  it  is  probable  that  the  living  animal 
is  considerably  longer.  Another  fragment,  also  with  anal  end  intact, 
is  22  cm.  long  and  the  diameter  varies  from  6  mm.,  where  most  con- 
tracted, to  12  mm.  in  the  well-expanded  parts,  where  the  skin  is 
stretched  thin.  A  third  fragment,  with  both  anterior  and  posterior 
ends  missing,  measures  17  cm.  in  length  and  5  mm.  in  diamet&r. 
Since  the  remaining  shorter  pieces  are  of  about  the  same  average 
diameter  as  the  above,  it  may  be  assumed  that,  with  the  tentacular 
part  added,  the  species  would  have  a  length  of  18  to  25  cm.  and  a 
diameter  of  6  to  12  mm.  In  regard  to  the  size  of  C.  Ixvis.,  Duncan 
and  Sladen,  1881  (p.  14),  say:  ""The  largest  example  of  this  species  has 
been  recorded  b}'  Sars,  and  measured  100  mm.  in  length;  generally. 



however,  they  range  from  20  to  40  mm."  Consequently  this  new 
species  is  over  twice  the  greatest  and  seven  times  the  average  length 
of  0.  Isevis. 

Color. — In  alcohol,  vinaceous  with  spots  of  burnt  sienna  scattered 
all  over  the  body  and  the  tentacles. 

Tentacles. — Twelve,  generally  with  8  to  12  digits;  in  one  specimen 
some  tentacles  have  6  digits;  in  another,  14. 

Spicules  of  the  Ijocly  wall. — \^4ieels  in  all  respects  like  those  of  C. 
Icevis.  (See  Duncan  and  Sladen,  1881,  Plate  I,  tig.  18.)  Diameter,  0.08 
to  0.12  mm.:  average,  0.1  mm.     The  wheel-papillae  are  arranged  in 

Fig.  1.— Chiridota  albatrossii.    a-c,  Calcareois  rods,     (x  340.) 

three  rather  irregular,  more  or  less  distinct,  longitudinal  rows  in  the 
dorsal  inter-radii,  while  ventrall}^  they  are  few  and  scattered.  In  the 
fragment  of  the  body,  17  cm.  long,  there  are  about  68  to  7.5  in  each 
row.     In  C.  Imids  there  are  20  to  30  in  each  of  the  three  rows 

Iiods. — In  the  anterior  l>od3"  wall.  In  the  longest  specimen  with 
tentacles  these  rods  are  at  the  posterior  end  of  the  piece,  4  cm.  from 
the   tentacles.     The    rods   are    straight   to   crescentic  (tig.    1^/),   ends 

Fig.  ^. — Chiridota  alb.\trossii.    r/-/,  Calcareoi's  bods.     (  x  340. 

spinose,  now  one  (tig.  lb)  and  then  both  (tig.  Ic)  bifid,  while  very 
rarely  the  branches  unite  to  make  pei'f orations.  Often  there  is  a 
small  cluster  of  spines  at  the  middle  (tig.  '2<I). 

Occasionally  the  rod  has  compound  curves  (fig.  2e^),  and  very  rarely 
it  is  triradiate  (fig.  2/). 

Size  of  rods  in  rnilUm.ete7's. — Length,  0.05-  to  0.15,  average,  0.1; 
width,  0.007  to  0.02;  average,  0.01;  width  of  branched  ends,  up  to  0.06. 

Sjncules  of  the  tentacles. — Rods  similar  to  those  in  the  body  wall. 

Calcareous  ring . — Like  C.  Isevis. 

Polian  vesicles. — In  the  four  specimens,  10,  16,  17,  and  18,  scat- 
tered from  right  to  left  dorsal  radius.     In  one  specimen  the  longest  is 




10  mm.     In  the  other  three  the  longest  are  5  mm.  and  the  shortest 
1.5  mm. 

Stone  canal. —Much  coiled,  adherent  to  the  dorsal  mesentery.  The 
madreporite  (fig.  3)  'has  a  number  (in  one  case  27)  of 
transverse  folds,  which  project  from  the  mesentery. 

Gonads. — In  two  tufts,  one  each  side  of  the  mesen- 
tery; tubes  dichotomously  branched.  Of  the  speci- 
mens with  gonads,  two  are  female  and  one  male. 
Retractor  muscles. — Well  developed. 
Ciliated  funnels. — On  the  mesentery,  near  the  body 
wall,  similar  to  those  of  C.  Ipeivs  (Duncan  and  Sladen, 
1881,  Plate  I,  fig.  17). 

Habitat. — Queen  Charlotte  Sound,  off  Fort  Rupert, 
Vancouver  Island,  British  Columbia;  Boca  de  Quadra, 
vicinity  of  Naha  Ba}^  Behm  Canal,  junction  of  Clar- 
ence Strait  and  Behm  Canal,  southeast  Alaska. 
[Alhatross  Alaska  Salmon  Investigations,  1903.) 
These  localities  constitute  the  type  region. 
Type.—Cat.  No.  25003,  U.S.N.M. 

Fig.  3.— Chiridota 
Stone  canal  and 

(X  29.) 

3.   ANKYRODERMA  JEFFREYSII   Danielssen  and  Koren,  1879. 

June  20,  1903— Six  specimens;  Station  4198;  lat.  49°  18'  30"  N., 
long.  123°  46'  12"  W. ;  157  to  230  fathoms;  bottom  temperature,  46.8°, 
soft,  green  mud.  July  6 — One  specimen;  Station  4224;  lat.  55°  9' 24" 
N.,  long.  130°  41'  48"  W.;  156  to  166  fathoms;  bottom  temperature, 
43.7°,  dark,  green  mud.  July  7 — One  specimen;  Station  4230;  lat. 
55°  35'  13"  N.,  long.  131°  50'  11"  W. ;  108  to  240  fathoms;  bottom  tem- 
perature, 42.4°,  rocky. 

Net  one  anchor  was  found,  albeit  in  most  cases  a  stump  of  varying 
length  is  present.  This  I  take  to  be  the  proximal  part  of  tlie  stock  of 
the  anchor,  the  distal 
part,  with  the  arms 
having  been  broken  off. 
As  Theel,  1886  (p.  49), 
suggests,  such  a  stump 
with  broken  end  might 
easih^  have  been  taken 

for  the  long  process  of  the  '"cups"  by  v.  Marenzeller  in  descri})ing 
his  ^4.  roretzil.  On  many  of  the  "spoon-like "  rods  there  arises,  about 
the  middle  of  the  widened  part  of  the  rod,  a  sort  of  rudimentary 
spire,  or  process  (fig.  4),  which  hitherto  has  not  been  described.  In 
some  specimens  a  degeneration  has  affected  the  ""spoon-like"  rods  so 
that  they  are  wholly  or  partially  absorbed,  with,  at  the  same  time,  a 

RUDI.MENTARY  SPIRE.      (Xlll.) 


deposition  u]3on  them  of  the  red  matter  ordinarily  peculiar  to  the 
wine-red  bodies.  Theel,  188H,  notes  a  similar  change  of  color  in  the 
tables  of  TrocliOtitoiria  antarcticuhi  Theel. 

IlaUtat.—ljQSBQV  Antilles,  lat.  12^  to  16^  N.,  long.  62'^  W.;  also 
lat.  33^^  to  42^  N.,  long.  ^S^-  to  76^  W.  (Theel,  Blake  Report,  1886). 
Finmark  and  north  to  Barents  Sea  to  lat.  70^^  to  75°  N.,  long.  21°  to 
31 '  E.  (Danielssen  and  Koren,  1882,  llotfman,  1882,  Sluiter,  1895). 
Northwest  of  Spitzbergen  to  lat.  -80°  N.,  long.  6°  E.  (Danielssen  and 
Koren,  1882),  lat.  81°' to  81°  15'  N.,  long.  19°  to  23°  E.  (Ludwig, 
1900).  Gulf  of  Georgia,  Vancouver  Island,  British  Columbia,  Boca 
de  Quadra,  Naha  Bay,  southeast  Alaska  {Albatross  Alaska  Salmon 
Investigations,  1903). 

4.   TROCHOSTOMA   OOLITICUM  (Pourtales),  1851. 

After  the  examination  of  a  large  series  of  specimens,  Clark,  1904, 
concludes  that  MoJpadia  horealis  Sars,  1861,  is  a  sj^nonym  of  the  spe- 
cies described  by  Pourtales  in  1851  as  Ch'trodota  <)dlttwi(m  'And  follow- 
ing Danielssen  antl  Koren,  1879,  usuallj^  given  as  Ti'(>ch(>i<toina  horeale. 

June  20, 1903.— Two  specimens;  Station  4194;  lat.  49°  19'  30"  N. ,  long. 
123°  35'  40"  W.;  Ill  to  170  fathoms;  bottom,  temperature  48.3°,  soft, 
green  mud.  June  20.— One  specimen;  Station  4198;  lat.  49°  18'  30" 
N.,  long.  123°  46'  12"  W. ;  157  to  230  fathoms;  bottom,  temperature 
46.8°,  soft,  green  mud.  Julj^  8. — One  specimen;  Station  4237;  lat.  55° 
50'  40"  N.,  long.  131°  46'  38"  W.;  194  to  198  fathoms;  bottom,  tem- 
perature 42.6°,  green  mud.  July  9.— One  specimen;  lat.  55°  28'  0"  N., 
long.  131°  57' 40"  W.;  248  to  256  fathoms;  bottom,  temperature  48.8°, 
hard  coral. 

//a5^/a^.— Florida  Reefs  (Pourtales,  1869).  Lesser  Antilles  (Theel 
Blake  Report,  1886).  Portland,  Maine  (Verrill,  1873).  Casco  Bay, 
Maine  (Kingsley,  1901).  West  of  Noi-waj^  (Danielssen  and  Koren,  1882, 
Ostergren,  1902).  Finmark  and  northward  (M.  Sars,  1861,  Danielssen 
and  Koren,  1882).  South  and  northwest  of  Spitzbergen  (Danielssen 
and  Koren,  1882).  Barents  Sea  (v.  Marenzeller,  1877,  Hoffman,  1882, 
Danielssen  and  Koren,  1882,  Sluiter,  1895).  Kara  Sea  (Stuxberg,  1879, 
1880,  1886,  Levinsen,  1886,  Sluiter,  1895).  East  of  Cape  Tscheljuskin 
(Stuxberg,  1880).  Point  Barrow  (Murdoch,  1885).  Gulf  of  Georgia, 
Halibut  Bank,  Vancouver  Island,  British  Columbia,  Behm  Canal, 
southeast  Alaska  [AJhatross  Alaska  Salmon  Investigations,  1903). 
The  range  given  by  Ludwig,  1900  (p.  161),  as  287  degrees  through 
the  northern  Atlantic  Ocean  to  the  Siberian  Polar  Sea  from  the 
Florida  Reefs  (long.  83°  W.)  to  Point  Barrow  (long.  156°  W.)  is  now 
extended  south  in  the  northern  Pacific  to  Vancouver  Island,  British 
Columbia  (lat.  50°  N.,  long.  127°  W.).  Depth  from  20  to  (550  fath- 
oms, usually  more  than  55  fathoms  and  less  than  540  fathoms. 


5.  CUCUMARIA  CALCIGERA  (Stimpson),  1851. 

1851.  Pentacta  calcigera  Sti.mj'sox,  }).  (>7. 

1867.  Pentacta  calcigera  Packaei)  (cf.  Whiteaves,  p.  45). 

1867.  Cucumaria  korenii  Selenka,  p.  350. 

1867.  Oucumaria  calcigera  Selenka,  p.  351. 

1888.  Pentacta  calcigera  Ganong,  p.  52. 

1900.  Cucumaria  calcigera  Ludwig,  p.  146. 

1901.  Cucumaria  calcigera  Clark,  p.  162-171. 
1901a.  Cucumaria  calcigera  Clark,  p.  492. 
1901.  Pentacta  calcigera  Kingsley,  p.  164. 
1901.  Pentacta  calcigera  Whiteaves,  p.  45 

(For  other  titles  in  the  synonymy  see  Ludwig,  1900,  p.  146). 

July  T,  1903.— Four  specimens;  Station  4231;  hit.  55'^  35'  36"  N. 
long.  131^  52'  33"  W.;  82  to  113  fathoms;  bottom,  temperature  43.0°, 
green  mud,  slate  fragments,  sponge,  rocky.  July  8. — Two  specimens; 
Station  4233;  hit.  55°  54'  16"  N.,  long.  131°  45'  58"  W.;  39  to  45  fath- 
oms; bottom,  temperature,  44.7°,  soft,  gray  mud,  rocky.  July  11. — 
Eleveu  specimens;  Station  4246;  lat.  55°  27'  57"  N.,  long.  132°  15'  0" 
W.;  101  to  123  fathoms;  bottom,  temperature  44.1°,  gray,  green 
mud;  coarse  sand,  shells. 

The  following  description  includes  an  account  of  the  stone  canal, 
perforated  plates  of  the  introvert  (peristome),  supporting  rods  of  the 
tentacles  and  certain  features  of  the  spicules  of  the  body  wall,  which 
up  to  this  time  have  not  been  described. 

Form. — The  body  is  cui'ved  like  a  crescent  tapering  to  both  anterior 
and  posterior  extremities,  the  latter  being  much  more  slender.  Often 
the  curvature  is  so  increased  that  the  two  ends  come  together.  One 
example  with  the  tentacles  completely  extruded  (and  thus  15.5  cm. 
long  on  the  dorsal  mid-line)  shows  the  anterior  fifth  (2.8  cm.),  straight, 
of  a  uniform  diameter  (0.8  cm.)  and  devoid  of  pedicels  for  2  cm.  from 
the  base  of  the  tentacles.  This  anterior  portion  is  thin  and  flexible  in 
contradistinction  to  the  firm,  stiff  main  part  of  the  body,  and  may  be 
called  the  introvert  (peristome  of  Delage  and  Herouard,  190,3-4). 
When  it  is  retracted  the  apparent  anterior  extremity,  as  seen  in  most 
alcoholic  specimens,  is  as  Theel,  1886  (p.  103),  saj^s  "more  truncated" 
than  the  caudal  portion. 

Size. — The  average  measurements  of  the  17  specimens  in  the  collec- 
tion gives  in  centimeters:  Length  from  the  apparent  anterior  end  of 
the  body  (the  introvert  being  retracted)  to  anus,  along  mid-dorsal  line, 
4.3,  range  1.7  to  7.7;  along  mid-ventral  line  8.42,  range  3.5  to  12.7; 
largest  diameter,  dorso-ventral  1.45,  range  0.7  to  2.2,  transverse  1.28, 
range  0.6  to  1.7. 

Color. — White,  with  tints  of  cream  color  to  tawny  olive  in  certain 
parts  derived  from  slime  which  has  been  deposited,  especiall}^  along 
the  bands  of  pedicels.     Oral  disk,  clove  brown. 



Fir;.  5.— CucUMARiA  calcic;  era. 
Uri>p:R  siiRFACE  OF  table  from 

THE   BODY-WALL.      (   •     nO|.) 

Tentacles. — Ten,  the  two  ventral  about  half  the  size  of  the  others 
and  arising  somewhat  nearer  the  mouth.  Color,  mixed  white  and 
clove  brown. 

Genital  jxtp'dht. — Three  millimeters  long,  colored  like  the  tentacles. 

Pedicels. — Contiued  to  the  anil)ulacra;  dorsal  in  two  zig-zag-  rows, 
ventral  in  four  to  live  zigzag  rows  toward  the  middle.  Smaller  toward 
the  extremities,  especially  posteriorly.  Each  pedicel  is  conical,  non- 
retractile,  the  longest  ventralh'  (2  to  3  mm.). 

Body  wall. — Thin  (about  0.3  mm.  thick),  semitransparent,  tirm  and 
rough  to  the  touch  from  the  numerous  crowded,  imbricated  spicules. 
In  the  introvert,  especially  thin  and  trans- 
parent with  scattered,  knobbed  plates. 

Bell,  1S83  (pp.  481-484),  Lampert,  1885 
(p.  142),  Liitken,  1857  (pp.  6-T),  Maren- 
zeller,  1874  (pp.  11-12),  Theel,  1886  (pp. 
103-104),  Duncan  and  Sladen,  1881  (p.  7), 
and  Ludwig,  1886  (pp.  278-279),  have  de- 
scribed the  spicules.  Tlje  last  two  descrip- 
tions, together  with  that  of  Liitken,  are  es- 
pecially good,  but  since  1  have  found  new 
spicules  in  the  introvert  and  tentacles,  as 
well  as  ridges  on  the  perforated  plates  and 
the  disks  of  the  tables,  I  have  concluded  to  redescribe  the  spicules  in 

Spicules  (if  the  hodij  yndl. — Tahles. — Disk  flat,  ver}"  irregular,  round 
to  four-rayed  with  all  intermediate  forms.  Four  central  holes  sur- 
rounding the  spire  constitute  a  diamond  (tig.  5),  and  vary  from  0.02  to 
0.04  mm.  in  diameter,  being  generally,  but  not  alwaj's,  larger  than 
the  peripheral  holes,  which  vary  from  0.01  to  0.04  mm.  In  the  elon- 
gated and  stellate  forms  the  holes,  num- 
bering from  four  to  forty,  are  in  one  to 
three  rows.  These  rows  are  usually  more 
distinct  in  the  prolongations. 

Besides  the  rows  there  are  often  addi- 
tional holes  irregularly  distributed.  In 
the  circular  disks  the  holes  are  in  one  to 
two  irregular  rings.  Sometimes  there  are  ridges  running  out  from 
the  spire  onto  the  rays  between  the  rows  of  holes  (tig.  5). 

Size  of  d'ishs  in  millimeters. — Length  0.15  to  0.45,  average  0.23; 
width  0.06  to  0.44,  average  0.18;  diameter  of  circular  forms  0.1; 
average  width  of  rays  in  stellate  forms  0.08. 

Spire. — Conical  or  club  shaped  (tig.  6);  may  be  solid,  but  generally 
gives  evidence  of  being  composed  of  four  rods,  which,  in  their  more 
or  less  complete  fusion,  leave  from  one  to  four  distal  holes,  and  some- 
times one  to  two  below  these.     In  the  young  (10  to  15  mm.  long)  the 

Fig.  6.— Cu(;umaria  calcigera.  Side 
view  of  table  from  the  body- 
WALL.      (X  llOf.) 


PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

spires  are  present  on  all  of  the  outer  plates  as  drawn  by  Duncan  and 
Sladen,  18S1  (Plate  I,  %.  6),  but  in  older  individuals  I  find  that  the 
spires  may  occur  only  occasionally.  This  agrees  with  the  important 
and  suggestive  results  obtained  by  Mitsukuri,  1897,  for  Stichojms 
japonicus  Selenka. 

Size  of  spire  In  mdllimeters.— Height  0.06  to  0.1,  diameter  0.45. 

Crown  generally  bears  from  6  to  40  teeth,  average  number  13  (fig.  6). 
In  some  cases  the  teeth  arise  from  projections  which  may  be  subdi- 


b,    PROFILE.       (X    166.) 

vided;  in  other  cases  the  teeth  are  very  small  and  difiicult  to  count, 
or,  again,  they  may  be  almost  fused  into  one  mass  (tig.  5). 

Diameter  of  crown  in  millimeters. — 0.02  to  0.04,  average  0.03. 

Perforated  plates. — Smooth,  round  to  four-rayed,  holes  arranged  as 
in  the  disk  of  the  tables,  or  irregularly  distributed.  Sometimes 
ridges  arise  running  between  the  rows  of  holes. 

Size  of  plates  in  ririllimeters.—heugth  0.12  to  0.54,  average  0.29; 
width  0.09  to  0.45,  average  0.15;  thickness  0.008  to  0.03,  average  0.02; 
diameter  of  holes  0.008  to  0.03. 

Spicules  of  the  introvert. — Irregular  perforated  plates  with  jagged 
edges  and  bearing  spines  (fig.  7a);  usually   more  numerous  on  one 

Fig.  s.— Cucumaria  talcigera.     Supporting  table  from  a  pedicel,    a,  Upper  Surface; 

6,  profile,     (x  340.) 

face  than  the  other,  as  seen  in  the  profile  view  (fig.  7^).  The  number 
of  holes  varies  from  1  to  21,  average  5.4;  the  number  of  spines  from 
1  to  21,  average  11.8, 

Size  of  plates  in  millimeters. — Length  0.11  to  0.27,  average  0.17; 
width,  0.08  to  0.11;  average,  0.09. 

Spicules  of  pedicels. — No  supporting  rods  other  than  the  support- 
ing tables  (fig.  8a-J). 

NO.  1558. 



Kt)RATED  TENTACLE   ROD.      (X    llOf.) 

Disks. — Arched,  elongated,  wider  at  the  middle,  with,  four  central 
holes  and  one  to  four  holes  in  the  ends  of  the  two  rays  (fig.  ^a-h). 

Size  of  disk  in  inlUimeters. — Length  0.09  to  0.17,  average  0.13; 
height  of  arch  0.02  to  0.06,  average  0.05;  width  at  middle  0.03  to 
0.08,  average  0.04;  width  of  ends  about  one-half  of  that  of  middle. 

Spire. — Composed  of  rods  not  so  much  fused  as  in  the  tables  of  the 
body  wall,  leaving  one  proximal  hole,  none  to  six  distal  holes,  and 
sometimes  a  distinct  hole  between  the  proximal  and  distal  holes  (fig.  8). 
The  spire  is  often  compressed.  The  spires  are  longer  and  more  slender 
than  those  drawn  by  Bell,  1883  (Plate  VIII,  fig.  2«),  and  Ludwig,  1886 
(Plate  VI,  fig.  5).  The  figures 
of  Bell  are  intermediate  between 
that  of  Ludwig  and  my  own,  so 
that  I  think  all  may  be  taken  as 
within  the  range  of  variation.  I 
have  often  noticed  spires  which 
have  been  broken  oft'  that  resemble  Bell's  figures. 

Size  of  s_pire  in  niiUimeters. — Height  0.03  to  O.Oi),  average  0.05; 
diameter  at  base  0.02  to  0.04,  average  0.03;  at  crown  0.008  to  0.03, 
average,  0.02. 

Cnnrn. — Four  to  twenty  generally  simple  teeth  arise  from  the  end 
and  sides  (fig.  8/>).     The  crown  may  be  compressed  or  rounded. 

Terminal  plate. — Holes  may  be  all  of  the  same  size,  or  small  at  the 
center  and  larger  peripherally,  or  vice  versa. 

Diameter  in  miUi meters. — 0.11  to  0.15,  average  0.12. 

Spicules  of  tentacles. — Supporting  rods  of 
very  diverse  form,  occasionally  irregular 
plates.  The  rods  (fig.  D)  are  spinose  and  per- 
forated. The  plates  also  may  bear  spines. 
The  spicules  are  apparentl}^  adapted  in  curva- 
ture and  size  to  the  special  parts  of  the  tenta- 
cles in  which  they  occur.  The  plates  are 
usually  found  in  the  terminal  branches  and 
resemble   those  of   the  introvert,   except   in 

Fig.  10.— Cucumakia  calcigera. 
Fragment  of  calcareous 
ring  network.    (x  340.) 


Size  in  millimeters — Tentacular  supporting  rods. — Length  0.14  to 
0.72,  average  0.35;  width  0.008  to  0.11,  average  0.05.  Plates  0.06 
to  0.18,  average  0.1;  width  0.02  to  0.08,  average  0.05. 

Calcareous  ring. — Of  ten  rather  slender  species,  each  being  made  up 
of  a  calcareous  network  (fig.  10),  rather  thicker  in  places,  and  there- 
fore appearing  composite.  Radialia  shallow-tailed  posteriori}-,  the 
two  prolongations  extending  to  the  ring  canal.  Interradialia  wedge- 
shaped,  pointed  anteriorly. 

Polian  vesicle. — One,  distended,  pear-shaped.  Length  0.7  to  1.2 
mm.,  average  0.85  mm. 




Stone  camiL — Hith(>rt()  the  small,  delicate  stone  canal  has  been 
overlooked.  It  is  single,  straight,  or  convoluted,  embedded  in  the 
dorsal  mesentery  until  near  the  madreporite,  which  projects  free 
in  the  coelom  generall}'  to  the  right,  but  in  one  case  to  the  left  of  the 
mesentery.  The  madreporite  is  kidney-shaped  (fig.  11a),  and  consists 
of  two  leaves  or  valves  with  thickened  edges  as  if  a  round,  thick- 
lipped  disk  attached  at  the  center  to  the  stone  canal  had  been  once 
folded,  so  that  the  opposite  edges  lie  near  together,  forming  the  distal 
portion  of  the  structure.  (Fig.  llJ.)  In  the  fifteen  specimens  exam- 
ined one  stone  canal  had  its  terminal  part  bifid  for  a  short  distance^ 
each  branch  bearing  a  head  of  normal  size;  another  had,  besides  the 
usual  madreporite,  two  small  subsidiary  heads,  sessile  upon  the  main 
tube,  a  short  distance  from  the  distal  end.  Average  length  of  the 
stalk  o  mm.;  of  the  head  0.8  mm.     After  treatment  with  potash  it  is 

found  that  at  the  junction 
of  the  madreporite  with 
the  stone  canal  the  cal- 
careous network  is  com- 
paratively coarse  and 
open,  but  proceeding 
toward  the  peripher}^  the 
calcareous  threads  become 
finer  and  the  meshes 
smaller,  until  in  the  thick- 
ened rim  they  are  de- 
cidedly finer,  densely 
crowded,  and  clearly 
marked  off  from  the  cen- 
tral part  of  the  disk. 
Gonads. — In  two  tufts  of  simple  tubules,  one  either  side  of  the 
dorsal  mesentery. 

Respir<(to7'y  trees.— Tl^fo,  each  with  small  branch  given  off  near  the 
cloacal  origin.  The  main  stems  are  in  the  right  and  left  dorsal  inter- 
radii,  reaching  nearly  to  the  anterior  end  of  the  body,  the  right  being 
slightly  longer.  The  branches  lie  in  the  right  and  left  ventral  inter- 
radii,  extending  to  about  the  middle  of  the  body. 

Retractor  7iiuscles. — Strongly  developed.  In  comparison  the  longi- 
tudinal bands  are  weak. 

Ilahitat. — Massachusetts  (Stimpson  1851,  Verrill  1866).  Cape 
Breton  Island,  Nova  Scotia  (Whiteaves  1901).  Labrador  (Verrill 
1866,  Packard  1867).  West  Greenland  to  lat.  69°  N.  (Liitken  1857, 
Norman  1876,  Ludwig  1883).  Assistance  Bay,  lat.  74°  N.,  North 
American  Polar  Sea  to  lat.  75°  N.,  long.  95°  W.  (Forbes  1852,  Dun- 
can and  Sladen  1881).  Waigatsch  Island,  lat.  73°  N.  Kara  Sea  to 
long.  64°  E.  (Stuxberg  1879,  1886).     Plover  Bay,  Bering  Sea  (Lud- 

Fig.  11. — CucuMARiA  calcigera.    Stone  i  anal  and  mad 
REPOKITE.    a,  Side  view;  h,  distal  view,     (x  27.) 


wig-  1886).  Bering-  Strait  (Stux!)erg-  1880).  (Tlius  from  long.  173° 
W.  to  long.  65  '  E.,  two-thirds  circumpolar  Ludwig,  liHJO).  Pacific 
Grove,  California  (Clark  1901a).  Nalia  and  Tcs  Btiys,  Hehni  Canal, 
Prince  of  Wales  Island,  southeast  Alaska  {Alhatro.^s  Alaska  Salmon 
Investigations,  1903), 

6.   CUCUMARIA   CHRONHJELMI   Theel,  i886. 

June  27,  1903. — One  specimen;  Quarantine  Station,  Dock  Port 
Townsend,  Washington.  June  30. — One  specimen;  Station  4209 ;  lat. 
48°  8'  55"  N.,  long.  122-  41-'  10"  W.;  24  to  25  fathoms;  bottom, 
temperature  50.3°,  rocky,  coarse  sand,  shells. 

The  deficiency  in  figures  of  the  spicules  in  Theel's  original  descrip- 
tion is  supplied  by  Clark,  1901.  In  the  tentacles,  the  supporting  rods 
vary  in  form  to  irregular  plates,  and  either  the  rods  or  plates  may 
bear  spines,  a  fact  not  brought  out  by  Clark's  description,  or  figure. 

Ilahitaf.—N^nQovxYQV  Island  (Theel,  1886),  Puget  Sound  (Clark, 
1901),  Port  Townsend,  Washington  {Alhatross  Alaska  Salmon  Investi- 
gations, 1903). 

7.   CUCUMARIA  VEGiE   Theel,  1886. 

August  24,  19(»3. — One  specimen  from  Shakan  Beach,  southeast 

This  specimen,  in  general  agreement  with  the  description  of  Theel, 
1886,  has  the  following  measurements  in  centimeters:  Length,  2.7; 
dorso-ventral  diameter,  1.2;  transverse  diameter,  1.1.  The  color  of 
the  specimen  in  alcohol  is  slate-black  around  the  mouth  and  anus  as 
well  as  in  the  dorsal  region,  shading-  laterally  to  mixed  light  gray  and 
smoke  gray  on  the  ventral  surface.  The  tentacles  are  black  and  the 
ends  of  the  pedicels  cream  color.  Usuall}^,  in  larger  individuals 
especially,  the  color  is  seal-brown  dorsally  shading  to  chocolate  ven- 
trally.  There  are  many  examples  of  this  species  in  the  collections  of 
the  United  States  National  Museum  which  I  have  at  hand,  and,  as 
Clark,  1902,  notes,  this  species  is  very  abundant  in  the  North  Pacific. 

Uah'dat. — Bering  .Island,  Theel  Challenger  Report,  1886.  Sitka, 
Pribilof  Islands,  Copper  Island  (Clark,  1902).  Shakan  Beach,  south- 
eastern Alaska  {Alhatross  Alaska  Salmon  Investigations,  1903). 

8.    CUCUMARIA   FRONDOSA   (Gunnerus),  1767. « 

Synonymy  in  Ludwig,  1900,  p.  141-2. 
August  3. — One  specimen;  Station  4272;  Afognak  Bay,  Afognak 
Island;  12  to  17  fathoms;  bottom,  sticky  mud.     August  6. — One  speci- 
men; Station  4273;  Alitak  Bay,  Kadiak  Island;  36  fathoms;  bottom, 
green  mud,  tine  sand. 

«  Ludwig,  1900,  gives  1770  the  date  of  the  German  translation  instead  of  1767,  the 
date  of  publication  of  the  original  description  of  Gunnerus  in  Kongl.  Vetenskaps 
Acad.  Hand-lingar  for  Ar,  1767. 

60  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxia. 

Size  in  mUiimeters. — Introvert  extended,  length;  specimen  </,  50; 
greatest  diameter,  25;  introvert  retracted,  length,  specimen  ?>,  90; 
greatest  diameter,  70. 

SpiSiles  of  hody  wall. — Irregular  perforated  plates  as  described 
and  figured  hj  Clark,  1904. 

Calcareous  ring. — Well  developed  when  compared  with  japonica. 

Polian  Vesicle. — In  J,  one,  rather  long.  In  a.,  three;  one  in  the 
right  ventral  interradius,  one  in  the  left  ventral  interradius,  and  one 
in  the  left  ventral  radius. 

Stone  canal. — One,  short,  in  dorsal  mesentery,  with  a  single  head  of 
ver}'^  closely  crowded  madreporites  projecting  from  the  dorsal  mesen- 
tery toward  the  oral  ring. 

Ludwig,  1900,  and  Clark,  1901«,  1904,  question  the  occurrence  of 
this  species  on  the  Pacific  coast  of  North  America,  but  these  two 
specimens,  with  the  chief  characters  as  briefly  related  above,  are, 
beyond  question,  of  the  type  frondosa  as  described,  for  instance,  by 
Clark,  1904,  page  566. 

Ilahitat. — (?)  Florida  Reef  (Pourtales,  1S69).  Massachusetts  to  Lab- 
rador (Gould,  1841,  Aj^ers,  1851,  Stimpson,  1853,  Verrill,  1866,  Packard, 
1867,  Ludwig,  1882,  Ganong,  1884,  1888,  Lampert,  1885,  Ludwig, 
1900,  Kingsley,  1901,  Whiteaves,  1901,  Clark,  1904).  Baffins  Bay 
(Duncan  and  Sladen,  1877,  1881).  Assistance  Bay,  Barrow  Strait,  lat. 
75^"  N.  (Forbes,  1852).  West  coast  of  Greenland  to  lat.  69°  N.  (Fabri- 
cius,  1780,  O.  F.  Midler,  1788,  Liitken,  1857,  Stimpson,  1863,  Norman, 
1876,  Ludwig,  1882, 1883).  Iceland  (O.  F.  Midler,  1788,  Liitken,  1857, 
Ludwig,  1883).  Jan  Mayen  (Fischer,  1886).  Faroe  Islands  (Liitken, 
1857,  Bell,  1892,  Sluiter,  1895,  Horring,  1902,  Schmidt,  1904).  South 
from  Scandinavia  to  Kattegat  (Diiben  and  Koren,  1846).  Coast  of 
Norway,  south  to  Hardanger  fjord,  lat.  59'^  N.  North  to  North  Cape 
and  Finmark  (Gunnerus,  1770,  O.  F.  Miiller,  1806,  Diiben  and  Koren, 
1846,  M.  Sars,  1850,  1861,  Liitken,  1857,  M' Andrew  and  Barrett, 
1857,  Lampert,  1885,  Kiikenthal  and  Weissenborn,  1886,  Grieg,  1889, 
and  1896,  Nordgaard,  1893,  Sluiter,  1895,  Ostergren,  1902).  Baren 
Island  (Danielssen  and  Koren,  1882).  Shetland  Islands  (Forbes,  1841, 
Dalyell,  1851,  Ludwig,  1882).  Orkney  Islands  (Bell,  1892).  Coast'of 
Scotland  (Forbes,  1841,  Dalyell,  1851,  M'Intosh,  1875,  Bell,  1892). 
Ireland  (Thompson,  1840,  18*44,  Theel,  1886.  Southwest  England  to 
lat.  50°  N.  (Bell,  1892).  Spitzbergen,  to  lat.  80°  N.  (v.  Heuglin,  1874, 
Ljungman,  1879,  Ludwig,  1900).  Barent's  Sea  (Sluiter,  1895).  Mur- 
man  coast  (Jarzynsky,  1885,  Pfeffer,  1890).  Kara  Sea  (Levinsen,  1886). 
Point  Franklin,  Alaska  (Murdoch,  1885).  San  Francisco  (A3^ers,  1855). 
Admiralty  Inlet,  Port  Townsend,  Washington,  Afognak  Island, 
Kadiak  Island  {Albatross.,  Alaska  Salmon  Investigations,  1903). 
Ludwig,  1900  (p.  143),  gives  this  species  as  two-thirds  circurapolar. 

Depth  0  to  218  fathoms;  usually  lives  in  from  2  to  30  fathoms. 


9.  CUCUMARIA  JAPONICA  Semper,   1868. 

1868.  Cucumaria  japonica  Semper,  p.  236. 

1885.  Cucumaria  japonica  Lampert,  p.  143. 

1886.  Cucumaria  japonica  Theel,  p.  110. 
1900.  Cucrimaria  japonica  Ludwig,  p.  143. 
1902.  Cucumaria  japonica  Clark,  p.  562. 

June  29,  1903.— Three  specimens;  Station  1205;  lat.  18°  8'  10"  N., 
long.  122°  11'  18"  W.;  15  to  2()  fathoms;  bottom,  temperature  50.8°, 
rock,  shells.  August  21. — One  specimen;  Station  1802;  off  Shakan, 
Sumner  Strait,  southeast  Alaska;  169  to  212  fathoms;  bottom,  tem- 
perature 41.2°,  blue  mud.     Without  data — two  specimens. 

She  in  niillimeters. — Introvert  extended;  length:  specimens  a,  55; 
J,  170;  greatest  diameter,  «,  19;  ?>,  38;  introvert  retracted,  length,  c, 
21;  c/,  33;  e,  10;  f,  170;  greatest  diameter,  c,  15;  d,  19;  e^  20;  /,  65. 
Individuals  h  and _/ may  be  taken  as  adult  and  the  others  as  3'oung. 

Color. — Dark,  or  light,  tint  of  ecru-dral).  c,  heliotrope-purple, 
from  which  as  a  natural  color,  the  ecru-dral)  might  result  after  loss 
of  color  in  alcohol. 

Spicules  ofhody  wall. — Perforated  plates  of  irregular  form  and  size. 
In  most  of  the  specimens,  as  shown  in  sections,  the  large,  radially 
placed,  perforated  plates  are  massed  near  the  opening  of  the  cloaca,  as 
described  by  Semper,  1868  (Plate  XXXIX,  fig.  3).  Clark,  1902,  did 
not  find  these  large  plates  in  his  four  specimens,  which  otherwise  agree 
with  the  descriptions  given  by  Semper,  1868,  and  Lampert,  1885. 

Calcareous  ring. — In  form  like  frondosa.,  but  very  delicate  and 
generally  greatly  reduced,  not,  however,  to  the  mere  vestige  described 
by  Semper. 

Polian  'Vesicle. — Five  specimens  with  one  Polian  vesicle,  longer  than 
the  body,  the  terminal  portion  turned  forward  and  coiled  among  the 
gonad  tubes  and  branches  of  the  respiratory  trees.  Length  in  !>.,  200 
mm. ;  /',  351  mm.  Since  usually  but  one  Polian  vesicle  has  been  given, 
it  is  worthy  of  note  that  e  has  1,  one  in  the  right  ventral  radius, 
one  either  side  of  the  mid- ventral  radius,  and  one  in  the  left  dorsal 

Stone  canals. — Length  in  millimeters. — As  generally  twisted,  3 ;  when 
straightened,  5;  madreporite,  1.  Numher  and  location. — </,  5,  in  right 
and  left  tufts  at  edge  of  base  of  Polian  vesicle;  6?,  6,  around  base  of 
Polian  vesicle;  e,  9;  c^  18,  scattered  around  oral  canal;  />,  95;  /',  110, 
closely  crowded  in  a  row  around  the  posterior  margin  of  the  entire 
oral  canal.  This  increase  in  number  accompanies  growth,  which  is 
strikingly  demonstrated  in  the  large  number  of  canals  in  the  adult. 
This  fact  I  have  shown  for  other  Holothurians  in  a  recent  paper 
( Edwards,  1905).  Form. — Simple,  or  distally  bifid  or  trifid,  each  branch 
bearing  a  small  madreporite.  Stone  canal  twisted,  sometimes  two 
twisted  together,  or,  again,  two  may  be  united  at  the  base. 

62  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

Bahitat.—Japsin  (Semper,  1868).  Gulf  of  Georgia  (Lampert,  18S5). 
Sitka  (Clark,  li)02).  Shakan,  Summer  Strait,  southeast  A[aska{Alba- 
iross  Alaska  Salmon  Investigations,  1903). 

lo.  PANNYCHIA  MOSELEYI  Theel,  1882. 

1882.  Pannychia  moselet/i  Theel,  pp.  88-90. 

(?)  1894.  Pannychia  moseleyi  var.  henrice  Ludwig,  pp.  95-99. 

1901.  PannycMa  moseleyi  Sluiter,  pp.  71-72. 

July  31, 1903.— One  specimen;  Station  4265;  lat.  56°  56'  30"  N.,  long. 
136°  10'  0"  W.;  590  fathoms;  bottom,  temperature  38.2°,  green  mud, 

Form. — Flattened  \  entrally,  arched  dorsally. 

Dimensions  of  hody. — 97  mm.  long;  13  mm.  wide;  10  mm.  dorso- 
ventral  diameter. 

Color. — In  alcohol  heliotrope-purple  above,  white  below.  Pedicels 
and  papilloB  whitish,  ends-  cream  color.  Tentacles  like  the  body  on 
the  stalks,  but  with  the  ends  cream  color. 

Nwmber  of  tentacles. — Twenty,  three  broken  off. 

Distribution  of  pedicels. — Thirty -two  in  the  right  lateral  ventral 
radius.  Twenty-eight  in  the  left  lateral  ventral  radius.  In  both  of 
these  rows  the  posterior  pedicels  are  smaller.  Twenty-four  in  the 
mid-ventral  radius. 

PapUlie. — Length,  10  nmi.;  diameter,  0.4  mm.  About  lYO  on  each 
side  of  the  l)ivium,  being  somewhat  thicker  along  the  radii.  In  the 
middle  third  of  the  mid-dorsal  region  there  is  a  naked  longitudinal 
space  only  2  mm.  wide.  At  the  extreme  anterior  end  of  the  bivium 
there  are  three  papillae  on  either  side  and  in  the  line  of  the  madrepojic 
papilla  one  on  either  side,  each  with  a  stiff'  firm  wall,  thicker  base  (1 
mm.  diameter),  and  with  the  stalk  colored  heliotrope-purple. 

Amj>iill86. — Of  the  pedicels,  covered  in  the  body-wall.  Of  the 
papillte,  branched,  projecting  into  the  coelom. 

Thickness  of  body  wall. — Ventrally  0.5  to  2  mm. 

Calcareous  spicules. — In  general  like  those  described  by  Theel,  18S2, 
and  for  the  details  I  refer  to  his  paper. 

Spicides  of  the  body  wall. — In  the  bivium  are  found  the  large  wlieels 
of  13  or  14  spokes,  but  no  spicules  similar  to  the  small  wheel  shaped 
plates  or  small  round  plates  with  35  to  50  holes.  In  the  triviuui,  to 
the  contrary,  the  first-mentioned  large  Avheels  are  lacking,  whih^  the 
small  wheel-shaped  plates  and  perforated  plates  with  many  holes, 
together  with  straight  or  arcuated,  simple  or  branched,  spinose  sup- 
porting rods  are  present. 

Spicules  of  the  amhdacral  appendages. — Pedicels. — Large  wheels, 
small  wheel-shaped  plates,  small  round  perforated  plates,  simple  or 
branched,  spinose  supporting  rods,  large  irregular  plates  at  the  top  of 


the  processes,  terniiniil  phites  with  tmnierous  holes  in  several  hiyers, 
and  net-like  bodies  with  wide,  irreg-ular  meshes. 

Papillse. — Scattered  small  wheel-shaped  plates  and  simple  or 
branched  spinose  supporting-  rods,  with  some  of  the  large  wheels  near 
the  tips. 

Tentacles. — Many  of  the  large  wdieels  and  small  wheel-shaped  plates 
in  the  stalks,  but  in  the  disks  only  the  last,  together  with  crowded 
spinose  supporting  rods. 

Calcareous  ring. — Rudimentar}',  fragile,  spongy;  its  true  form  not 

I\>Uan  vesicles. — Two,  each  20  nun.  long,  l.C  mm.  diameter,  with  a 
common  base  for  'S  mm. 

Stone  canal. — Ends  in  dorsal  madreporic  papilla.  1  mm.  in  diameter, 

9  mm.  posterior  to  the  tentacles;  a  clear,  slightly  whitish,  spherical 
body,  of  no  particular  structure. 

Gonads. — On  either  side  of  dorsal  mesentery  one  long  (70  mm.) 
tube,  giving  oti'  richly  branched  lateral  branches.     The  gonaduct  opens 

10  mm.  posterior  to  the  tentacles. 

Comparative. — The  one  indi\'idual  above  extends  the  geographical 
distribution  of  this  species  from  one  extreme  of  the  Pacitic  to  the 
other.  From  the  three  records  now  published,  together  with  the 
above  description  of  the  Alhatross  specimen,  it  is  difficult  to  say 
whether  there  are  several  varieties  of  Theers  type  or  just  one  very 
variable  species.  The  descriptions  of  PcutnycJiia  nioseleyi  Theel, 
given  by  Theel,  Sluiter,  and  myself,  and  of  P.  moseleyi  var.  henrice 
Ludwig  agree  well  enough  and  so  intergrade  as  to  constitute  the  one 
species.  Because  of  the  inadequate  description,  the  position  of  Pa)i- 
oujchia  icooiPniasoni  Walsh,  1891,  given  by  the  author  as  closely  allied 
to  P.  moseleyi  Theel  is  very  uncertain,  as  both  Ludwig  (pp.  9.5-9(i)  and 
Sluiter  (p.  72)  have  indicated. 

Ludwig  established  his  variety  upon  the  smaller  number  of  pedicels 
in  the  mid-ventral  radius  and  the  presence  of  three  genital  tubes, 
instead  of  one,  on  each  side  of  the  dorsal  mesentery.  The  number  of 
pedicels  depends  upon  growth,  although  we  have,  as  yet,  no  exact 
formula  for  the  determination  of  the  age  of  a  Holothurian.  The  size, 
of  course,  in  a  general  way  gives  some  idea  of  age  and  maturity,  as 
Mitsukuri,  1903,  found  in  the  case  of  Stichopus  jajxmicus  Selenka, 
and,  as  I  have  demonstrated  in  recent  studies  (1905),  of  Ilolothuria 
floridana  Pourtales  and  TI.  atva  Jaeger. 

While  in  general,  as  Ludwig  suggests  (p.  98),  the  number  of  append- 
ages increases  with  size  and  age,  yet  my  specimen,  with  a  length 
included  in  Ludwig's  smallest  class  (66  to  175  nnu.),  has  a  larger 
number  of  lateral  pedicels  than  even  TheeFs  type.  The  number  of 
mid-ventral  pedicels  in  my  specimen  (24)  agrees  exactly  with  that  of 
Sluiter,  and  both  are  intermediate  between  Theel's  type  (55)  and  Lud- 


wig's  variety  (2-14).  Considering  the  variation  recorded  for  the  ped- 
icels, it  is  doubtful,  with  our  present  knowledge  of  the  species,  if  a 
variety  should  be  established  upon  this  basis.  The  presence  of  three 
genital  tubes  instead  of  one  on  each  side  of  the  mesentery,  since  in 
both  cases  ih.Qj  are  of  the  same  form,  might  also  be  taken  as  within 
the  possible  limits  of  variation  and  growth.  Upon  comparing  my 
specimen  with  Theel's  drawing  (Plate  XVII,  fig.  2)  I  was  impressed 
with  the  different  appearance  it  presented.  Instead  of  the  rather 
scattered  papilUe  showing  considerable  inequality  in  size  and  the  long, 
broad,  naked  mid-dorsal  space,  as  pictured  by  Theel's  artist,  my  spec- 
imen gives  the  impression  of  more  nearly  equal,  more  slender,  shorter, 
and  crowded  papillae.  This  impression  is  borne  out  by  Theel's  count 
of  100  papillae  on  each  side  of  the  back,  while  I  found  about  170,  and 
the  length  of  the  papillae,  which  he  gives  as  15  to  20  mm.,  while  10 
mm.  is  the  longest  in  my  specimen.  Thus,  in  respect  to  form  and 
distribution  of  papilla^,  Theel's  type  is  one  extreme  and  my  specimen 
the  other,  with  Ludwig's  (Plate  X,  fig.  2)  intermediate.  The  anterior 
dorsal  "transverse,  thin,  lobe-like  extension  of  the  skin,  sending  out 
several  processes"  of  Theel  (p.  89)  is  probably  represented  by  the 
stiff- walled,  heliotrope-purple  colored  papilhe,  each  with  a  base  (1  mm. 
in  diameter)  twice  the  width  of  the  ordinary  papilla  and  arranged 
three  on  each  side  at  the  extreme  anterior  end,  with  an  additional  one 
on  each  side  in  the  line  of  the  madreporic  papilla.  The  two  Polian 
vesicles,  with  a  common  base  in  my  example,  may  easiW  be  regarded 
as  a  variation,  as  also  the  smaller  size  and  lack  of  structure  shown  in 
the  madreporic  papilla  Avhen  the  latter  is  compared  with  Ludwig's 
specimen.  The  characters  of  Sluiter's  two  specimens  are  in  general 
intermediate  between  those  of  Theel  and  Ludwig. 

11.  STICHOPUS  CALIFORNICA  (Stimpson),  1857. 

June  20,  1903.— Two  specimens;  Station  4193;  lat.  49-'  20'  30"  N., 
long.  123^  35'  40"  W.;  18  to  23  fathoms;  bottom,  temperature  50.3°, 
green  mud;  fine  sand.  June  20. — Two  specimens;  Station  4197;  lat. 
49°  20'  34"  N.,  long.  123°  35'  54"  W.;  31  to  97  fathoms;  bottom,  tem- 
perature 46.8°,  sticky,  green;  fine  sand. 

In  these  four  small  specimens  (length  3.5  to  4.5  cm.)  the  gonads  are 
not  developed,  but  the  spicules  and  other  characters  agree  so  well  with 
what  there  is  in  the  meager  original  description  of  Stimpson,  1857,  and 
the  much  better  characterization  of  Clark,  1901,  that  I  have  little 
hesitation  in  this  determination. 

Habitat. — Tomales  Bay,  Pacific  coast  (Stimpson  1857).  Pacific 
Grove,  California  (Clark  1901a).  Sitka  (Clark  1902).  Gulf  of  Georgia, 
Vancouver  Island,  British  Columbia  {Albatross  Alaska  Salmon  Inves- 
tigations 1903). 

NO.  1658.  NOR  TH  PA  CIFIC  HOL  0  THVRIA  NS—ED  WA  EDS.  C  5 

12.   STICHOPUS    CHALLENGERI    (Theel),  i886. 

Jul}^  7,  1903.— Three  specimens;  Station  4230;  hit.  55^  35'  13"  N., 
long.  Isi^  50'  11"  W. ;  108  to  240  fathoms;  bottom,  temperature  4:2 A \ 
roclv}'.  August  14. — One  specimen;  Station  4289;  Uyak  Bay,  Kadiak 
Island;  74  to  80  fathoms;  bottom,  temperature  42.2°,  gray  mud. 
Augustlo.— One  specimen;  Station  4291;  lat.  57^45' 0"  N.,  long.  154° 
2'  30"  W.;  48  to  65  fathoms;  bottom  blue  mud,  sand,  gravel.  August 
15.— One  specimen;  Station  4293;  lat.  57-45'0"N.,long.  154°12'0"W.; 
106  to  112  fathoms;  bottom  blue  mud,  fine  sand. 

The  study  of  these  six  individuals  of  Stichojms  chaUengeri.,  which 
Theel  described  from  "a  single  slightly  macerated  specimen,"  gives 
an  opportunity  to  add  a  few  things  to  the  admirable  description  of 
that  author.  It  is  of  interest  that  TheeFs  specimen,  found  in  lat.  46° 
53'  S.,  long.  51°  52'  E.,  gives  the  two  regions  now  recorded  for  this 
species  on  opposite  sides  of  the  earth. 

Body. — Size  in  centimeters:  Length,  5.1  to  18.8;  average,  12.3; 
dorso-ventral  diameter,  1.2  to  2.3;  average,  1.8;  transverse  diameter, 
2.0  to  3.2;  average,  2.7. 

Color. — In  alcohol;  three  specimens  brownish  drab  dorsall}",  shading 
to  light  hair  brown,  or  white,  ventrally;  the  other  three  heliotrope- 
purple  dorsall^y,  shading  to  lavender  ventrally. 

Tentacles. — Nonretractilc;  four  specimens  with  20  and  two  with  19 
(Theel's  example  had  19).  Color  cream-buH".  Ampulhe  extremely 
short,  the  longest  being  3  mm. 

Genital  jxipilla. — Inconspicuous,  at  most  1.5  mm.  high,  0.5  to  1.4 
cm.  from  base  of  tentacles. 

Pedicels. — Ventral,  nonretractile,  white,  with  cream-color  ends. 
Three  specimens  have  two  rows  the  entire  length  of  the  ambulacra. 
In  one  specimen  the  two  lateral  ambulacra  have  two  rows  and  the  mid- 
ventral  is  parti}'  with  two  and  partly  with  four  rows.  The  other  two 
specimens  have  four  rows  in  the  mid-ventral  ambulacrum  in  the  middle 
of  the  bodv.  This  increase  in  number  of  rows  is  obvious!}'  due  to  con- 
traction and  is  of  interest  in  relation  to  TheeFs  description  of  the 
''  median  series,  composed,  apparently,  of  about  four  rows  of  pedicels 
on  the  posterior  half  of  the  body;  anteriorly  the  odd  ambulacrum 
carries  only  two  rows  of  pedicels." 

Paplllx.  —  Dorsal,  usually  the  most  anterior  are  longer  and  form  a 
fringe  projecting  in  front  of  the  body.  Length,  0.6  to  1.7  mm.; 
average,  1.1  mm. 

Color. — Stalks,  like  bod}";  some  of  the  ends,  white. 

Body  vxill. — Rough,  0.1  to  5.0  mm.  thick;  average,  2.2  mm. 

Spicules  of  the  lody  icall. — In  addition  to  the  structures  described 
by  Theel,  occasionally  the  four-rayed  forms  have  the  ends  of  the  rays 
joined  to  make  perforated  disks  of  tables. 
Proc.  N.  M.  vol.  xxxiii— 07 5 

6G  PIIOCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

An  incomplete  table  is  shown  in  Theel's  figure.  M\  stages  between 
the  simple  bifurcated,  or  perforated,  ends  of  the  rays  to  the  completed 
disk  ma}'  be  observed.  TheeFs  suggestion  that  the  two  C-shaped 
deposits  he  observed  belonged  to  another  species  is  i)orne  out  by  the 
absence  of  any  such  spicules  in  the  six  AIlM/tross  specimens. 

Spicules  of  the  tentacles. — The  supporting  rods  (tig.  12)  vary  greatly 
in  size  and  degree  of  curvature.  They  ma}'  be  straight  or  form  a 
semicircle,  or  the  curvature  may  be  represented  by  an  acute  angle. 
Generally  the  ends  are  perforated.  The  rods  are  smallest  at  the  tips 
of  the  tentacles. 

Size  of  rods  in  millimeters. — Length  of  chord.  0.06  to  1.4;  width 
of  rod,  0.008  to  0.08. 

Polian  vesicle. — Only  one  in  each  of  the  six  individuals  in  contradis- 
tinction to  TheeFs,  which  had  two. 
Form,  cylindrical.  Length,  11.0  to 
24.0  mm.;  average,  13.5  mm. 

Stone   cannl. — Single,    in    dorsal 
mesentery  with  madreporite  adher- 
ent to  coelomic  epithelium.    Length, 
Fig.  12.— stichopus  challengeri.    Curved     fj.O  to  18.0  mm.;  average,  13.0mm. 

SUPPORTING   ROD  OF  A  TENTACLE.      (  X  50.  )  TV/f       1  •  i.  T     1         i'  J       /• 

Madreporite.  disk  lormed  (in  one 
case  spherical)  with  stone  canal  attached  to  one  edge.  Diameter,  1.0 
to  3.0  mm. 

Gonads. — In  both  sexes  like  a  string  of  beads.  Gonaduct  accompa- 
nies the  stone  canal  anteriorly,  joining  the  genital  papilla  just  posterior 
to  the  madreporite.     Five  specimens  were  females,  one  male. 

Respiratory  trees. — Present  in  three  specimens,  with  two  branches 
as  described  b}'  Theel,  except  in  one  individual,  which  has  three. 
Length,  trunk,  5.0  to  12.0  mm.;  average,  8.0  mm.;  longest  branch, 
30.0  to  59.0  mm.;  average,  39.7  mm.;  shortest  branch,  23.0  to  43.0 
mm.;  average,  30.7  mm. 

Habitat. — Lat.  46^  53' 8.;  long.  51^  52'  E.;  depth,  550  fathoms 
(Theel,  Challenger  Report,  188()).  Naha  Bay,  Behm  Canal,  southeast- 
ern Alaska,  Uyak  Bay,  Kadiak  Island,  Shelikof  Strait  {Alhatros-s, 
Alaska  Salmon  Investigations,  1903). 


1883.  Bell,  F.  Jeffrey.     On  the  Spicules  of  Ciicumaria  hyndmanni,  C.  culcigera,  and 

two  allied  forms.     Jour.  Roy.  Mic.  Soc.  London,  (2),  III,  pp.  481-484.    - 
1899.  BiDENKAP,  Olaf.     Troms0sundets  Echinodermer.     Tromso  Mus.  Aarsh.,  Hft. 

20,  pp.  104-112. 
1835.  Brandt,  Joh.  Frid.     Prodromus   descriptionis   aninialium   ab   H.   Mertensio 

observatorum.     Ease.  1. 
1883.  Bush,  Katharine  J.     Proc.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus.,  VI. 
1901.  Clark,  Hubert  Lyman.     The  Holothurian.s   of  the  Pacific   coast  of  Nortli 

America.     Zool.  Anzeig.,  XXIV,  pp.  162-171. 


KtOla.  Clark,  Hubert    Lyman.     Echinoderms    fi-oin    ruget  Sound.     I'roc.   Boston 

Soc.  Nat.  Hist.,  XXIX,  (15),  pp.  323-337. 
190L'.  .     Notes   on   Some    North    Pacific  HolotlinrianH.     /ool.    Anz.,    XX\', 


1904.  .     Tlie  Echinodenns  of  the  Woods  Hole  Region.     Bull.  IJ.  S.  Fish  Com., 

pis.  i-xiv,  pp.  545-576. 

1903-4.  Delage,   Y.,    and    Herouard,   E.      Traitc   de   zoologie   concrete.      3;    Lea 

Echinodermes.     8vo.,  53  pis.,  565  text,  tigs.,  pp.  x+496,  Paris. 
1881.  Duncan,  P.  Martin,  and  Sladen,  W .  Percy.     A  Memoir  on  the  Echinoder- 

mata  of  the  Arctic  Sea  to  the  West  Coast  of  Greenland.     London.     82  pp. 

6  pis. 

1905.  Edwards,  Charles  Lincoln.     A  (Quantitative  Study  of  Jlololluirid  utra  Jaeger 

and   the  Reestablishment  of  IlulotJtiiria  floridana  Pourtales   {=irulothiiri<i 
mexicana  Ludwig).     Science,  n.  s.,  XXI.  (532),  pp.  383-384,  Mar.  10. 
1852.  Forbes,  Edward.     Notes  on  Animals  of  the  Class  Echinodermata.     Suther- 
land, Peter  C.     Journal  of  a  voyage  in  Baffins  Bay  and  Barrow  Straits  in  the 
years  1850-51,  II,  London,  iVppendix,  pp.  ccxiv-ccxvi. 

1884.  (xANONCi,  W.  F.     On  the  Zoology  of   the  Invertebrate  Animals  of   Passama- 

quoddy  Bay.     Bull.  Nat.  Hist.  Soc.  New  Brunswick,  (4),  pp.  87-102. 
1888.  .     The  Echinodermata  of  New  Brunswick.     Bull.  Nat.  Hist.  Soc.  New 

Brunswick,  (7),  pp.  45-53. 
1891.  .     Zoological  Notes.     Bull.  Nat.  Hist.  Soc.  Xew  Brunswick,  (9).     (Reprint 

in  14  pp.,  but  no  date.) 
1767.  (tUNNerus,  John  Ernst.     Beskrifning  Pa  trenne  Norrska  Sjo-Krak,  Sjo-Pengar 

kallade  Kongl.     Ventenskapps  Acad.,    Handlingar  for  Ar   1767,    XXVIII 

pp.  114-124,  tab.  4. 

1902.  H0rrin(;,  R.     Rapport  om  Fiskeriunders0gelserne  under  Faeroerne  og  Island 

i  Sommeren  1901.     Fiskeri-Beretn.  for  1900-1901,  pp.  181-209. 
1901.  Kingsley,  J.  S.     Preliminary  Catalogue  of  the  Marine  Invertebrata  of  Casco 
Bay,  .Maine.     Proc.  Portland  Soc.  Nat.  Hist.,  II,  pp.  159-183. 

1885.  Lampert,   Kurt.     Die  Seewalzen.     Semper,  Reiseu  ini  Arcliipel  der  Philip- 

pinen,  Wiesbaden,  Tiel  2,  IV,  Abt.  3,  4,  310  pp.,  1  pi. 
1883.  Ludwig,   Hubert.     Verzeichniss  der  Holothurien  des   Kieler   Museums.     22 
Bericht  d.  Oberhess.  Gesellsch.  f.  Natur-u.  Ileilkunde,  pp.  155-176. 

1886.  .     Echinodermen  des  Berings-meeres.     Zool.  Jahrbiicher,  I,  pp.  27-"i-29fJ, 

1  pi. 

1894.  .     12.   The  Holothurioidea.     Reports  on  an  exploration  off  the   West 

Coasts  of  Mexico,  Central  and  South  America,  and  Galapagos  Islands,  in 

charge  of  Alex.  Agassiz,  U.  S.  Fish.  Com.  str.  AlhutroKH,  during  1891,  Lieut. 

Com.  Z.  L.  Tanner,  U.  S.  N.,  commanding.     JNIemoirs  Mus.  Comp.  Zool. 

Harvard  Coll.,  XVII,  (3),  183  pp.,  19  pis. 
1898.  .     Holothurien.     Hamburger  Magelhaensischeu  Sammelreise.     P]rgeb. 

Hamburg  Magelh.  Sammelreise,  3  Lief.     (1),  98  pp.,  3  pis. 
1900.  .     Arktische   und   subarktische   Holothurien.     Fauna   Arctica  heraus- 

gegeben  von  F.  Romer  u.  F.  Schaudinn.     Jena,  I,  pp.  133-178. 
1857.  Lt'TKEN,  Chr.  Fr.     OversigtoverGronlands  Echinodermata.     Videnskabelige 

Meddel.  fra  den  Naturhist.  Forening  i  Hjobenhavn,  pp.  88-110. 
1874.  Marenzeller,  E.  v.     Kritik  adriatischer  Holothurien.     Verhandl.  zool. -hot. 

Gesellsch.  Wien.,  pp.  299-320. 
1897.   ]\IiTSUKURi,  K.     On  Changes  which  are  found   with  Advancing  Age  in   the 

Calcareous  Deposits  of  StieJiopus  japonicus,  Selenka.     Annot.  Zool.  Japon., 

V,  Pts.  1  and  2,  pp.  31-42,  3  text  figs. 

1903.  .     Notes  on  the  Llabits  and  Life  History  of  »S7/c/*o/)/f.s';'cyjon(>iw  Selenka. 

Annot.  Zool.  Japon.,  V,  Pt.  1,  pp.  1-21,  4  figs. 

68  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

1877.  Norman,  A.  M.  J.  Gwyn  Jeffreys  Preliminary  Report  of  the  Biol.  Eesults  of 
a  cruise  of  H.  M.  S.  Valorous  to  Davis  Strait  in  1875.  Proc.  Roy.  Soc.  Lon- 
don, XXV  (1876),  pp.  202-215. 

1867.  Pack.\rd,  a.  S.  View  of  the  Invertebrate  Fauna  of  Labrador.  Memoirs  Bos- 
ton Soc.  Nat.  Hist.,  I. 

1894.  Pfeffer,  Georg.  Echinodermen  von  Ost.  Spitzbergen,  nach  der  Ausbeute 
der  Herren  Prof.  W.  Kiikenthal  und  Dr.  Alfr.  Walter  in  Jahre  1889,  Zool. 
Jahrbiicher,  Abt.  f.  Syst.,  VII,  pp.  100-127. 

1851.  Pourtales,  L.  F.  On  the  Holothuriae  of  the  Atlantic  Coast  of  the  United 
States.     Proc.  Am.  Ass.  Adv.  Sc,  5  Meet.,  pp.  8-16,  ^ya^h. 

1861.  Sars,  M.     Oversigt  of  Norges  Echinodermer.     Christiania.,  160  pp.,  16  pi. 

1904.  ScHxMiDT,  J.  Fiskeriunders0gelser  ved  Island  og  Faer0erne  i  Sommeren  1903. 
Skrift.  Komm.  f.  Havunders0gelser  (I)  vi+148pp.,  X  charts,  Oct. 

1867.  Selenka,  Emil.     Beitriige   zur   Anatomie   und   Systematik  der  Holothurien. 

Zeitschr.  f.  wiss.  Zool.,  XVII,  pp.  291-374,  pis.  xvii-xx. 

1868.  Semper,  Carl.     Reisen  im   Archipel   der   Philippinen,   Wiesbaden.     Teil  2, 

Bd.  I,  Holothurian,  288  pp.,  40  pis. 
1901.  Sluiter,  C.  Pn.     Die  Holothurian  der  Siboga-Expedition.     Monograph.  44, 

Uitkomsten  op  Zool.  Bot.  Ocean  en  Geol.  Gebied  Versameld  in  Nederland. 

Ost-Indie  1899-1900  aan  boord  H.  M.  Siboga  onder  commondo  Van  Luit. 

G.  F.  Tydeman.  Leiden. 
1854.  Stimpson,  W.     Proc.  Boston  Soc.  Nat.  Hist.,  IV. 
1857.  .     Crustacea  and  Echinodermata  of  the  Pacific  Coast  of  North  America. 

J.  of  Boston  Soc.  of  Nat.  Hist.,  VI,  pp.  444-5.32. 
1879.  Stuxberg,   Anton.     Echinodermer   fran   Novaj    Semljas  haf   samlade  under 

Nordenskiuldska  expeditionerna    1875    och    1876.     Oefversigt    af    Kongl. 

Vetenskaps-Akademiens  Forhandlinger  (1878),  Stockholm.     (3),  pp.  27-40, 

pi.  6. 
1886.  .     Fauna  pa  och  kring  Novaja  Semlja.     Vega-Expeditionenes  Veten- 

skapliga  Jakttagelser,  Stockholm,  V,  239  pp.  I  Karte. 
1882.  Theel,    Hjalmar.     Report  on   the   Holothurioidea,    Pt.    I.     Report  on   the 

Scientific  Results  of  the  Voyage  of  H.  M.  S.  Challenger,  Zoology,  IV,  Pt.  13, 

London,  176  pp.,  46  pis. 
1886. .     Report  on   the   Holothurioidea,    Pt.    2.      Report  on   the   Scientific 

Results  of  the  Voyage  of  H.  M.  S.  Cliallenger,  Zoology,  XIV,   Pt.  39,  Lon- 
don, 290  pp.,  16  pis. 
1886a.  .     Reports   on   the  Results   of    Dredging,    under  the  supervision  of 

Alex.    Agassiz,  in  the   Gulf  of  Mexico    (1877-78),  in   the  Caribbean   Sea 

(1879-80),  and  along  the  Eastern  Coast  of  the  U.  S.  during  the  summer 

of  1880,   by  the  U.  S.  Coast  Survey  str.  Blake,  Lieut.  Commander  C.  D. 

Sigsbee,  U.  S.  N.,  and  Commander  J.  R.  Bartlett,  U.  S.  N.,  commanding. 

Report  on  the  Holothurioidea,     Bull.  Mus.  Harvard  Coll.,  XIII,  pp.  1-21. 
1866.  Verrill,  a.  E.     On  the  Polyps  and  Echinoderms  of  New  England.     Proc. 

Boston  Soc.  Nat.  Hist.,  X,  Boston,  pp.  33.3-357. 
1891.  Walsh,  J.  A.  Tull.     Natural  History  Notes  from  H.  'M.  Indian  Marine  Sur- 
vey steamer  Investigator,   (24).     List  of  Deep-Sea   Holothurians   collected 

during  seasons  1887-1891,  with  descriptions  of  new  species.     J.  Asiatic  Soc. 

Bengal,  LX,  1891,  pp.  197-204. 
1901.  Whiteaves,  J.  F.     Catalogue  of  the  Marine  Invertebrata.     Geol.  Sur.  Canada, 

Ottawa,  (722),  p.  44. 


By  Austin  Hobart  Clark, 

Of  the  United  States  Bureau  of  Fisheries. 

T\iif<  paper  is  based  upon  material  collected  by  the  United  States 
Fisheries  steamer  A/I)afross  in  the  Pacilic  Ocean  north  of  Mexico  and 
southern  Japan.  All  but  two  of  the  species  were  collected  on  the 
recent  Japanese  cruise  in  the  Bering'  Sea  and  about  Japan,  The 
Eschrlcht'ii  group  is  best  represented  in  regard  to  numbers,  with  over 
1,750  specimens,  mostly  of  Bering  Sea  and  eastern  Pacific  forms. 
Unfortunately,  Antedon  eschriehtii  var.  maxima  is  so  large  (about  3 
feet  in  diameter)  that  on  the  last  cruise,  although  we  obtained  it  in 
enormous  numbers — on  one  or  two  occasions,  in  fact,  there  was  very 
little  else  in  the  trawl — we  found  it  impracticable  to  preserve  an 
extensive  series.  The  species  of  this  group  in  the  eastern  Okhotsk 
Sea,  off  eastern  Japan,  off  the  Pacific- American  coast,  and  in  the  Bering 
Sea  are  all  remarkable  for  the  strong  overlapping  of  the  arm  joints, 
which  have  serrate  distal  edges,  a  fact  which  was  first  noticed  for  this 
district  by  Hartlaub  in  Antedon  tanneri  from  Panama.  The  lower 
pinnules  also  have  a  distal  comb,  resembling  that  in  some  species  of 
Coniatida,  but  much  longer  than  is  usual  in  that  genus.  Another 
interesting  fact  is  that  the  species  from  the  western  American  coast 
all  have  the  third  syzygy  in  the  fourteenth  brachial  and  not  in  the 
twelfth,  as  do  those  from  the  Bering  Sea  and  Asiatic  coast.  The  dis- 
tal intersyzygial  interval  in  the  North  Pacific  species  (excepting'  those 
from  southern  fbipan  and  the  Japanese  Sea)  is  almost  invariably  two 
joints,  whereas  in  most  of  the  others  it  is  three.  All  these  species 
will  be  more  fully  described  and  figured  in  my  report  on  the  North 
Pacific  crinoids. 

The  following  keys  have  been  prepared  with  reference  to  all  of  the 
described  species  in  the  respective  groups,  and  it  is  believed  that  the 
information  given  in  them  is  amply  sufficient  to  differentiate  the  new 
species  from  any  of  those  given  in  the  Challenger  reports  or  subse- 
quently described. 

Proceedings  U.  S.  National  Museum,  Vol.  XXXlll— No.  1559. 


70  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

Genus   DEC  AM  ETROCRINUS   Minekert. 

A.  ('entro-dorsal  lary;e  and  conical,  bearing  about  80  cirri. 

( 1 )   Decametrocrinus  horealis,  new  species. 
Genus   ANTEDON  de   Fr^minville. 

A.  A  syzygy  in  the  radial  axillary. 

a.   10  arms:  the  first  jtinnnle  much  elongated,  with  a  distal  comb-liice  process  as 

in  Cotnatula  "   (2)   Antedon  ram,  new  species. 

aa.  20  arms:  distichals  4  (3  +  4)'':  cirri  smooth,  with  15  joints. 

(3)  A.  liartlauhi,  new  sjiecies. 
A  A.  Three  articulated  radials. 

a.  The  lower  jiinnules  long  and  flagellate,  the  first  with  very  short,  the  second 
and  following  with  much  elongated  joints:  cirri  smooth,  with  greatly 
elongated  joints  and  a  long  terminal  claw:  brachials  mostly  oblong. 

(4)  A.  (eneUoiiJc-'i,  new  species. 
aa.  The  lower  2)innules  long  and  flagellate,  with  numerous  short  and  broad  joints. 

[EscHRiCHTii  group.] 

(''.  Cirri  always  more  or  less  spiny:  distal  joints  of  first  pinnule  short  and  Inroad 

like  the  basal. 

c.  Fifth  pinnule  longer  than  the  first:  first  and  sixth  pinnules  usually  about 

equal,  but  the  sixth  may  be  the  longer:  arm  joints  strongly  overlapping, 

short-triangular:  intersyzygial  interval  two  joints. 

d.  Third  syzygy  in  the  twelfth  brachial (5)  A.  asperrimn,  new  species. 

dd.  Tliird  syzygy  in  the  fourteenth  brachial (6)  ^4.  perplexa,  new  species. 

cc.  Fifth  pinnule  much  shorter  than  the  first. 

d.  Third  pinnule  the  longest,  with  elongated  joints,  differing  from  the  first 
and  second,  which  have  short  and  broad  joints:  fourth  pinnule  nmch 

shorter:  40  cirrus  joints (7)  A.  laodice,  new  species. 

dd.  Third  pinnule  equal  to,  or  not  much  shorter  than,  the  second. 

e.  Joints  of  the  third  pinnule  mostly  wider  than  long  as  in  the  first  and 
second:  arm  joints  short  and  triangular:  more  than  40  cirrus  joints: 
arms  smooth:  third  pinnule  most  like  the  second. 

(8)  A.cschricldii  (J.  MuUer). 
ddd.  Third  pinnule  has  fewer  but  much   longer  joints  than  the  first   and 
e.  Less  than  40  cirrus  joints:  arm  joints  triangular. 
/.  Arm  joints  short,  much  wider  than  long,  strongly  overlapping:  35  to 

40  cirrus  joints (9)  A.  inexpectata,  new  species. 

ee.  Over  40  cirrus  joints:   arm  joints  triangular,  strongly  overlapping: 
lower  brachials  strongly  tubercular. . .  (10)  A.  ralltbnni,  new  species. 
dddd.  Third  pinnule  composed  of  a  few  elongated  joints,  and  much  shorter 
than  the  second,  which  has  short  joints. 

«It  is  unfortunate  that  the  name  Acfinometra  of  Johannes  Miiller  is  untenable. 
Miiller  jjroposed  the  name  in  1841  (Wiegmann's  Archiv  fiir  Naturgesch.,  1841,  Bd. 
I,  p.  140),  naming  as  the  type  Actinomelra  imperialis,  which  was  described  by  him  at 
the  same  time.  Later,  after  visiting  the  Paris  Museum,  Miiller  found  that  his  Acti- 
nomelra imperialis  was  identical  with  the  Comaiula  wlaris  of  Lamarck,  which  is  the 
type  of  the  genus  Comutida  proposed  by  Lamarck  in  1816  (Hist.  Nat.  des  Animaux 
sans  vertebres,  II,  p.  530. ).  Thus  Comatula  1816  and  Actinometra  1841,  being  founded 
on  the  same  species,  are  synonyms,  and  it  becomes  necessary  to  replace  the  latter 
by  the  older  name  established  by  Lamarck. 

^4  (3+4):  four  joints,  the  third  and  fourth  united  by  syzygy. 


e.  Middle  and  digtal  arm  joints  very  short,  much  wider  than  long. 
/.  Calyx  and  arm  bases  smooth:  third  syzygy  in  the  twelfth  brachial. 
g.  Distal  arm  joints  with  smooth  edges,  not  overlapping:  intersyzygial 
interval  1  to 5,  usually  3  joints.. (11)  ^1.  krachijmfro,  new  species. 
gg.  Distal  arm  joints  strongly  overlapping,  with  serrate  edges:  inter- 
syzygial interval  2  joints (9)  A.inexpectata,  new  species. 

ff.  Calyx  and  arm  bases  spinous:  third  syzygy  in  the  fourteenth  bra- 
chial  (12)  J.  serratimma,  new  species. 

ddddd.  The  third  pinnule,  while  much  shorter  than  the  second,  has  similar 
joints,  which  are  more  elongate  than  those  of  the  tirst. 
e.  60  cirrus  joints:  first  pinnule  the  longest:  radials  and  lower  brachials 

with  raised  and  spiny  edges (13)  A.  )ii<irLr,  new  species. 

ee.  35  to  40  cirrus  joints:  radials  and  lower  brachials  smooth. 

(14)  A.  liondoensis,  new  species. 
bb.  Cirri  perfectly  smooth:  distal  joints  of  first  pinnule  somewhat  elongate. 

(15)  A.  cUo,  new  species. 

aaa.  Lower  pinnules  long  and  flagellate,  with  elongated  joints [Tenella  group.] 

b.  Cirri  with  more  than  30  joints:  centrodorsal  long  and  conical  with  5  inter- 
radial  ridges,  each  inclosing  3  rows  of  cirrus  sockets, 
c.  First  i>innule  much  longer  than  the  second. .  (16)  .1.  erytlirlzon,  new  species. 

cc.  Second  jtinnule  as  long  as  the  first (17)  A.  fragilis,  new  species. 

bb.  Cirri  with  about  20  joints. 

c.  First  pinnule  twice  as  long  as  the  second (18)  A.  tttniis,  new  species. 

cc.  Second  pinnule  nearly  as  long  as  the  first. 

d.  Middle  arm  joints  triangular :  syzygial  interval  2  or  3  joints. 
e.  Cirrus  joints  long:  lower  pinnules  not  carinate. 

(19)  ,1.  ciliata,  new  species. 
ce.  Cirrus  joints  short:   lower  pinnules  strongly  carinate. 

(21)  A.  arctica,  new  species. 
dd.  Middle  arm  joints  quadrate  and  elongated:  syzygial  interval  1,  sometimes 

2  joints (20)  A.  ■isis,  new  species. 

bbb.  Cirri  with  less  than  15  joints. 

c.  Cirri  smooth,  with  elongated  joints  :  radials  and  lower  brachials  in  contact 
and  tubercular:  first  two  pinnules  short (22)   A.  briseis,  new  species. 

I.   DECAMETROCRINUS   BOREALIS,  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  eonictil,  1>  mm.  in  diauieter,  tuul  comparatively  high, 
bearing-  about  80  cirri,  the  dorsal  pole  free.     Cirri  lacking-. 

First  radials  just  visible;  iirst  ])rachial  short,  about  three  times  as 
wide  as  high,  somewhat  incised  by  the  second;  second  brachial  irreg- 
ularly quadrate,  about  as  long  as  wide,  with  a  backward  projection, 
rising  into  a  tubercle;  following  brachials  quadrate,  becoming  trian- 
gular after  the  basal  third  of  the  arm.  then  quadrate  again  toward  the 
end  and  elongate  at  the  tip,  Syzygies  in  the  fourth  brachials,  again 
a))Out  the  eighth  or  ninth,  and  distally  at  intervals  of  from  2  to  6 
(usuall}^  about  3  or  4)  joints.  Arms  125  nun.  in  length,  with  about  100 

First  pinnule,  on  the  second  brachial,  15  mm.  long,  slender,  with  15 
or  50  short  joints.  Second  pinnule,  on  third  brachial,  12  mm.  long, 
resembling  the  tirst;  third  pinnule  like  the  second;  distal  pinnules  15 
mm.  long,  with  about  20  long,  slender  joints. 

72  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

The  color  in  life  is  purplish  brown,  the  skeleton  nearly  white;  the 
disk  is  black. 

Ti/pe.—Odt.  No.  22G52,  U.S.N. M.,  from  Alhafross  station  No.  4918; 
30°  22'  00"  north  latitude,  129^  08'  30"  east  longitude  (Eastern  Sea); 
361  fathoms;  Auo-ust  13,  1906. 

2.  ANTEDON  RARA,  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  large  and  discoidal,  bearing  about  20  cirri.  These  are 
5  mm.  long,  with  8  or  10  joints,  the  basal  half  greatl}^  elongated,  cen- 
trally constricted,  the  distal  short  and  compressed. 

Second  radials  bareh^dsible;  axillaries  pentagonal,  wider  than  high, 
with  a  S3^z3"gy;  10  arms  35  mm.  long,  the  lirst  3  brachials  oblong, 
the  remainder  quadrate  (the  fifth  to  the  ninth  almost  triangular) 
becoming  elongate  distally.  A  syzygy  in  the  third  brachial,  another 
about  the  tenth,  and  others  distally  at  intervals  of  about  2  joints. 

First  two  (outer)  pinnules  the  longest,  with  about  20  short  joints, 
bearing  a  coml)  distally,  as  in  Coitiatida.  The  third  to  the  sixth  pin- 
nules are  shorter,  without  combs,  and  bear  much  swollen  rounded 
genital  glands  on  the  second  and  third  joints;  distally  the  pinnules  are 
longer  and  more  slender.     Disk  that  of  a  tj^pical  Antedon. 

The  color  in  life  is  light  clear  yellow,  the  cirri  white. 

Type.— Cvii.  No.  22605,  U.S.N. M.,  from  Alhatross  station  No.  4892; 
32°  27'  30"  north  latitude,  128°  33'  00"  east  longitude  (Eastern  Sea); 
181  fathoms;  August  9,  1906. 

3.  ANTEDON   HARTLAUBI,rt  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  a  thick  disk,  the  pole  beset  with  small  spines,  bearing 
about  30  marginal  cirri;  these  are  smooth,  without  dorsal  spines,  20  mm, 
long,  with  15  remarkabl}"  uniform  joints,  all  of  which  are  somewhat 
longer  than  wide.     There  is  no  opposing  spine  to  the  terminal  claw. 

Radials  concealed  as  far  as  the  syz3^gy  in  the  axillar}-;  axillaries 
low  and  wide;  distichals  4,  the  two  outer  united  b}'  syz^^gy;  rarely  3, 
the  two  outer  united  by  syzyg}^;  20  arms  120  mm,  long,  the  first  eight 
brachials  oblong,  the  remainder  triangular,  somewhat  wider  than 
high,  becoming  cjuadrate  at  the  tips  of  the  arms;  a  syzygy  in  the  third 
brachial,  another  about  the  fifteenth,  and  others  distally  at  intervals  of 
from  4  to  7  joints. 

First  pinnule  on  the  second  distichal,  always  on  the  outer  side  of  the 
rays,  4  mm.  long,  with  about  20  joints,  the  first  three  or  four  broad, 
with  rough  dorsal  projections,  the  distal  short  but  slender;  the  second 
brachial  1)ears  a  slender  pinnule  11  mm.  long  with  about  40  short  joints, 
the  first  two  with  dorsal  processes.    From  the  first  two  brachial  pinnules, 

"For  Dr.  Clemens  Hartlaub,  in  recognition  of  his  work  on  the  unstalked  crinoids 
of  the  Indian  Archipelago. 


the  pinnules  g-raduall}"  decrease  in  size,  increasing  again  and  becoming 

very  slender  distall,v. 

Color  in  life  3'ellowisli  ])rown,  the  skeleton  whitish, 

Tf/pe.—Cat  No.  22600,  U.S.N.:\I.,  from  AIhatr<m  station  No.  4934; 

30°  58'  30"  north  latitude,  130°  32'  00"  east  longitude  (oft'  Kagoshima 

Gulf);  152-103  fathoms;  August  16,  1906. 

4.  ANTEDON    TENELLOIDES,  new  species. 

Ceutro-dorsal  a  thick  disk,  bearing  aljout  60  or  TO  slender  marginal 
cirri;  these  are  35  mm.  long,  with  fifteen  to  seventeen  greatly  elon- 
gated joints,  perfect]}^  smooth,  the  cirrus  ending  in  a  long  sharp  ter- 
minal spine. 

Second  radial  partially  visible,  the  centro-dorsal  usually  extending 
up  to  the  inferior  end  of  the  axillary;  the  axillary  is  wider  than 
high;  10  arms  110  mm.  long,  with  about  120  brachials,  usually  regu- 
larly oblong  throughout  the  arm,  proportionately  longer  distally. 
Syz3^gies  in  the  third,  eighth,  and  twelfth  brachials,  and  distally  at 
intervals  of  2  joints. 

First  pinnule  14:  mm.  long,  slender,  composed  of  35  to  10  short 
joints,  all  of  which  are  wider  than  long;  second  pinnule  10  mm.  long, 
with  20  joints,  all  but  the  basal  3  or  4  much  longer  than  wide;  third 
pinnule  8  mm.  long,  with  15  joints,  the  basal  4  squarish,  the  rest 
longer  than  wide,  with  a  large  genital  gland  on  the  fourth  to  the 
eighth;  following  pinnules  to  the  thirteenth  essentially  like  the  third; 
distal  pinnules  20  mm.  long,  very  slender,  with  25  to  30  elongated 

Color  in  life  grayish  brown,  dorsal  surface  and  cirri  nearl}'  white. 

Ti/pe.— Cut  No.  22607,  U.S.N.M.;  from  station  No.  5092; 
35°  04'  50"  north  latitude,  139°  38'  IS"  east  longitude  (Uraga  Straits, 
entrance  to  Tokyo  Gulf);  70  fathoms;  October  26,  1906. 

5.   ANTEDON    ASPERRIMA,  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  hemispherical,  9  mm.  in  diameter,  bearing  30-70 
(usually  50-60)  cirri,  the  upper  50-53  mm.  long  with  50-60  joints  short 
and  squarish  at  the  l)ase,  becoming  about  twice  as  long  as  wide,  then 
gradually  Ijecoming  square  or  even  wider  than  long  toward  the  tip; 
the  lower  25  nmi.  long  with  25-30  joints,  not  much  longer  than  wide, 
and  stout  in  proportion  to  their  length,  being  as  thick  as,  or  even 
thicker  than,  the  more  elongate  cirri  of  the  upper  row.  The  cirri  are 
not  always  dimorphic  in  this  species;  frequently  they  are  all  of  one 

First  radials  almost  concealed  bj^  the  centro-dorsal ;  second  radials  very 
short  and  trapezoidal,  about  four  times  as  wide  as  long;  axillaries  about 
as  wide  as  higli,  equal  in  width  to  the  horizontal  diameter  of  the  second- 
brachials,  with  a  sharp  distal  angle;  10  arms  about  230  mm.  in  length, 

74  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

with  250-300  joints,  the  edj^es  of  all  raised  distally  and  overlapping: 
the  succeeding  joint,  this  character  becoming-  marked  after  the  eighth 
brachial.  The  distal  edges  of  the  joints  are  set  with  a  row  of  fine 
sharp  teeth,  each  with  a  median  ridge  which  is  continued  in  a  raised  line 
for  some  distance  back  onto  the  joint,  giving  it  a  longitudinall}'  striate 
appearance.  All  the  syzygies  except  the  proximal  two  or  three  are 
supplied  with  a  row  of  these  teeth,  becoming  distally  quite  as  promi- 
nent as  those  on  the  articulations.  The  first  brachial  is  trapezoidal  in 
shape,  the  outer  edge  being  about  twice  as  long  as  the  inner;  the  second 
brachial  is  triangular  when  viewed  externally;  the  succeeding  joints 
to  the  tenth  are  quadrate,  having  pinnules  on  their  shorter  sides,  and 
their  apposed  edges  rising  to  tubercular  prominences,  alternating  in 
position;  from  the  tenth  on  the  brachials  are  triangular,  rather  short, 
and  becoming  shorter  distally.  S3"zygies  alwa^'s  in  the  third,  eighth, 
and  twelfth  brachials,  and  distally  at  intervals  of  2  joints. 

The  first  pinnule  is  20  mm.  long  with  nearly  100  very  short  joints; 
the  second  pinnule  is  24  mm.  long,  both  this  and  the  first  with  a 
strong  comb  on  their  distal  half;  the  third  pinnule  is  25  mm.  long, 
with  much  more  elongate  joints  and  only  the  last  quarter  with  a 
comb;  the  fourth  pinnule  is  21  mm.  long,  the  fifth  23  mm.  long,  and 
the  sixth  20  mm.  long,  all  with  much  elongated  joints;  the  fourth  and 
following  pinnules  bear  genital  glands;  distally  the  length  decreases 
to  about  the  twelfth  pinnule,  then  increases  again. 

This  species  is  readily  distinguished  by  the  great  length  of  all  the 
pinnules,  and  especially  of  the  first  six  or  eight  pairs,  which  are 
remarkably  uniform,  combined  w^ith  the  presence  of  a  syzj^gy  in  the 
twelfth  brachial. 

Color  in  life  yellow,  the  cirri  whitish. 

Type.—C^i.  No.  22650,  U.S.N. M.;  from  Alhatrof<s  station  No.  3332; 
54°  02'  50"  north  latitude,  166°  45'  00"  west  longitude  (Bering  Sea); 
406  fathoms;  August  21,  1890. 

6.   ANTEDON   PERPLEXA,   new  species. 

In  general  similar  to  the  preceding  species,  but  more  slender,  the 
arm  joints  more  elongate  and  quadrate,  the  axillary  considerably 
wider  than  the  second  radial,  and  the  third  syzygy  almost  invariably 
in  the  fourteenth  brachial,  rarely  in  the  thirteenth,  and  never  in  the 

Color  in  life  yellow  or  brow^nish  yellow,  the  cirri  whitish. 

r?/;;e.— Cat.  No.  22611,  U.S.N.M.;  ivova  Albatross  std^iion  No.  3070; 
47°  29'  30"  north  latitude,  125°  43'  00"  west  longitude  (ofi'  the  coast 
of  Washington);  636  fathoms;  June  28,  1889. 


7.  ANTEDON   LAODICE,  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  low,  hemi.spherical,  bearing-  about  40  c-irri ;  these  are 
40  min,  long-,  with  40  joints,  the  basal  half  of  which  are  longer  than 
wide,  the  distal  short  and  furnished  with  low  spines. 

First  radials  partiall}^  visible;  second  radials  short,  ol)long-,  incised 
by  a  backward  projection  of  the  axillary;  axillaries  about  as  wide  as 
high,  with  a  backward  projection  forming  a  tubercle;  10  arms;  first 
brachial  irregularly  quadrate,  with  a  short  inner  and  long  outer  bor- 
der; second  brachial  almost  triangular;  following  brachials  quadrate, 
becoming  triangular  after  the  fourteenth  or  fifteenth;  syz3'gies  in  the 
third,  eighth,  and  twelfth  or  thirteenth  brachials,  and  distally  at 
intervals  of  ?>  joints. 

Two  first  pinnules  20  mm.  long,  slender  and  flagellate,  with  50  ver}- 
short  joints;  third  pinnule  22  mm.  long  with  46  joints;  the  fourth 
shorter;  fifth  and  sixth  much  shorter,  with  the  joints  more  elongate. 
The  first  4  pinnules  bear  combs. 

Color  in  life  lemon  yellow,  the  cirri  lighter. 

Ti/pe.—Ciit.  No.  22609,  U.S.N.M.;  from  .#^>«/my.s- station  No.  4l)61>; 
33^  23'  40"  north  latitude,  135=^  33'  00"  east  longitude  (off  southern 
Japan);  587  fathoms;  August  29,  1906. 

8.  ANTEDON   ESCHRICHTII    (J.  Muller.) 

The  specimens  of  this  species  obtained  in  the  Okhotsk  Sea  and  the 
Sea  of  Japan  appear  to  be  structurally  identical  with  others  from 
Europe  and  the  Atlantic  coast  of  America,  l)ut  tiie  size  is  much  greater, 
the  extent  reaching  700  mm.  and  the  cirri  115  mm.,  as  against  a  maxi- 
mum of  500  mm.  and  70  mm.,  as  given  by  Dr.  P.  Herbert  Carpenter 
in  the  Challenge i'*^^  report.  Antedon  eschricJit!!  in  the  Pacific  has  a 
remarkably  restricted  range,  being  found  only  in  the  Sea  of  Okhotsk, 
about  southern  Sakhalin  and  La  Perouso  straits,  in  parts  of  the  Gulf  of 
Tartar}',  and  in  the  northern  part  of  the  Sea  of  Japan.  On  the  southern 
and  eastern  shores  of  Japan,  along  the  Kurils  and  in  the  Bering  Sea  it  is 
replaced  by  quite  difl'erent  species.  Considering  the  isolated  and  cir- 
cumscribed habitat  of  this  species  in  this  region,  together  with  its 
uniformly  greater  size,  it  seems  best  to  bestow  upon  it,  for  the  present 
at  least,  the  varietal  name  of  Antedon  eHdirlcktli  maxima^  taking  as 
the  type-locality  43^  01'  35"  north  latitude,  140^  10'  40"  east  longi- 
tude, in  248  fathoms,  off  the  coast  of  Hokkaido,  in  the  Sea  of  Japan. 

9.   ANTEDON   INEXPECTATA,  new  species. 

This  species  resembles  Antedon  asperrhna  and  ^4.  perplexa  in  gen- 
eral appearance,  but  the  third  pinnule  is  distinctly  smaller  than  the 
first  and  second  (which  are  about  equal  in  size),  f  recjuently  ver}^  much 

«  Challenger  Keports,  Report  on  the  Crinoidea,  Zo(")logy,  xxvi,  p.  139. 


so;  the  fourth  pinnule  is  still  smaller,  the  minimum  being  reached 
on  the  seventh  or  eighth,  after  which  the  length  increases  distally. 
Antedon  inex2)ectata  is  a  somewhat  stouter  species  than  A.  asjjerrlma, 
and  is  usually'  smaller,  although  some  individuals  are  fully  as  large  as 
nw  largest  of  that  species,  measuring,  arms  2P>()  nuu.,  cirri  TO  mm. 
The  third  syzygv  is  in  the  twelfth  brachial. 

The  color  in  spirits  is  brownish  yellow. 

7^y^;,..__Cat.  No.  2i3B47,  U.S.N.M.;  from  .lM(7//v>,s.v  .station  No.  2853; 
56°  00'  00"  north  latitude,  154°  20'  00"  west  longitude  (south  of  Alaska 
Peninsula);  159  fathoms;  August  0,  1888. 

10.   ANTEDON   RATHBUNI,"  new  species. 

This  species  resembles  Antedon  asjMrrima,  but  is  ver}^  much  more 
robust,  with  the  lower  arm  joints  strongly  tubercular;  the  first  three 
pinnules  are  of  equal  length,  the  fourth  somewhat,  and  the  fifth  much 
shorter,  little  over  half  as  long  as  the  third.  The  arrangement  of  the 
syz3"gies  is  as  in  A.  asperrima. 

The  color  in  life  is  brig-ht  yellow. 

7y/je.— Cat.  No.  2261S,  U.S.N.M.;  from  Alhatro.^.s  station  No.  5033; 
44°  04'  20"  north  latitude,  145°  28'  00"  east  longitude  (in  Yezo  Straits); 
533  fathoms;  September  30,  1906. 

II.  ANTEDON   BRACHYMERA,  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  hemispherical,  bearing  30  to  50  cirri;  these  are  45 
mm.  or  50  nun.  long,  with  40  to  45  joints  of  which  the  distal  third 
bear  low  dorsal  spines. 

First  radials  just  visible;  second  radials  short,  trapezoidal,  much 
wider  than  high;  10  arms  160  mm.  long;  first  14  or  1-5  brachials 
smooth,  slightly  tubercular,  wider  than  long,  irregularly  o))long  or 
somewhat  quadrate;  following  brachials  low-quadrate,  becoming  shorter 
distally,  the  distal  edges  produced  outward,  but  smooth  and  not  over- 
lapping; none  of  the  brachials  are  triangular,  and  all  are  wider  than 
long,  the  middle  and  distal  verj^  much  so;  syzygies  in  the  third  and 
eighth,  usually  also  in  the  twelfth  brachials,  and  distally  at  intervals 
of  from  one  to  five,  usuall}^  three  joints. 

First  pinmde  30  nun.  long  with  65  to  70  short  and  wide  joints,  the 
distal  third  with  a  comb;  second  pinnule  the  same  length  or  very 
slightly  shorter,  similar  to  the  first,  but  with  the  comb  not  so  pro- 
nounced; third  pinnule  like  the  fourth,  16  mm.  long  with  28  joints, 
mostly  rather  longer  than  wide;  the  following  pinnules  decrease  in 
length  to  about  the  tenth,  then  increase  again  distally. 

Color  in  life  j^ellowish  white,  readily  distinguishiible  from  the  lemon 
yellow  Ardedon  e.'<Ghricht a  maxima^  with  which  it  is  always  associated. 

«For  Dr.  Richard  Rathbun,  in  recognition  of  his  work  on  the  Crinoidea. 


Ti/j^e.— Cat.  No.  226J:9,  U.S.N.M.;  from  Albatross  station^^.o.  4:[)SQ', 
43^  01'  -iO"  north  latitude,  140°  22'  U)"  east  long-itude  (Sea  of  Japan); 
172  fathoms;  September  19,  190(). 

12.  ANTEDON    SERRATISSIMA,   new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  hemispherical,  with  40  or  50  stout  cirri,  almost  all 
the  joints  of  which  bear  strong-  dorsal  spines;  the  cirri  are  30  mm. 
lony,  with  about  3*5  joints,  which  exhibit  a  tendency  to  overlap. 

First  radials  concealed;  se'cond  barely  visible;  axillaries  very  broad; 
10  arms  105  mm.  in  length;  first  brachials  very  short;  second  trian- 
gular, approximally  equilateral;  third  irregularl}'  oblong;  following 
brachials  to  the  tenth  or  twelfth,  wedge-shaped,  then  triangular. 
Syzygies  in  the  third,  eighth,  and  fourteenth  l)rachials,  and  distally 
at  intervals  of  2  joints.  The  radials  and  lower  l)rachials  are  thickly 
set  with  small  sharp  spines.  Brachials  overlapping,  the  edges  of  all 
set  with  numerous  small  sharp  teeth. 

The  first  pinmile  is  17-21  mm,  long  with  45-60  short  joints,  and 
bears  a  long  com))  distally;  the  second  pinnule  (which  is  long-er  than 
the  first)  is  from  18-22  mm.  in  length,  with  45-60  joints;  the  third 
pinnule  may  be  20  mm.  long  with  36  joints  and  bearing  a  com!)  like 
the  second,  or  it  may  be  12  mm.  long  with  elongated  joints,  like  the 
fourth;  the  distal  pinnules  are  long  and  slender,  their  joints  over- 
lapping, the  distal  edges  set  with  spines. 

Color  in  life  3'ellow,  the  cirri  wdiitish;  in  spirits  white,  l)rown,  or  red. 

Tijpe.—CuL  No.  22612,  U.S.N.M.;  from  MxifrosM  station  No.  3464; 
48°  14'  00"  north  latitude,  123°  20'  40"  west  longitude  (off  the  coast  of 
Washington);  40  fathoms;  September  4,  1891;  32  other  specimens 
from  the  coast  of  Washington,  Oregon,  and  northern  California. 

This  is  a  much  stouter  species  than  Antedon  perplexa.,  with  propor- 
tionately shorter  arms.  It  is  readily  distinguishable  from  that  form 
by  the  spiny  character  of  the  radials.  lower  brachials,  and  pinnules, 
and  the  proportionately  greater  size  of  the  centro-dorsal.  which 
entirely  conceals  the  first  and  almost  entirely  the  second  radials. 

13.   ANTEDON    MARIiE,"  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  hemispherical,  l)eai'ing  about  50  cirri  (the  pole  free) 
dimorphic  in  character;  the  upper  (about  the  edge  of  the  centro- 
dorsal)  60  nmi.  in  length,  with  60  joints,  compressed  laterally,  elongate 
proximall}",  short  distalh",  the  distal  joints  with  faintl}'  indicated 
spines;  the  lower  35  mm.  in  length  with  about  30  joints. 

First  radials  concealed  except  for  a  narrow  border;  second  radials 
short,  about  four  times  as  wide  as  long;  axillaries  about  as  high  or 

«  For  Mrs.  Mary  W.  Clark,  of  Boston,  Massachusetts,  to  whom  I  am  indebted  for 
mncli  valuable  assistance  in  my  work  on  the  unstalked  crinoids. 

78  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

higher  than  wide,  triangular,  the  middle  of  the  proximal  border  raised 
into  a  slight  tubercle,  the  inferior  edge  sot  with  fine  teeth.  Ten  arms; 
the  first  brachial  with  short  inner  and  long  outer  edge,  the  latter  with 
a  row  of  small  sharp  spines;  second  brachial  irregularl}'  quadrate; 
third  brachial  with  a  longer  inner  than  outer  edge;  following  brachials 
to  the  eleventh  oblong,  the  next  few  quadrate,  then  triangular. 

First  pinnule  22  mm.  in  length,  slender  and  flagellate,  with  60  short 
joints,  wider  than  long,  of  which  the  terminal  25  or  30  bear  a  comb; 
second  pinnule  19  mm.  long  with  about  40  joints,  longer  in  proportion 
than  those  of  the  first;  third  pinnule  16  mm.  long,  with  40  joints,  and, 
like  the  second,  with  a  terminal  comb.  Following  pinnules  much 
shorter,  with  fewer  and  longer  joints  and  no  comb;  the  pinnule  on  the 
twenty-sixth  brachial  is  12  mm.  long,  slender,  with  20  elongated  joints. 

Color  in  life  clear  3'ellow%  cirri  lighter. 

Type.— Cat.  No.  22608,  U.S.N.M.;  from  All>atross  station  No.  5092; 
35^  04'  50"  north  latitude,  139°  38'  18"  east  longitude  (Uraga  Straits, 
entrance  to  Tokyo  Gulf);  70  fathoms:  October  26,  1906. 

14.   ANTEDON   HONDOENSIS,  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  hemispherical,  bearing  30  to  50  cirri,  the  pole  bare; 
cirri  40  mm.  long,  with  35  to  40  joints,  the  distal  half  spinj",  the 
articulations  rather  prominent. 

First  radials  just  visible;  second  radials  very  short;  axillaries  some- 
what wider  than  high,  with  an  open  distal  angle;  ten  arms  140  mm. 
long;  first  brachial  very  short,  the  next  triangular;  following  brachials 
to  about  the  tenth  irregularly  oblong,  almost  squarish,  then  becoming 
quadrate  as  long  as  or  longer  than  wide,  the  proportion  remaining 
about  the  same  to  the  end  of  the  arm. 

First  two  pinnules  24  mm.  long,  with  short  and  broad  joints, 
becoming  squarish  after  tlie  first  five  or  six;  the  basal  five  or  six  joints 
bear  high  but  short  dentate  dorsal  processes,  those  on  the  diflferent 
joints  separated  from  each  other  bv  deep  notches;  third  pinnule  14  mm. 
long,  with  rather  elongated  joints,  resembling  those  of  the  second. 
The  fifth  pinnule  bears  a  small  genital  gland,  which  increases  in  size 
on  the  sixth  and  following.  The  distal  pinnules  are  long  and  slender, 
with  the  edges  of  the  joints  set  with  small  spines. 

This  species  is  peculiar  in  having  the  position  of  the  third  syzygy 
quite  irregular,  but  usually  on  the  twelfth,  thirteenth,  or  fourteenth 
brachials;  the  distal  intersyzygial  interval  is  two  joints. 

Tyjye.—C^i.  No.  22651,  U.S.N.M.;  from  Alhatross  station  No.  5048; 
38°  09'  24"  north  latitude,  141°  52'  30"  east  longitude  (off  Kinka  San 
Light,  east  coast  of  Nipon);  129  fathoms;  October  10,  1906. 


15.   ANTEDON   CLIO,  new  species. 

Centro-doi'sal  hemispherical,  bearing  40-50  cirri,  a  large  polar  area 
free;  eirri  IT  mm.  long,  slender,  with  25-30  joints,  of  which  the  fourth 
to  tifteenth  are  much  longer  than  wide,  then  decreasing  in  length, 
becoming  squarish  distally;  the  distal  joints  do  not  bear  dorsal  spines. 

First  radials  visible  at  angles  of  calyx,  laterally  separated  distally;  sec- 
ond radials  very  short,  widely  separated  laterall}',  very  deeply  incised 
by  the  rhombic  axillaries;  axillaries  rhombic,  or  possibly  slighth'  longer 
than  wide,  the  distal  angle  somewhat  open.  Ten  arms,  55  mm.  long; 
first  brachial  very  short  and  deeph^  incised,  the  inner  edge  much 
shorter  than  the  outer;  second  brachial  irregularly  quadrate,  pro- 
duced distally  on  the  outer  side  of  the  Y'ay^  and  proximally  in  the 
median  line;  third  l)rachial  quadrate,  the  inner  side  more  than  twice 
the  length  of  the  outer,  the  ej^izygal  quadrate  with  the  inner  side 
longer  than  the  outer,  the  hypozygal  triangular,  with  the  short  side 
in  the  inner  side  of  the  ray,  the  apex  on  the  outer;  next  live  brachials 
irregularly  oblong,  then  quadrate  for  live  or  six,  then  triangular,  about 
as  wide  as  high,  becoming  quadrate  again  distally;  syzygies  in  the  third, 
eighth,  and  twelfth  ])rachials,  and  distally  at  intervals  of  three  joints; 
the  lower  brachials  are  raised  distally,  giving  the  lower  part  of  the 
arms  a  distinctly  serrate  appearance;  the  edges  of  the  out<n"  brachials 
are  slightly  roughened,  but  do  not  overlap. 

First  pinnule  10  nnn.  long,  very  slender,  with  a])out  30  joints,  the 
basal  6  or  7  of  which  are  short  and  wide,  then  becoming  more  elon- 
gate, ])ut  never  much  more  than  twice  as  long  as  wide;  second  pinnule 
much  shorter  (7  mm.)  and  stouter,  with  15  joints,  the  first  3  short,  the 
remainder  greatly  elongated;  the  following  pinnules  are  stouter,  but 
in  general  similar  to  the  second;  they  gradually  decrease  in  length  to 
about  the  seventh,  then  become  more  slender  and  increase  in  length 
distally  where  the}'  are  8  nnn.  long  with  about  20  slender  joints,  all 
but  the  basal  two,  which  are  short,  greatly  elongated. 

Color  in  life  light  yellow,  banded  with  white,  the  cirri  white,  with 
occasional  narrow  bands  of  yellow. 

7]/^^'.— Cat.  No.  22618  F.S.N. M.;  from  AUmtro.^s  station  No.  4004; 
32°  31'  20"  north  latitude,  128"  32'  40"  east  longitude  (Eastern  Sea); 
107  fathoms;  August  10,  1900. 

16.   ANTEDON    ERYTHRIZON,   new   species. 

Centro-dorsal  long  and  conical,  divided  hy  5  interradial  ridges  into 
areas  containing  3  parallel  rows  of  cirri,  about  12  in  each  area,  or  Go 
in  all.  The  cirri  are  about  50  ram.  long,  with  35-40  elongated,  nuich 
compressed,  smooth  joints,  the  longest  between  3  and  4  times  as  long- 
as  wide,  decreasing  in  lengtli  distally;  terminal  spines  very  small. 

80  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

First  radials  visible  at  angles  of  calj^x;  second  radials  crescentic, 
deepl}'  incised  to  receive  the  strong-  backward  projection  of  the  axil- 
laries;  axillaries  quadrate  in  form,  about  as  long  as  wide,  all  the  sides 
somewhat  concave;  10  arms;  the  iirst  brachials  have  long-  outer  and 
short  inner  sides,  and  are  very  deeply  incised  by  the  second  brachials, 
which  are  nearly  square;  the  six  following  brachials  are  oblong,  sub- 
sequentlj"  becoming  quadrate  for  a  few  joints,  then  triangular;  a 
s3'zyoy  in  the  third  brachial,  another  about  the  eighth,  and  others 
distally  at  intervals  of  from  5-10  joints. 

The  first  pinnule  is  about  20  mm.  long  and  ver}^  slender,  composed  of 
16  greatly  elongated  joints;  the  second  pinnule  is  15  mm.  long  with 
about  12  elongated  joints;  the  following  pinnules  decrease  in  length, 
their  component  joints  being  much  shorter  proportionately;  the  distal 
pinnules  are  17  mm.  long  with  about  17  greatly  elongated  joints. 

Color  in  life,  dull  purple,  rather  dark. 

Ti/pe.— Cat.  No.  22613  U.S.N.M.;  from  Alljafros-s  station  No.  -1981; 
42^  58'  15"  north  latitude,  110^  09'  10"  east  longitude  (Sea  of  Japan); 
406-390  fathoms;  September  19,  1906. 

17.  ANTEDON   FRAGILIS,  new  species. 

This  species  is  similar  to  ..1.  erythrizon  in  the  character  of  its  centro- 
dorsal  and  in  its  general  appearance;  but  the  cirri  consist  of  about  30 
greatly  elongated  smooth  joints;  the  first  two  pinnules  are  equal  in 
length,  comparatively  short  (11  mm.)  but  slender,  with  about  20  elon- 
gated joints,  the  third  longer  and  distinctly  stouter;  the  axillaries  and 
low^er  brachials  are  more  elongated  than  in  A.  erythrizon;  syzygial 
interval  2,  sometimes  3,  joints. 

Color  in  life,  light  purplish  brown. 

Type.—Qvii.  No.  22611,  U.S.N.M.;  from  Alhatrfm  station  No.  5032; 
41^  05'  00"  north  latitude,  145°  30'. 00"  east  longitude  (Yezo  Straits); 
500  fathoms;  September  30,  1906. 

18.   ANTEDON   TENUIS,   new  species. 

(?)  Antedon  species,  von  Gkaff  Oudlenger  Reports  1884,  vol.  X  of  Zoology,  No. 
27,  p.  79  (Vladivostok). 

Centro-dorsal  flattened  hemispherical,  bearing  about  40-50  cirri,  the 
pole  free;  the  cirri  are  25  mm.  long  and  have  about  20  elongated  joints, 
becoming  shorter  distally  and  developing  a  low  dorsal  spine. 

First  radials  concealed;  second  radials  short  and  deeply  incised  by 
the  axillaries;  axillaries  slightly  wider  than  high,  rhombic,  the  edges 
slightly  concave;  the  axillaries  are  wider  than  the  second  radials;  10 
arms,  110  mm.  long  and  very  slender;  first  brachial  very  short,  the 
outer  edge  longer  than  the  inner;  second  irregularly  quadrate;  follow- 
ing brachials  to  the  eighth  sq-aarish,  then  quadrate  to  somewhat  past 
the  middle  of  the  arm,  after  which  they  become  long  and  "dicebox 


shaped;"  syzygies  in  the  third,  eig-hth,  and  twelfth  brachials,  and 
distally  in  alternate  joints. 

First  pinnule  jJO  mm.  long,  xavy  slender,  with  30  joints,  the  basal  5 
wider  than  long,  then  becoming  slender  and  greatly  elongated;  second 
pinnule  about  half  as  long  as  the  tirst,  with  about  ;^0  joints,  the  basal 
two  or  three  wider  than  long,  the  rest  elongated,  a  large  genital  gland 
on  the  fifth  to  eleventh  joints;  third  and  following  pinnules  like  the 
second;  distal  pinnules  13  nmi.  long  with  25  very  slender  joints,  the 
two  basal  short  and  somewhat  flattened. 

Color  in  life,  light  3'ellow-brown. 

Ti/jx'.— Cat.  No.  22<)15,  II.S.N.M.;  from  AlJjatro.s.s  station  No.  4997; 
47  38' ■!:(»"  north  latitude,  141- 24' 30"  east  longitude  (Gulf  of  Tartary); 
31S  fathoms;  8eptem])er  23,  19(Hi. 

ig.   ANTEDON    CILIATA,  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  low  hemispherical,  the  pole  bare,  with  40-.^0  cirri, 
the  longest  (about  the  margin)  reaching  35  mm.  in  length,  and  con- 
sisting of  about  20  (usuallv  rather  lt\ss)  elongated  joints,  all  of  which 
are  longer  than  wide,  the  basal  half  very  nuich  so;  apical  cirri  nnich 
shorter  and  more  slender,  but  with  the  same  number  of  joints. 

First  radials  concealed;  second  radials  short  and  wide,  more  or  less 
incised  by  the  axillaries;  axillaries  rhombic  in  form,  wider  than  high, 
with  the  sides  slightly  concave,  and  considerably  wider  than  the  sec- 
ond radials;  10  arms  130  mm.  in  length;  the  first  brachial  irregu- 
larl}"  quadrate,  with  a  long  outer  and  short  inner  edge;  second  brach- 
ial irregularly  (piadrate,  with  a  long  outer  and  short  inner  edge; 
third  brachial  squarish;  following  brachials  to  the  tenth  irregularly 
oblong  with  the  borders  somewhat,  often  strongly,  tubercular;  suc- 
ceeding brachials  triangular,  about  as  wide  as  high,  becoming  quadrate 
distally;  syz3'gies  in  the  third,  eighth,  and  twelfth  brachials,  and  dis- 
tally at  intervals  of  2,  sometimes  3,  joints. 

First  pinnule  20  mm.  long,  w^ith  35  joints,  the  proximal  12  short 
and  wide,  mostly  wider  than  long,  the  distal  23  extremely  long  and 
slender;  second  pinnule  somewhat  less,  with  20  joints,  the  2  basal 
wider  than  long,  the  basal  10  carinate,  the  distal  10  much  elongated 
and  slender,  and  a  large  genital  gland  occupying  the  tliird  to  eleventh; 
following  pinnules  like  the  second;  distal  pinnules  long  and  very 
slender,  w4th  30  joints,  the  first  two  short  and  wide,  the  others  greatly 
elongated,  especially  distall3\ 

Color  in  life,  light  purplish  brown,  the  skeleton  lighter;  cirri  nearly 

T(/pr.— Cat.  No.  22616,  U.S.N.M.;  from  A/Ud/yKs.'^  station  No.  4982; 
43^  00'  00"  north  latitude,  140^  10'  30"  east  longitude  (Sea  of  Japan); 
390-428  fathoms;  September  19,  1906. 
Proc.  N.  M.  vol.  xxxiii— 07 6 


20.  ANTEDON   ISIS,  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  hemispherical,  bearing-  30-40  slender  cirri.  10  mm. 
long,  with  20  joints,  not  especially  elongate,  the  fourth,  which  is  the 
longest,  being  little  more  than  twice  as  long  as  high;  all  the  joints 
are  expanded  distally,  slightly  overlapping,  but  do  not  develop  dorsal 

First  radials  visible  at  angles  of  calyx;  second  radials  narrow  and 
much  curved;  axillaries  approximately  square,  with  the  sides  concave. 
Ten  arms  65  mm.  long,  very  slender;  first  brachial  short,  with  a  long 
outer  and  short  inner  edge;  second  brachial  irregularly  quadrate;  third 
and  following  brachials  irregularly  quadrate,  becoming  longer  later, 
and  very  long  and  "dice-box"  shaped  distally;  syzvgies  in  the  third, 
eighth,  and  twelfth  brachials  and  distally  in  alternate  joints,  sometimes 
with  intervals  of  2  joints. 

First  pinnule  7  mm.  long,  moderately  slender,  with  about  20  joints, 
the  basal  3  or  4  short,  the  others  longer  than  wide;  the  second  pinnule 
somewhat  shorter,  with  about  12  joints,  the  basal  4  short,  the  rest 
longer  than  wide;  third  pinnule  like  the  second  and  of  the  same  length; 
the  fourth  and  following  pinnules  bear  large  genital  glands;  distal 
pinnules  9  mm.  long,  very  slender,  with  15  joints,  the  lirst  2  short  and 
expanded,  the  remainder  much  elongated. 

Color  in  life  ye41owish  brown,  the  skeleton  and  cirri  lighter. 

Type.^C^iL  No.  22617,  U.S.N.M.;  from  Albatross  station  No.  4917; 
30°  24'  00"  north  latitude,  129°  06'  00"  east  longitude  (about  90  miles 
WSW.  of  Kagoshima  Gulf);  361  fathoms;  August  13,  1906. 

21.  ANTEDON   ARCTICA,  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  small,  liemispherical,  bearing  about  30  cirri;  these 
are  13  mm.  long,  with  20  to  25  joints,  the  longest  about  twice  as  long 
as  broad,  becoming  short  and  squarish  in  the  distal  half;  distal  6  or  7 
joints  may  or  may  not  have  blunt  dorsal  spines. 

First  radials  just  visible;  second  radials  ver}"  short,  trapezoidal, 
more  or  less  incised  by  the  axillary;  axillary  nearly  twice  as  wide  as 
high.  Ten  arms,  the  lirst  9  brachials  squarish,  then  quadrate,  longer 
than  wide,  becoming  more  elongate  distallv;  syzj^gies  usually  in  the 
third,  eighth,  and  twelfth  (sometimes  seventh  and  eleventh  or  thir- 
teenth) brachials,  and  distally  at  intervals  of  two  joints.  The  arms  are 
25  mm.  long  to  the  twenty-fifth  brachial. 

First  two  pinnules  very  long  (8  mm.)  about  equal  in  length,  Hagellate, 
the  first  with  25  joints,  less  than  twice  as  long  as  broad,  serrate  at 
the  tip,  the  basal  6  or  7  joints  strongly  carinate;  second  pinnule  with 
rather  fewer,  more  elongate  joints,  also  carinate  basally,  but  not  so 
much  so  as  the  first;  third  pinnule  much  shorter,  stouter,  with  elongate 


C3^1indrical  joints,  not  carinate  basally;  the  following  pinnules  grad- 
ually become  more  slender  and  elongated. 

Color  (in  spirits)  rather  dark  brown. 

Ti//>e. — Cat.  No.  22610,  U.S. N.M.;  Camp  Clay,  Cape  Sabine,  arctic 
coast  of  Alaska;  received  from  Lieut.  (nowMaj.  (len.)  A.  W.Crreeley, 
U.  S.  Army,  in  1886. 

This  species  is  interesting  in  belonging,  to  quite  a  different  type  of 
the  Ten ella  ^vou.^  from  those  heretofore  known  as  inhabitants  of  the 
Arctic  seas,  which  agree  in  having  from  half  again  as  many  to  twice 
as  many  cirrus  joints  as  A.  arctlca^  and  the  second  pinnule  usually 
much  smaller  than  the  lirst,  whereas  in  A.  (irctica  the  second  pinnule 
is  as  long  as  or  even  a  trifle  longer  than  the  first.  A.  .arctica  repre- 
sents a  group  of  species  occurring  in  the  southern  seas  from  46°  south 
latitude  north  to  about  the  equator;  and  this  fact  is  of  especial  interest 
in  that  the  Bering  Sea  and  north  Pacific  (exclusive  of  the  Okhotsk  Sea 
and  Sea  of  Japan)  species  of  the  EHchrlchtli  group  are  also  more 
nearly  related  to  the  antarctic  than  to  the  arctic  species. 

22.   ANTEDON    BRISEIS,  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  discoidal  or  low  hemispherical,  the  pole  papillose, 
bearing  about  20  cirri  in  2  or  3  irregular  marginal  rows;  cirri  8  mm. 
long  with  12  to  14  joints,  all  longer  than  wide,  the  second  to  the 
seventh  greatly  elongated;  the  joints  arc  somewhat  constricted  in  the 
middle,  with  prominent  articidations,  and  do  not  bear  dorsal  spines. 

First  radials  just  visi})le;  second  radials  very  short,  al)out  four 
times  as  wide  as  long,  somewhat  incised  l)y  the  axillary;  they  have 
strong  rounded  median  keels,  posterior  lateral  tubercles  on  each  side, 
and  a  dorso- ventral  ridge  in  the  anterior  portion;  axillaries  rhombic, 
about  as  wide  as  high,  all  the  sides,  especially  the  two  posterior, 
much  incurved,  with  a  strong  posterior  median  tubercle,  which  is  con- 
tinued backward  over  the  second  radial.  Ten  arms  23  nun.  long;  the 
first  brachial  has  a  short  inner  and  long  outer  edge,  and  is  deeply 
incised  by  the  backward  projection  of  the  second  brachial;  second  bra- 
chial irregular  in  shape,  the  inner  edge  ver}'  short,  the  outer  long,  the 
two  proximal  edges  much  incurved;  there  is  a  large  tubercle  on  its  pos- 
terior l)order,  o\'erlapping  the  first  l>rachial;  third  brachial  squarish; 
following  brachials  quadrate,  at  first  wider  than  long,  but  becoming 
longer  than  wide  after  the  tenth,  and  elongate  distally;  syzygies  in 
the  third,  eighth,  and  twelfth  brachials  and  distally  at  intervals  of 
two  joints. 

First  pinnule  2.5  mm.  long  with  7  joints,  all  but  the  first  2,  which 
are  squarish,  greatly  elongated;  second  pinnule  similar,  but  appar- 
ently very  slightly  shorter;  the  distal  pinnules  are  4  mm.  long,  exceed- 
ingl}^  slender,  with  about  15  joints,  all  but  the  first  2,  which  are  very 


short,  j^reatly  elongated.  The  radials  and  first  brachials  are  in  close 
apposition  laterally,  and  are  somewhat  flattened. 

Color  in  life  lig-ht  yellowish  brown  with  broad  bands  of  darker  yel- 
low brown  on  the  arms. 

Type.— C^ii.  No.  22<i58,  U.8.N.M.;  from  AUxifross  .station  No.  4876; 
Sea  of  Japan. 

This  species  is  nearest  to  ^1.  nana  Hartlaub  {'=A.  inacr<>2>!/<j"x 
Liitken  MS)  from  Amboina  and  the  Tonga  Islands,  from  which  it  dif- 
fers in  having  the  cirri  smooth,  the  radials  and  lower  brachials  cari- 
nate  and  tubercular,  and  the  brachials  elongate. 


B}'  EuwiN  Linton, 

Of  Washington  and  Jefferson  College,   Wn^JihujIon,  I'eniisylixtnia. 


These  notes  are  based  on  investigations  made  l)y  the  writer  at  the 
Bermuda  Biolog-ical  Station  for  Research,  Flatts,  Bermuda,  from 
July  7  to  August  7,  1903. 

I  am  under  oljligations  to  many  of  my  colaborers  in  the  laboratory 
for  their  friendly  assistance,  and  especially  to  Mr.  Thomas  Barbour, 
to  whom  I  am  indebted  for  the  identitication  of  many  of  the  iish 
which  were  examined,  and  without  whose  energetic  and  disinterested 
help  ni}^  list  of  fish  would  ])e  shorter  than  it  is. 

It  gives  me  pleasure  also  to  record  my  grateful  acknowledgments 
to  the  Bermuda  Natural  History  Society  and  to  Doctor  Mark  and 
Doctor  Ik'istol  for  the  privileges  of  the  laboratory. 

The  opportunities  for  getting  material  were  limited,  and,  moreover, 
much  of  the  material  was  in  poor  condition.  This  was  especially  true 
of  many  of  the  small  distomes.  When  it  is  rememV)ered  that  the 
temperature  of  the  laboratory  was  not  often  as  low  as  SO'-'  F.,  day  or 
night,  it  will  be  easily  understood  that  much  care  was  necessary  to 
prevent  the  rapid  deterioration  of  material. 

While  an  examination  of  a  greater  number  of  tisli  would,  without 
doubt,  add  many  parasitic  forms  to  the  list  contained  in  this  paper, 
enough  has  l)een  ascertained  to  ati'ord  some  data  relative  to  the  degree 
to  which  the  Bernmda  fishes  are  infested. 

So  far  as  my  observation  teaches,  those  fishes  which  are  found  on 
the  inner  reefs  are  freer  from  encysted  parasites  than  are  those  which 
live  on  the  outer  reefs  and  in  the  deeper  waters  outside.  On  account 
of  the  exceeding  transparency  of  the  Bermuda  waters,  sharks,  which 
are  the  great  disseminators  of  cestode  ova,  do  not  frequent  the  shal- 
lower waters  of  the  shoals.  This  fact  probal^ly  accounts  for  the  com- 
parative scarcity  of  cestode  larvfe  in  the  fish  which  were  taken  on  the 
shoals.  On  the  other  hand,  the  large  groupers  and  rock  fish,  all 
of  which  were  from  al)out  l-i  fathoms  of  water  on  the  outer  reefs, 
were  found  to  harbor  numerous  encysted  cestodes  on  the  viscera,  and 
especially  in  the  walls  of  the  stomach.      A  recurring  feature  in  the 

Proceedings  U.S.  National  Museum  ,  Vol.  XXXIII— No.  1560. 





larger  groupers,  hind«,  and  rock  lish  was  the  occurrence  of  cysts, 
inclosing  waxy,  (U^gcniM'atc  tissue  in  the  walls  of  the  stomach.  These 
cysts  are  of  various  shades  of  brown,  from  light  amhcr  to  almost 
black,  and  are  due,  not  *^o  ('estod(>s  alone,  but  also  to  nematodes  and 

Lint  vfjitih  examined  J'ur  parasites  with  sumruury  of  results. 

Scicntifu'immeof  host. 

Common  or  local 
name  of  host. 

C\il)  shiirk 

.Si>oltc(l  moray  . . 

Bony-fish .. 
Snake  fish  , 

Mangrove     min- 

Carcharhiniis     p/titya 

don  (Poey). 
Lyrodontis    m  u  r  i  ii  </  a 

Kl()]).'<  .safOMxLinnfBus. . 
Si/iiodun  KrtHrwx    (Ijin- 

Fiindiihis     l><  r  in  ii  d  :v 

TiilosuruM  (tens    Lac(5- 

■Hjiporlinniplius  utiijas- 

riiilas  { lianzani). 
Athi  riiiii  liairhigtonen- 

sin  (ioode. 
Sphyrxna       sphyrxna 

Hdlocfidrvs^  aarcvxionis 

Uj)i'7H'iis    III  (ica/at iin 

(Hloch).  I 

Scnold  diiiiii  I  i/.i  (Risso)    Amber, Jack 

Half-beak  . 


Squirrel  . . . 
Goat  fish... 

Bci-idlii  J'iKriiitit  (Hlocli) 

Scridlit  Jdlritia  Cuvier 
iiiid  \'alcnciennes. 

Tiiic/i II raps  rrnmenoi)- 
lliii/iinis  Hloc'il. 

JSoiliiiinifi  fiili'iis  puiic- 
tiitiis  (  Liiin:eus). 

Kpimiilu/us  ittriatu .s 

Epiiiei>hclu»  macidosus 
Cuvier  and  Valen- 

lip  in  rphel  u, k  morio 
((Uivier  and  Valen- 

M II  ct  crop  rmi  iipiiii 


Bermuda  .salmon . 

Big-eyed  scad  . . . 


Grouper,  Hamlet 

Deer  llaiiilcl 
Kock  lish  .... 

Pariint/iius  fnrrifrr  \  Barl)er  fish 
(Cuvier  a"n<l  Valen- 

Priacanthus    arenatns   , 

(Cuvier  and  Valen-  | 
cicnnes).  \ 

Nromicni.8       i/ r  i  s r  ii  .-i     Gray  simpiicr. 

Neoni:i')iiiiai>o(iiis(\\'ii\-     School  master, 

Ncomai'iiis  sfyvaii  r  i  k  '  Silk  suajipcr. . 


Neomxn in  li  a  s  t  i  n  g  ,s  / 

Neomtrn  in,  sp  

Oriinriix    c  /(,  r  ii  .s  u r  u  n 

/Ill  III  II Ion       macrosto- 

iiiaiii  Giinther. 
Hivmultm  Cdrhnnariii in 


Black -fin  ncd 

W  I)  i  t  e  -  w  a  t  c  r 


Streaked  (JrunI 
Black  Grunt 

-f  + 





Ff)od  notes. 

Fragments  of  lish   in 

Small  tisli  in  stomach. 

Small  fish  (fry). 

Green  algte. 

Young       gastropods 

and  cop('|)ods. 

Small  crustaceans. 

Fragments  of  crusta- 
ceans and  annelids. 

Small  fish. 


Fish  and  crabs. 

Fish,  crustaceans,  an- 

Fragments  of  Crusta- 
cea and  jaws  of 

Fish;  and  fragments 
of  mollusk  shells, 
probably  from  intes 
tines  of  fish. 

Gloliigcrina,  spic\ile- 
of  spdiiKe,  sctie  of 
annelids  and  shells 
of  a  small  pleropod. 

Fisli.  crustaceans  and 

Fisli  and  crabs. 

Fish,  mussel,  and  bi- 
valve and  univalve 

Crustaceans  and  small 


F'ish . 

Annelids    and     ophi- 

Fragments    of    small 

lish  and  algse. 

Fre(iuent  or  many. 

f -)-  Nimierous. 



JJxl  iif  fixli  e.raiiiiiu'd  for  pin-dsili.s  iritli  ,s.i iiiiiki r;/  of  residln — ( 'out iniicd. 

Ha'mulon  flaroUnrdliiin 
( Desniart'st ) . 

Bailiijittoma      .^ln<ili(iii 

('a (a  III  ti  n    ('(I  In  in  ii  .< 

(Cuvier  iiiui   N'alcii- 

Dililiuliiii  surgiis  (Lin 

Ki/plinsiis    s  r  c  t  n  I  r  i .r 

'(  liilllKVUHl. 

EiiiiDiiiarciitniK  j'n.ti-iix 

(('iivier  iiiiii  ViiU'ii- 

Abii'lrfiiiif  n a .c  a  I  il  i s 

( Liiiiia'iis). 
l.iir/iiiiiliiiiiniti  iiiiixiiiiun 

(Wiilliimiii  I. 
llitrpi  riij'ii  (  l.iiniii'Us). 
Iriilio  railidtiis  i  Liim 


YiMlow  Orniit  . . . 

While  (liuiit 




1!  Ill  w  II  -(■(icl<eVl' 

Cow  I'i'.ot 

Hog  fisli 

Spiinlsh  Ildglish. 

Iridiohivillitliiy  {Wocb)    Sliiipcr)-  l>icl. 

Scarug    vc-tula    (Blocli  i  I'lnrnl-lisli. 
and  Schuoider). 

C'li.r  t  Dclo  n     occllaliis  \  Kour-cvi'  . . 


Chivtodaii.  xp j  IJiitler-fi^li. 

Ans/fJichlliys  ciliar  i s  \  AmkcI  lisli  . 


Tent  II  in  rcKiulcuK 
( Bloc'h  and  Schnei- 

Teiithis  hepatus  l>inn- 

Hal  isles  carolinnisis 


Balisles  velula  Liiin- 


Blue  TiniK'. 

Doctor  fish 
Turbot  .... 

l.dcloph  ri/s     trii/diiiis 

Lactophiys     triromis     Ciiwfish 


(!dhiii>:!t(iii(irdfi>rCn\'ieT    (iol).v 

ami  X'aleiiciennes.      ; 
Sdldriirlilhi/s        lexlUis  j  Molly  Miller. 

Quoy  and  Gaimard. 

IJastunl  Tiirbot... 



+  t- 




Food  notes. 

Crustaceans,  annelids, 
green  algie,  a  n  d 
broken  shells. 

Fragments  of  orabs. 

Cnihs  and  mussels. 

Fish,  crustaceans, 
broken  mussel  shells, 
tests  and  spines  of 
HyU,  un'hins,  stems  of 
hydroids,  green  al- 
g!c,  small  univalve 
molluslisand  sand. 

Vegetable'  debris. 

Small  c  r  us  tac  eans, 
l)ryozoa,  foramini- 
fera,  alga',  sand. 

Vegetable  dijbris. 

Mussel  shells,  sea- 
weed and  sand. 

Large  numljcrs  of 
crushed  shells  of 
gastropods  and  bi- 
valves, and  tests  and 
spines  of  sea-ur- 

Shells  and  by.ssus  of 
mussell,  annelid, 
spine  of  sea-nrcliin. 

Stomach  and  intes- 
tine filled  with 
crabs,  univalve 
shells,  sea-urchin 
si)ines,  seaweed, and 


Fragments  of  lish. 

.Mimeutury  canal 
filled  witli  a  red 
sponge;  a  few  an- 
nelids; bryozoa,  a 
small  mollusk  shell 
and  seaweed. 

Broken  shells,  mainly 
Serpula,  tubes  and 
s  ma  1  1  gastropods, 
liryozoa,  sponge, 
foraminifera.  sea- 
weed and  .'^and. 

.A  sc  i  d  i  an  ( lintiyllo- 
idits),  algic  and  sand. 

Alimentary  canals 
crow  d  e  d  with 
l)roken  mussel 
shells;  seta;  of  large 

Fragments  of  adduc- 
tor muscle  of  a  bi- 
valvt!  mollusk. 

Amphipods,  mus.sels, 
bryozoa,  seaweed, 

table  dObris. 

+  -H  Numerous. 

88  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxm. 


Repre.sentativt's  of  this  order  were  found  in  11  of  tiie  51  species  of 
fish  examined.  They  belonged  to  a  single  species  and  were  immature 
and  encysted  on  tlie  viscera  in  all  cases,  except  the  rock  fish,  where 
they  were  also  found  mature  in  the  alimentary  canal.  These  worms 
have  been  referred  to  the  new  species  EcJiinorliynclius  medius. 

ECHINORHYNCHUS   MEDIUS,  new  species. 
Plate  IV,  figs.  21-30. 

Type.— Cd.i.  No.  5796,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Body  elongated,  nearly  linear,  diameter  greatest  just  behind  l)ase  of 
sheath,  whence  it  tapers  gently  to  the  neck;  anterior  end  of  body 
slightly  deflected  in  same  direction  as  the  proboscis,  which  is  inclined 
at  an  angle  of  45"^,  more  or  less,  to  the  axis  of  the  body;  anterior  end 
of  body  also  armed  wnth  sagittate  spines,  which,  on  the  concave  side, 
extend  back  a  distance  approximatel}^  one-third  the  length  of  the 
sheath,  and  about  halt  as  far  on  the  convex  side.  The  neck  is  smooth 
and  conical,  its  length  being  somewhat  less  than  its  diameter  at  base. 
The  proboscis  varies  from  nearly  linear  to  fusiform,  with  about  22 
vertical  rows  of  hooks,  and  about  20  hooks  in  one  vertical  row;  hooks 
strongly  recurved,  stoutish,  of  nearly  uniform  size  and  shape,  except 
at  the  base,  where  for  about  five  rows  the  hooks  are  smaller  than 
they  are  on  the  remainder  of  the  proboscis.  The  hooks  are  deeply 
immersed  in  the  cuticle  and  have  strong  but  somewhat  narrow  basal 
supports;  those  near  the  base  are  about  0.045  nun.  in  length,  others 
0.06  mm.,  spines  on  l)ody  from  0.03  to  0.045  nnn.  in  length.  Sheath 
rather  slender-fusiform,  usually  more  than  twice  the  length  of  the 
proboscis.     Lemnisci  long  and  slender. 

In  the  male  the  testes  are  two,  small,  oblong-elliptical,  situated  about 
the  anterior  third  of  the  length  and  separated  from  each  other  by  a 
distance  equal  to  five  or  more  times  the  length  of  one.  Remainder  of 
male  genitalia  simple,  consisting  of  the  vas  deferens  and  a  long-oval 
cement  gland  neai-  the  posterior  end;  bursa  laige,  oblong,  its  length 
not  much  exceeding  its  diameter  in  mounted  specimens  which  are 
somewhat  compressed. 

The  posterior  end  of  the  female  is  rather  al»ruptl3'  narrowed  to  a 
blunt  point  which  is  deflected,  in  some  cases  almost  at  right  angles  to 
the  axis  of  the  body. 

Dimensions,  in  millimeters,  of  a  nmie  mounted  in  l)alsam:  Length, 
42;  diameter,  anterior  0.75,  at  posterior  end  of  sheath  1.35,  middle  of 
body  1;  bursa,  length  1.5,  diameter  1.2;  neck,  length  0.45,  diameter 
at  anterior  end  0.37,  at  base  0.57;  proboscis,  length  1.4,  diameter  near 
base  0.45,  near  tip  0.30;  sheath,  length  3,  anterior  diameter  0.3,  mid- 
dle 0.67,  posterior  0.3;  distance  from  base  of  neck  to  first  testis  12; 


distance  from  first  to  second  testis  6;  lemnisci  extend  about  5.4  back 
of  posterior  end  of  sheath,  diameter  0.15;  testis,  kMigth  1,  diameter  0.5. 

Lenoth  of  female,  mounted  in  balsam,  54;  ovarian  masses,  length 
0.3,  diameter  0.12;  embryos  0.075  by  0.024. 

This  species  is  near  J^.  jnv'sti.'^,  in  external  appeai'ance.  )>iit  differs  in 
the  greater  length  of  the  lemnisci.  The  genitalia  of  the  male  are  also 
much  simpler;  furthermore  the  species  which  I  have  found  in  a  num- 
ber of  the  Beaufort  iishes  and  have  recorded  under  the  name  K  jirisfis^ 
is  characterized  l)y  having  a  circle  of  hooks  at  the  base  of  the  proboscis 
which  are  longer  than  the  other  hooks. 

Adult  stage. — The  adult  worms  were  found  in  but  one  host: 
MycterojMrea  apiuu  intestine. 

July  22,  numerous.  One  of  the  largest  specimens,  after  having 
been  placed  in  fresh  water,  where  it  became  turgid,  measured  50  nun. 
in  length.  Among  the  preserved  specimens  a  male  measured  42  mm. 
and  a  female  54  nun. 

hnmature  stage. — Immature  forms,   referred  to  this  species,  were 
found  in  the  following  hosts  encysted  in  the  viscera: 
Bodianus  fulvus  2>i(nctatu!<. 

July  22,  three,  on  viscera,  in  thin  connective  tissue  capsules  incrusted 
with  yellow  pigment.     One  was  removed  from  a  cyst  which  was  tilled 
with  dark-brown  waxy  secretion. 
Calainus  calamus. 

Jul}^  16,  ten,  encapsvded  on  the  viscera.  When  these  worms  were 
liberated  from  the  thin  cysts  which  enveloped  them  they  were  col- 
lapsed and  the  proboscides  were  retracted.  Placed  in  fresh  water 
they  became  plump  and  the  proboscides  were  evaginated.  July  18, 
two;  August  3  and  7,  numerous,  on  viscera  and  mesentery.  Two  of 
these  immature  forms  were  mounted  in  l)alsam  and  proved  to  be  far 
enough  developed  to  show  the  rudiments  of  various  organs.  The 
testes  in  this  case  were  situated  close  together  and  back  of  the  sheath 
a  distance  about  equal  to  the  length  of  that  organ.  In  the  female 
a  small  cluster  of  globular  l)odies  at  the  posterior  end  of  the  sheath 
evidently  represents  the  rudiments  of  the  primitive  <^^<^  masses. 

The  body  is  largest  at  the  base  of  the  sheath,  wdience  it  tapers  each 
way.  Proboscis  slightl}^  fusiform,  one  side  straight  or  very  slightly 
concave,  the  other  convex,  usually  deflected  in  the  direction  of  the 
coiivex  side;  about  20  hooks  in  a  vertical  row  and  22  or  23  vertical 
rows,  those  near  the  base  of  the  proboscis  more  slender  than  the 
others.  Neck  smooth  and  conical.  Anterior  end  of  body  with  about 
20  rows  of  spines.  These,  on  account  of  the  manner  in  which  they 
penetrate  the  cuticle,  appear  sagittate  in  front  view.  Sheath  fusi- 
form; longer  than  proboscis;  lemnisci  appear  to  bt;  long  and  slender. 
Dimensions  of  female  mounted  in  balsam,  in  millimeters:  Length,  12; 

90  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

proboscis,  leng-th  1.2,  diameter,  exclusive  of  hooks,  at  base  0.37, 
middle  0.55,  apex  0.87,  length  of  longer  hooks  0.08;  length  of  neck, 
approximate,  0.33;  diameter  of  neck,  anterior  0.35,  posterior  0.50; 
sheath  length  2.4,  diameter,  middle  0.63;  diameter  of  body,  at  base  of 
sheath,  0.9,  near  posterior  end  0.45;  testes  al)out  equal,  length  (».l^4, 
breadth  0.16. 
Epinephelus  m acuhmis. 

July  14,  two,  from  cysts  on  serous  coat  of  rectum,  some  dark  pig- 
ment in  cysts.     August  3.  one,  on  viscera. 
Eplnephelus  morio. 

July  22,  one,  on  viscera.     Dark  brown  degenerate  tis.sue  associated 
with  cyst,  also  in  the  cyst  along  with  the  worm. 
Ep'niepliduti  driatuH. 

July  16,  one,  an  inmiature  female;  July  27,  twelve,  on  pyloric  cceca; 
August  3,  numerous  on  viscera  and  mesenter3^ 
Hxm  ulonjiavollneatam . 

Jul}^  27,  one,  encapsuled  on  viscera. 
Ladi  li (A a  Im  us  inaximus. 

August  3,  eleven,  encapsuled  on  viscera. 
Mijcteroperca  apua. 

July  21,  two,  encapsuled  on  viscera. 

Neommnis  gyiseus. 

July  27,  two,  encapsuled  on  viscera. 

Neon) mnls  hastingsi. 

July  27,  one,  encapsuled  on  viscera. 
Ocyiirus  chrysurt/.s. 

July  14,  six,  from  serous  coat  of  viscera. 


Nematodes  were  found  in  15  of  the  51  species  of  fish  examined. 
Immature  nematodes,  while  found  in  8  species  of  tish,  were  not 
abundant  in  an3^  In  man}^  cases  they  were  found  to  have  given  rise 
to  cysts  in  the  stomach  wall.  All  but  one  of  the  finds  of  inunature 
nematodes  belong  to  the  same  species.  Nematodes  were  found  in  the 
muscular  tissue  of  but  1  species  of  tish,  the  gar. 

ASCARIS,  species. 

Plate  I,  figs.  l-\b. 

Head  truncate,  lips  sc^uarish,  no  interlips;  esophagus  long,  cylin- 
drical, with  bulbous  base,  from  which  springs  a  slender  and  usually 
short  diverticulum;  intestine  relatively  large  with  thick  sacculated 
walls,  its  div^erticulum  short;  nearly  linear,  tapering  at  each  end,  and 
crossed  by  exceedingly  tine  transverse  stride  and  by  coarser  furrows, 


the  latter  making-  a  crenulate  outline.  The  anal  papillae  are  very  small 
and  numerous;  the  exact  number  was  not  determined.  Seen  in  lateral 
view  there  appeared  to  be  about  8  postanal  and  probably  as  many  as 
60  preanal  papilhe. 

The  above  description  was  based  on  a  specimen  mounted  in  balsam. 
The  teeth  and  papilhe  on  the  lips  were  nt)t  very  distinct.  The  teeth 
appeared  to  be  simple  tubercular,  and  there  appeared  to  be  two  papillte 
on  each  of  the  lateral  lips. 

Postanal  region  slender  pointed.     Other  details  are  given  under  the 
several  hosts.     This  ascarid  was  found  in  three  of  tlie  Bernuida  tishes, 
as  follows: 
Jjodianv-s  fulvus  punctdt nx. 

July  22,  one.  Dimensions  in  millimeters  of  specimen  mounted  in 
balsam:  Length,  7;  diameter  of  head  0.12,  at  base  of  eso})lK)gus  0.3, 
middle  0.3,  at  anal  aperture  0.10;  distance  from  anal  apertui'e  to  pos 
terior  end,  0.21;  length  of  jaw  O.dlo,  breadth  0. ()<);•  length  of  esopha- 
gus, 1.5,  diameter  of  esophagus,  anterior  0.12,  middle  0.11,  ])ase  0.11; 
length  of  diverticuknn  of  esophagus  0,33,  of  intestine  0.1.5. 
Epinephelus  stria tus. 

July  11,  live,  females,  from  intestine.     These  worms  were  j^ellow- 
ish,  except  at  the  extremities,   where  they  were  translucent   white. 
The  jaws  were  broader  than  long,  with  rather  wide  transparent  borders 
and  distinct  branching  pulp.     Length,  12  to  11  nun. 
Mycteroperca  apua . 

July  21,  one,  male;  length  in  balsam,  (S  mm.  The  postanal  region 
was  rather  more  slender  than  in  others  and  the  esophageal  diverticu- 
lum was  longer,  but  still  shoi'ter  than  the  esophagus. 

Plate  1,  Htr.  '1. 

These  all  appear  to  belong  to  the  same  species  and  are  proljably 
3^oung  stages  of  the  foregoing,  Axcarix^  species,  from  Bodi.anus^  etc. 
They  are  characterized  by  having  a  very  short  diverticulum  of  the 
intestine  and  a  longer  and  more  slender  diverticulum  of  the  esophagus. 

These  inmiature  forms  were  found  in  the  following  hosts: 
Bodian  us  ftdrus  piincfdtns. 

July  22,  few,  very  small.     Numerous  small  cysts  containing  amber- 
colored  waxy  secretion  were  found  on  the  viscera  of  the  fish  taken  on 
l)oth  the  22d  and  23d.     These  were  0.7  mm.   and  less,  in  diameter. 
A  minute  nematode  was  obtained  from  one  of  these  cysts. 
Eplnep/u'I IIS  iiiacidosus. 

July  <S  and  11,  one  on  each  date.  Dimensions,  in  millimeters,  life: 
Length,  5;  length  of  esophagus  0.75,  of  bulb  at  base  0.04,  of  diverti- 
culum  0.45;  intestinal  divei-ticulum   ver}^   short,   about  equal  to  the 

92  PBOCEEDIXaS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.  vol.  xxxiii. 

esophageal  bulb;  distance  from  anal  aperture  to  posterior  end  0,0'i. 
Cysts,  usually  luuuerous,  were  found  in  this  host  on  July  8,  14,  22,  2!), 
and  Augusts.  They  were  found  in  the  nuiscular  coats  of  the  stomach, 
and  were  of  various  sizes,  from  CO  mm.  to  t!  mm.  in  diameter.  In 
all  cases  they  contained  wax}^  degenerate  tissue  which  was  dark  brown 
or  amber  colored.  One  small  cyst,  less  than  1  mm.  in  diameter  was 
found  to  contain  a  minute  nematode. 
EpineplieluM  ,sfr!aiu.s. 

Cysts  like  those  found  in  J^J.  viacidomis  were  found  in  this  host  on 
July  11, 15,  16,  18,  and  August  3.  In  some  cases  the^^  were  most  abun- 
dant in  the  submucous  coat  of  the  stomach;  in  others  they  were  most 
numerous  in  the  muscular  coats.  In  the  latter  case  the}^  were  as  a  rule 
in  greatest  numbers  in  the  pyloric  region,  where  the  dark  brown, 
sometimes  almost  black,  cysts  were  in  sharp  contrast  with  the  white 
tissue  in  which  they  were  embedded.  They  are  most  alnmdant  in  the 
large  groupers,  and  evidentl}'  represent  entozoa  which  have  had  a 
long  residence  in  their  host  and  have  either  succumbed  or  migrated. 
Myderoperca  ojnui. 

July  21,  two.  Large  numbers  of  cysts  were  also  found  on  the  mes- 
entery and  serous  coat  of  the  viscera  generally.  They  contained  dark- 
brown  waxy  degenerate  tissue,  and  varied  in  size  from  2  mm.  or  less 
to  20  mm.  or  more.  They  were  irregular  in  shape,  often  nodular, 
sometimes  flattened.  No  entozoa  were  foiuid  in  them.  The  smaller 
ones  are  probably  due  to  nematodes,  the  larger  to  cestodes. 
Ilxinalon  carlnmarlurn . 

July  31,  one,  small. 
Iridio  vadiatM^. 

July  29,  numerous,  also  on  July  31,  many.  These  nematodes  were 
first  found  in  washings  from  the  alimentary  canal.  It  was  observed 
that  there  were  many  small  cysts  in  the  intestinal  wall,  with  the  usual 
waxy  contents.  Some  of  these  cysts  were  crushed  under  a  cover 
glass  and  in  one  of  them,  a  minute  nematode,  agreeing  with  the  free 
specimens,  was  found. 
Neonice.n h  ajxxhis. 

July  17,  two.     These  worms  were  active  after  lying  a])()ut  ten  hours 
in  water  to  wliich  a  little  fornuilin  had  been  added. 
NeortixnlK  (/riseif,s. 

Jul}^  17,  one,  very  small.  Dimensions  in  millimeters,  life:  Length, 
3.6;  diameter,  anterior,  (». 01,  middle.  0.07,  at  anal  apertui-e  0.05;  length 
of  esophagus  0.3,  of  diverticulum  of  esophagus  0.3,  of  diverticulum  of 
intestine  (».03. 

Param  tit  oix  fiireifer. 

July  29,  niuuerous,  from  intestine. 


Upeneiia  rnacidatns. 

Jul}^  11,  one.  This  specimen  was  exceptional  in  that  the  diver- 
ticulum of  the  esophaous  was  longer  than  the  esophagus.  The 
diverticulum  of  the  intestine  was  just  as  long  as  the  basal  bulb  of  the 


Plate.  I,  fig.  ;!. 

A  fragment  of  a  small  nematode  from  tlio  intestine  of  Ilarpe  rufa 
is  different  from  the  foregoing.  The  fragment  is  from  the  posterior 
end.     The  post-anal  region  tapers  gradually  and  is  slightly  arcuate. 

Dimensions,  in  millimeters,  alcoholic:  Length,  5.25;  diameter  0.05, 
at  anal  aperture  0.(»3:  distance  from  anal  aperture  to  posterior 
end  0.06. 

Plate  I,  tigs.  5-7;  Plate  11,  tigs.  8-10. 

A  small  nematode  found  sparingly  in  several  Bernuida  fishes  is 
referred,  with  some  hesitation,  to  this  species.  It  agrees  ver^^  close!}" 
with  specimens  found  at  Beaufort.  North  Carolina,  and  referred  to 
this  species." 

In  the  use  of  the  generic  name  Ileterllis  in  the  Beaufort  report  I 
followed  Schneider  and  Stossich.  As  a  matter  of  fact  these  nematodes, 
while  agreeing  closely  with  Schneider's  description  of  If.  foreoJata^ 
are  much  nearer  the  type  species  of  tlie  geims  Dacnltix  than  they 
are  to  the  type  species  of  IleUirikia.  The  species  Dacn'ith  exariens 
Dujardin  is  included  by  Schneider  among  the  synonyms  of  H. 

It  would  l)e  out  of  place  in  this  paper  to  enter  into  a  discussion  of 
nomenclature,  and  luitil  a  more  detailed  study  can  be  made  I  shall 
retain  the  name  used  in  my  Beaufort  paper. 

Head  obtuseh"  rounded  in  front;  mouth  bilabiate;  lips  dorsal  and 
ventral,  each  with  about  two  small  papilhv,  and  armed  with  numerous 
minute,  simple  teeth,  of  uniform  size  and  shape,  which  make  a  crown- 
like border  to  the  mouth.  Neck  narrowing  behind  the  head,  but 
enlarging  again  gradually,  the  body  remaining  nearly  linear  from  the 
base  of  the  esophagus  to  near  the  posterior  end,  where  it  tapers  to  an 
acute  point.  The  anterior  part  of  the  body  is,  in  many  cases,  curved 
backward.  The  esophagus  narrows  behind  the  conspicuous  pharynx, 
then  enlarges  to  the  base. 

The  genital  papilhe,  so  far  as  made  out,  are  as  shown  in  fig.  7, 
namely,  six  post-anal  papilla?,  two  pairs  of  which  are  near  the  median  line 
and  near  together;  the  other  two  are  situated  one  on  each  side  of  the 
median  pairs.     Lateral  to  the  anal  aperture  and  near  to  it  on  each  side 

«  Bulletin,  Bureau  of  Fisheries,  XXIV,  p.  330,  etc. 


are  three  small  papillte  near  together,  and  lateral  to  each  of  these  groups 
is  a  single  papilla.  Three  pairs  of  pre-anal  papilla^  were  made  out, 
the  bursa  ))eing,  on  all  observed  cases,  between  the  two  anterior  pairs. 
The  eight  papilhe  near  the  anal  aperture  were  less  distinct  than  either 
the  pre-  or  post-anal  papillae,  and  were  not  always  clearly  made  out. 
Between  the  anal  aperture  and  the  bursa  there  are  strong  diagonal 
muscles  running  from  the  lateral  region  medio-caudad.  Spicules 
about  equal. 

The  tirst  sections  of  a  series  of  transverse  sections  show  the  bilabiate 
mouth  with  an  elongate  aperture  (tig.  8).  The  chitinous  walls  of  the 
pharj'nx  soon  give  evidence  of  a  trifid  division  (tig,  5>).  The  lumen  of 
the  esophagus  biH'omes  tri radiate  (tig.  10),  each  of  the  three  divisions 
having  two  semicircular  thickenings  of  the  chitinous  lining,  which  indi- 
cate the  presence  of  six  longitudinal  chitinous  ridges  in  the  lining  of 
the  esophagus  extending  from  the  pharynx  to  the  base.  A  series  of 
sections  made  from  one  of  the  Beaufort  specimens  was  compared  with 
a  series  made  from  a  specimen  from  MycteToperca  apua^  and  was  found 
to  agree. 

I  have  found  a  nematode  at  the  Tortugas  which  agrees  with  this 
species  very  closely. 


DipJodus  sargus. 

July  13,  one,  female.  Dimensions  in  millimeters,  life:  Length  8; 
diameter,  anterior  0.12,  middle  0.3,  at  anal  aperture  0.12;  length  of 
esophagus  0.8;  distance  from  anal  aperture  to  posterior  end  0.27; 
distance  of  reproductive  aperture  from  posterior  end  3. 

Julj^  14,  one,  male.  Dimensions  in  millimeters,  life:  Length  4, 
length  of  esophagus  0.6;  diameter,  anterior  0.10,  middle  0.16,  at 
anal  aperture  0.09;  distance  of  anal  aperture  from  posterior  end  0.15; 
length  of  spicules  0.42. 

July  24,  two,  male  and  female;  length  in  balsam,  3  and  8  mm. 
Holocev  trus.  ascenscionis. 

July  31,  one,  male.  This  specimen  may  belong  to  a  different  spe- 
cies. It  was  not  in  good  condition,  but  appeared  to  agree  with  those 
from  Dlplodus^  etc.  Transverse  sections  show  the  lumen  of  the  esoph- 
agus as  a  narrow  slit  with  nearly  parallel  sides  until  near  the  base, 
where  it  has  a  tendency  to  become  triradiate. 
Lycodontls  unoringa. 

August  3,  one,  male;  length  5.27  nun. 
Mycteroperca  apua. 

July  2,  four;  July  22,  one. 
Neoniaenis  griseus. 

July  14,  four;  Jul}^  27,  two;  August  3,  one. 


HETERAKIS,  species. 

Plate  II,  Hgs.  11  to  14;  Plate  III,  tigs.  15  to  20. 

This  agrees  very  closely  with  a  form  from  the  liounder." 

The  body  is  rather  plump,  truncate  anteriorly,  tapering-  posteriorl3^ 
Mouth  bilabiate,  but  in  some  cases  appearing  to  be  obscurel}'  trilobed 
in  dorsal  or  ventral  view.  Lips  armed  with  very  numerous  small 
teeth  of  nearly  uniform  size  and  shape,  and  each  provided  with  about 
three  papilhe.  Diameter  of  neck  but  little  less  than  that  of  the  bod}^ 
but  narrowing  ^slightly  very  near  the  anterior  end.  The  esophagus  is 
much  narrower  than  the  neck.  It  is  largest  at  the  anterior  end,  where 
it  expands  into  the  phaiynx.  Its  smallest  diameter  is  a  little  in  front 
of  its  middle  point,  whence  it  enlarges  posteriorly,  the  posterior  third 
being  nearl}'  cylindrical.  The  reproductive  aperture  of  the  female  is 
a  little  back  of  the  middle.  The  uterus  is  voluminous,  the  eggs  being 
retained  in  it  until  segmentation  has  begun.  Behind  the  anal  aperture 
of  the  female  there  are  two  papilla?.  The  postanal  region  is  some- 
what variable  in  length  and  is  mucronate  at  the  tip. 

Transverse  sections  show  that  the  cuticle  is  unusually  thick,  espe- 
ciall}'  toward  the  anterior  end.  The  character  of  the  esophagus,  as 
revealed  in  sections,  is  much  like  that  of  the  preceding  species. 

These  worms  have  been  found  thus  far  widely  distributed,  but  only 
in  very  small  numbers. 

In  Fundulus  heteroclitu><  at  Woods  Hole,  Massachusetts,  males  of  this 
or  a  closely  allied  species  were  found.*  The  genital  papilla  in  these 
males  are  arranged  as  follows:  In  the  postanal  region,  lateral  view, 
there  are  three  larger  papilhv  with  three  smaller  papilhe  lateral  to 
them,  the  most  anterior  of  the  larger  papilhe  being  very  close  to  the 
anal  aperture  and  lateral  to  it.  In  the  preanal  region,  lateral  view, 
there  are  two  large  papilhe  near  together  a  little  anterior  to  the  anal 
aperture  and  lateral,  two  others  between  these  and.  the  bursa,  and  two 
in  front  of  the  bursa,  thus  making  in  all  twelve  postanal  and  twelve 
preanal  papillae. 


Haemulori  carhonarlum. 

July  31,  one.  Dimensions  in  millimeters,  life,  slightly  compressed: 
Length  ■!;  diameter,  anterior  0.16,  middle  0.40,  at  genital  aperture 
(2.25  from  posterior  end)  0.36,  at  anal  aperture  0.09;  distance  from 
anal  aperture  to  posterior  end  0.15;  esophagus,  length  0.53,  diameter, 
anterior  (pharynx)  t>.12,  middle  0.05,  base  0.08. 

«Bull.  U.  S.  Fish  Com.  for  1899,  p.  481,  pi.  vii,  figs.  57-61.  See  also  Bull.  Bureau 
of  Fisheries,  XXIV,  pp.  325,  390,  392,  412,  414,  figs.  24,  25. 

&Bull.  U.  S.  Fish  Com.  for  1899,   p.  441,  pi.  xvii,  figs.  207,  208. 

96  riiOCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.  vol.  xxxiii. 

Neoinxnis  griseus. 

July  27,  one.  Dimension  in  millimeters,  life:  Length  6;  diameter, 
anterior  0.45,  at  base  of  esophagus  O.IH),  middle  1,  1  millimeter  from 
posterior  end  0.90,  at  anal  aperture  0.22;  esophagus,  length  1.20, 
diameter  at  anterior  end  0.22,  narrowing  to  0.08  and  expanding  again 
to  0.18  at  base. 


The  flesh  of  two  specimens  of  Tylot^tiru.s  acKd,  which  were  examined 
on  July  16,  was  found  to  be  tilled  with  parasitic  worms. 

These  worms  were  very  numerous  in  both  gars,  and  were  most 
abundant  near  the  backbone,  where  they  were  distributed  along  the 
greater  part  of  the  length.  The  color  of  the  worms  was  blood-red, 
and,  since  many  of  them  were  in  tangled  clusters,  the  appearance 
which  the}^  presented  when  the  flesh  was  cut  open  was  much  like  that 
of  small  blood  vessels  gorged  with  blood.  With  some  difficulty  some 
of  the  worms  were  extracted  whole  and  found,  after  killing  and 
straightening,  to  be  about  80  mm.  in  length.  All  that  were  examined 
were  females. 

While  the  general  color  was  blood-red,  the  intestine  showed  as  a 
dark-brown  stripe.  In  most  cases  the  uterus  was  crowded  with  young, 
which  were  in  a  state  of  unceasing  activity.  The  young  worms  were 
characterized  by  having  a  few  black,  granular  spots  in  the  middle  of 
the  bod3^  In  some  of  the  adults  ova,  with  what  were  taken  to  be  sper- 
matozoa, were  seen  mingled  together  in  the  uterus. 

Dimensions  of  specimen  mounted  in  balsam:  Length  55;  diameter 
of  head  0.19;  diameter  of  body  nearly  uniform,  diflerences  due  mainly 
to  contraction  and  pressure  from  0.15  to  0.70. 

ICHTHYONEMA,  species. 
Plate  I,  tigs.  4  and  4o,. 

The  following  notes  are  made  on  finds  of  worms  belonging  to  this 
genus,  but  on  account  of  the  f  ragmental  nature  of  the  material,  satis- 
factory identifications  could  not  be  made: 

Ephnejplielxis  inaGuloHim. 
July  22,  fragments  from  testes;  young  and  ova  together  in  uterus. 

Epinephelus  striatus. 

July  18,  one  from  ovary  of  large,  spent  female. 
Lycodotitis  morhiga. 

August  3,  one,  small,  10  mm.,  or  less,  in  length;  diameter,  anterior 
0.09;  middle,  and  for  ahnost  the  entire  length  0.15;  near  posterior 
end  0.07. 


Mycteroperca  apua. 

July  22,  several  frag-ments  from  testes;  intestine  (lark-])rown  with 
elono-jited  cells  in  its  wails;  ova,  but  no  young,  in  the  uterus;  longest 
fragment  75  mm.  in  length. 
JVeonixnls,  Kj^ccies. 

July  27,  fragments  from  ovary;  inte.stinc  narrow,  very  dark;  young 
in  uterus  still  active  on  the  28th. 

Order  CESTODA. 

Cestodes  were  found  in  IS  of  the  5L  species  of  hsh  examined. 

There  seemed  to  he  a  notable  scarcity  of  encysted  forms  and  espe- 
cially of  the  small  larvtB  known  as  Scolex p)ol yiiiorpJnts^  which  are  very 
conunon  in  the  alimentary  canals  of  our  coast  fishes.  This  may  be 
explained  perhaps  by  the  fact  that  most  of  the  fish  which  were  exam- 
ined came  from  the  inner  reef.  All  the  larger  fish  from  the  deeper 
water  on  the  outer  reef,  where  sharks  abound,  had  numerous  cysts  on 
and  in  the  viscera.     Cestode  flesh  parasites  were  found  only  in  the  gar. 


Plate  V,  %.  31. 

Discocephalum  j^ileatum  Linton,  Report  U.  S.  Fish  Com.  for  1887,  pp.  781-787, 
pi.  X,  figs.  1-7;  Bull.  U.  S.  Fish.  Com.  for  1899,  p.  272. 

On  July  31  seven  of  these  cestodes  were  found  with  their  heads 
eml)edded  in  the  mucous  membrane  at  the  anterior  end  of  the  spiral 
valve  of  a  small  cub  shark  {Carcharhlnus  platyodon).  These  worms 
varied  in  length  from  10  to  340  mm.  Five  of  the  largest  were 
attached  within  a  space  about  10  mm.  square.  Oidy  two  of  the  strob- 
iles were  immature.  In  the  longer  of  the  immature  strobiles,  which 
measured  100  mm.  in  length,  reproductive  organs  were  developing  in 
the  posterior  segments.  In  addition  to  the  attached  strobiles  there 
were  several  fragments  of  mature  strobiles  in  the  ch3de. 

The  disk-like  heads,  shaped  like  a  mushroom  anchor,  were  firmly 
embedded  in  tiie  submucosa  with  the  mucous  membrane  closely  embrac- 
ing the  necks.  They  can  not  be  removed  by  simply  pulling  them 
away  from  their  lodgment.  This  would  merely  break  them  and  leave 
the  heads  securely  embedded  in  the  intestinal  wall.  Indeed,  from  the 
appearance  of  the  pits  after  the  worms  have  been  removed,  it  seems 
doubtful  whether  they  can  detach  themselves  after  they  have  once 
gained  lodgment.  It  is  probable,  however,  that  they  can  do  so,  since 
the  disk  is  a  very  muscular  organ  and  doubtless  is  capable  of  assuming 
very  diverse  shapes;  besides  there  is  no  evidence  of  degeneration 
either  in  the  head  or  the  surrounding  tissue,  which  would  be  the  case 
if  the  heads  were  permanently  attached. 

Proc.  N.  M.  vol.  xxxiii — 07 — -7 

98  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 


Plate  V,  figs.  32-35. 

Rynchoborhun.  upeciosaiii  Linton,  Proc.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.,  XIX,  p.  801-805,  \A.  lxiv, 
figs.  13,  14;  pi.  Lxv,  figs.  1-7;  Bull.  U.  S.  Fish  Com.  for  1898,  p.  784;  same 
for  1899,  p.  413,  etc.;  Bull.  Bureau  of  Fisheries,  XXIV,  p.  332,  etc. 

This  species  was  found  in  live  of  the  Bermuda  fishes.  It  is  highly 
probable  that  the  adult  stage  will  l)e  found  iu  the  cub  shark. 


EpinepJielns  mac idat us. 

July  8,  one,  from  cj^t  on  viscera;  cyst  thin.  3'ellowish,  on  account  of 
the  presence  of  a  waxy  secretion,  length  20  mm.;  blastocyst  translu- 
cent bluish-white,  about  same  length  as  cyst;  larva  with  triangular 
head,  and  neck  enlarging  posteriorlv  and  slightly  swollen  at  the  bulbs. 
A  specimen  mounted  in  balsam  and  slightl}^  compressed  yielded  the 
following  measurements  in  millimeters:  Length  of  bothria  0.75, 
breadth  0.62;  length  of  head  and  neck  4.5;  diameter  of  neck,  anterior 
0.1^6,  middle  0.67,  at  bulbs  0.80;  proboscis,  length  2.2,  diameter  near 
base,  excluding  hooks  0.054,  including  hooks  0.078. 
Eplnephehifi  striatus. 

July  11,  several  long-ciavate  cysts  on  viscera  with  yellowish- brown 
secretion.     Two  larvte  measiu'ed  12  and  20  mm.,  respectiveh^ 

July  27,  live,  cysts  on  viscera  and  mesenter}',  mostly  clavate.  Length 
of  one  cvst  25  mm.,  of  the  larva  15  mm.     August  8,  two  cysts. 

3fycf<roperc((  a  pun. 

July  21  and  22,  several  clavate  cysts  from  20  to  25  nmi.  in   length 
on  viscera  Avith  dark-brown  secretions. 
Neomsen  is  griseits. 

July  27,  six  cj^sts  on  viscera. 
Neomae.nis  synagrin. 

July  18,  one  clavate  cyst,  length  2<»  nun.,  diameter  5  mm. 

Plate  \,  figs.  36-38. 

Type.-C^t.  No.  5797,  U.S.N.M. 

Head  usually  broader  than  long,  orbicular  or  cordate ;  both  ria  lateral — 
that  is,  coinciding  with  the  lateral  margins  of  tlie  body,  with  raised 
borders — neck  long,  slender,  nearly  linear,  enlarging  at  base,  some- 
times appearing  to  ))egin  al)ruptly  by  an  articulation  with  the  head 
and  usually  abruptly  larger  than  the  anterior  end  of  the  body;  pro- 
boscides  much  shorter  than  neck,  with  a  tendenc}"  to  coil  up  into 
rather  close  spirals  when  everted;  sheaths  nearly  straight,  bulbs  long- 
ovate,  retractor  muscle  attached  to  posterior  end.     The  hooks  are  of 


many  different  shapes  and  sizes,  hut  on  account  of  the  siniihirity  of 
the  hooks,  which  make  up  the  several  lon<^Mtu(linal  rows,  the  general 
effect  is  that  of  uniformity  and  symmetry.  There  is  some  resem- 
blance in  the  ai'rangement  of  the  liooks  to  that  of  Ii.  .s/feclcsioH,  par- 
ticuhirh'  in  the  case  of  one  of  the  longitudinal  rows,  where  the  small 
hooks  of  which  it  is  composed  are  placed  ])y  twos  on  account  of  the 
lengthening  of  alternate  intervals  l)etwcen  the  hooks  of  the  row.  A 
characteristic  feature  of  this  species  is  the  distinctness  of  the  longi- 
tudinal rows  of  hooks.  There  was  no  indication  of  segments.  Dimen- 
sions given  below. 


Epin('phelus  inacnloHUs. 

July  29,  one  clavato  cj^st  from  viscera,  length  28  mm.  Bothria 
with  raised  borders  and  I'oticulated  surface;  neck  linear  but  may 
present  irreguhirities  due  to  contraction.  Dimensions  of  larva  in 
millimeters,  life:  Length  20;  bothria,  length  0.75,  breadth  (».60; 
diameter  of  neck,  anterior  O.-io,  at  ]>ase  O.GO;  ])ul1)s,  length  1.20, 
breadth  0.21.  The  following  additional  measurements  are  from  the 
mounted  specimen:  Length  20;  head,  length  0.00,  breadth  (bothria 
spread  apart)  0.90;  length  of  head  and  neck  5.7;  prol^oscis,  length, 
approximate,  1.05,  diann^ter  neai"  base,  excluding  hooks  0.036,  includ- 
ing hooks  O.OG.  The  hooks  were  denser  and  longer  than  in  R.  specio- 
siuii^  and  the  proboscides  coiled  into  close  spirals  when  everted. 
Epinephelus  striatus. 

July  18,  four  cysts  from  viscera.  One  larva  measured  HO  mm.  in 
length.  In  a  mounted  specimen,  the  bothria  being  seen  in  marginal 
view,  the  length  of  the  head  is  0.60,  the  breadth  0.82  mm.  The  neck 
is  linear  except  in  front  of  the  bulbs,  where  it  is  swollen,  a  condition 
evidently  due  to  unequal  contraction. 

Parmithias  fureifer, 

July  29,  four  dark-brown  cysts  of  various  shapes.  One  of  the 
larvae  differed  from  the  others  in  that  the  outline  of  the  head  was 
somewhat  triangular  or  cordate  instead  of  orbicular  in  corresponding 


Otobothrium  creuacolle  Linton,  Report  U.  S.  Fish  Coin,  for  1887,  pp.  850-853, 
pi.  xiii,  Hgs.  9-15;  pi.  XIV,  figs.  1-4;  Bull.  U.  S.  Fish  Com.  for  1899,  pp.  273, 
428;  Bull.  Bureau  of  Fisheries,  XXIV,  p.  331,  etc.;  XXVI,  pp.  111-132, 
pis.  I  and  11. 

This  widely  distributed  cestode  was  found  in  three  of  the  Bermuda 
Bali  fifes  carol  inevs  Is. 

July  14  and  22,  few  on  each  date  from  cysts  in  walls  of  stomach  and 
intestine.  The  cysts  were  small,  oval,  white;  when  compressed  they 
revealed  the  larva  in  its  blastocyst. 

100  PROCEEDINdS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.  vol.  xxxin. 

Dimensions  in  millimeters,   life:    Cyst,   length   2.3,   breadth   1.12; 
length  of  embiyo  0.1. 
Diplodus  sargus. 

fFuly  14,  two  cysts  inclosed  in  a  inass  of  hrown  secretion  on  the 
serous  coat  of  the  viscera. 
Ocf/irrus  ch/ 

July  22,  few,  small,  from  cy.sts  on  mescntpry. 

OTOBOTHRIUM    PENETRANS,   new  species. 
Plate  VI,  tigs.  39-48. 

Olobothrlnm,  species,    Bull.   Bureau  of  Fisheries  for  1904,   XXIV,  p.  .S57,  ligs. 

Type.— Cat  No.  5798,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Bothria  marginal,  widel}^  divergent,  with  pits  characteristic  of  the 
genus;  neck  somewhat  elongated,  at  least  longer  than  the  head,  stout, 
widely  flaring  and  emarginate  at  posterior  end;  contractile  l)albs 
curved,  concave  on  lateral,  convex  on  medial  sides,  approximate  at 
their  anterior  ends  but  strongly  divergent  at  the  posterior  ends;  pro- 
boscides  stout  and  of  moderate  length;  hooks  of  man}^  ditferent  sizes 
and  shapes,  the  larger  ones  strongly  recurved  with  rather  narrow, 
unsymmetrical  base.  A  few  of  the  slender  hooks  near  the  base  of  the 
proboscides  are  somewhat  spirally  crooked. 

Dimensions  in  millimeters  of  alcoholic  specimen:  Length  of  scolex 
to  base  of  bulbs  4;  breadth  of  head  1.7.5.  Another,  in  balsam:  Head 
compressed,  length  1.12,  breadth  1.95;  approximate  length  of  probos- 
cides 1.8,  diameter,  including  hooks  0.24,  excluding  hooks  0.15,  length 
of  longest  hooks  0.09.  In  another,  length  of  contractile  bulbs  1.35, 
breadth  0.55;  approximate  length  of  proboscis  2.25. 

Blastocyst  (plerocercus):  Elongated,  white,  very  irregular  in  shape; 
one,  somewhat  contracted,  measured  25  mm.  in  length. 


TylfmiiTvs  acus. 

Blastocysts  very  numerous  in  the  flesh  of  each  of  two  gars,  July  16. 
These  were  generally  distrilRited  in  the  muscles  of  the  back  and  sides, 
but  were  most  abundant  along  the  dorsal  region;  a  few  were  found  in 
the  peritoneum.  They  were  all  relatively  large,  white,  and  very  active, 
even  after  they  had  been  in  sea  water  for  several  hours. 


Rhynchobothrium  bimlcatuiit  Linton,  Report  U.  S.  Fish  Com.  for  1886,  pp.  479-486, 

pi.  lY,  figs.  9-23. 
Tetrarhynchns  hisulcatus   Linton,  Report  U.  S.  Fish  Com.  for  1887,  pp.  857-861, 

pi.  XIV,  figs.  10-12;  pi.  XV,  fig:  1;  Proc.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus.,  XIX,  pi.  lxvi,  figs. 

11-15;  XX,  pp.  452;  Bull.  U.  S.  Fish  Com.  for  1899,  pp.  272  and  414,  etc.; 

Bull.  Bureau  of  Fisheries,  XXIV,  p.  383,  etc. 


Found  in  two  of  the  Bermuda  fishes. 
Ballstes  vetula. 

July  27,  one,  from  C3^st  in  intestinal  wall.  The  intestine  of  the  fish 
was  thickly  beset  throughout  its  length  with  chalky  c^'sts.  A  number 
of  these  cysts  were  removed  and  left  over  night  in  sea  water.  A^'hen 
they  were  examined  the  following  morning  nothing  was  found  in  them 
but  a  pulpy,  granular  mass.  The  larval  tetrarhj^nch  was  found  free 
in  the  dish  with  the  cysts.  The  scolex  was  still  active,  the  bothria 
constanth'  changing  their  shape,  and  the  proboscides  at  frequent 
intervals  were  protruded  and  withdrawn.  This  action  was  somewhat 
rythmical.  The  hooks  w^ere  characteristic  of  the  species;  the  collar 
was  elongated  and  conical.  Dimensions,  in  millimeters,  life:  Length 
1.8,  of  bothria  0.75,  of  collar  1.0.5;  breadth  of  head,  maximum  0.60, 
of  neck,  behind  bothria  0.52,  at  posterior  end  0.22;  diameter  of  pro- 
boscis 0.01. 
Paran  thias  furcifer. 

Jul}^  29,  one,  from  a  small  degenerate  cyst  on  viscera. 


Scolex  polymorphns  Rudolphi,  Larval  Tetrabothria,  Rep.  U.  S.  Fish  Com.  for 
1886,  pp.  3-4,  pi.  VI,  figs.  8,  9;  Larval  Echeneibothria,  Proc.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus., 
XIX,  pp.  789-792,  pi.  i,  figs.  4-15;  Larval  G§sto(les,  Bull.  U.  S.  Fish  Com. 
for  1899,  pp.  270-284;  p.  413,  etc.;  Bull.  Bureau  of  Fisheries,  XXIV, 
pp.  332,  333,  etc. 

Found  in  three  of  the  Bermuda  fishes: 
Ahudefdvf  mMitilis. 

July  31,  few,  in  alimentary  canal.     They  were  small,  the  bothria 
without  costaj.     There  were  two  red  pigment  spots  in  the  neck  and 
numerous  calcareous  bodies  in  the  parenchyma.     Length  0.00,  breadth 
0.27  mm. 
Ep inephelus  niaeulosus. 

July  8,  two,  in  intestine,  small;  prominent  terminal  sucker;  bothria 
without  costa?  and  no  pigment  in  neck.  Length  0.9,  breadth  0.2  mm. 
Ephicphelus  str!at uh. 

July  11,  about  60  found  after  going*  over  washings  from  the 
alimentary  canal  of  three  large  groupers  several  times.  These  were 
small,  with  two  red  pigment  patches  just  behind  the  head,  and  no 
costge  on  the  bothria.  In  contracting  there  was  a  tendency  to  lengthen 
the  posterior  end  of  the  bod}'  into  a  slender,  pointed  tail,  the  head, 
at  the  same  time  becoming  nearly  globular.  Most  of  them,  when 
contracted,  are  transversely  wrinkled.  A  contracted  specimen  was 
0.6  mm.  in  length  and  0.1  mm.  in  breadth.  August  3,  two  cysts  on 

102  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxin. 


Cestode  larvae,  which  appear  to  belong  to  the  genus  Dibothrium, 
were  found  in  three  of  the  Bermuda  fishes. 
JBodianus  fulvus  punctatus. 

Jul}'^  23,   fragment.     This   specimen   was   finely    and   transversely 
wrinkled  and  the  parenchyma  contained  numerous  calcareous  bodies. 
It  resembles  the  posterior  end  of  an  immature  Dibothrium. 
Eiqjoin  acen  trus  /use  us. 

July  11,  one.  This  specimen  was  exceedingly  variable  in  shape, 
and  there  were  no  definite  organs.  The  anterior  end  was  densely 
covered  Avith  short  spines,  and  there  was  an  aperture  in  front  into 
which  the  anterior  end  of  the  bod}^  could  be  inverted.  As  the  worm 
became  quiescent  under  the  cover  glass  the  anterior  end  was  perma- 
nently retracted  and  the  worm  assumed  a  vase  shape. 
Paranthias  furelfer. 

July  29,  numerous  cylindrical  cysts,  most  of  them  dark  brown,  and 
some  of  them  degenerate.  One  of  the  larger  cysts  measured  22  mm.  in 
length  and  2  mm.  in  diameter.  The  larva  measured  14  mm.  in 
length  and  1.5  mm.  in  diameter.  It  was  corrugated  transversely, 
slightly  inverted  at  the  anterior  end  and  had  a  small  pore  at  the  pos- 
terior end.  There  were  numerous  calcareous  bodies  in  the  paren- 
chyma.    The  smaller  cj'sts  were  from  3  to  5  nmi.  in  length. 

In  one  of  the  larger  specimens  numerous  glandular  bodies  were 
seen.  Similar  structures  have  already  been  noted  by  me."  These 
structures  have  been  made  the  subject  of  special  inquiry  by  Pintner.* 

The  generic  character  of  these  larvi^e  is  uncertain. 


Larvae  too  innuatuie  for  identification  and  C3^sts  with  indefinite  or 
indeterminable  contents  are  here  noted: 
Hathystoni a  strlatuvi . 

July  17,  one  blastocyst  from  viscera;  too  immature  for  identification. 
H3e,mulo7i  fldvolineatwin . 

eFul}^  27,  one  cyst  with  blastoc^^st,  but  no  larva  recognizable. 
Neom  sen  is  synagris. 

July  18.     Aml)er-colored  cj^sts  of  uncertain  origin,  with  waxy  con- 
tents, were  found  in  the  stomach  wall  of  the  largest  fish  of  the  three 
examined.     These  cysts  ma}^  be  due  to  nematodes. 
Ocy lines  chrysurus. 

eluly  7,  one  small  blastoc3'st,  white,  variable,  but  for  the  most  part 
P3a'iform;  no  larva  in  it.  Length  1.5  mm.,  breadth  0.15,  tapering  to 
0.05  mm. 

«Proc.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus.,  XIX,  p.  797,  pi.  lxiii,  figs.  14,  15;  Bull.  U.  S.  Fish  Com. 
for  1899,  p.  300,  fig.  100. 

6  Sitz.  d.  k.  Akad.  d.  Wissensch.  in  Wien,  CXII,  Abt.  i,  July,  1903. 



Trematodes  were  found  in  29  of  the  51  species  of  tish  examined. 
In  many  cases  only  one,  and  often  but  veiy  few,  of  a  kind  were  found. 
In  other  cases  the  material  was  in  poor  condition,  so  that  identitication 
was  not  possible. 

I  have  employed  the  old  generic  name  Dtstomum^  but  in  those  cases 
where  the  form  couUl  ])e  identified  hy  the  use  of  Pratt's  Synopsis  I 
have  added  the  new  generic  name.  Since  manj'  of  the  forms  which  can 
not  be  referred  to  any  genus  in  Pratt's  Synopsis  were  represented  by  a 
single  example,  or  at  best  by  few,  and  they  in  poor  conditicni,  it  has 
seemed  l>est  not  to  burden  the  nomenclature  of  helminthology  with 
any  new  generic  names  at  present. 

ENCOTYLLABE,  species. 
Plate  VII,  tig8.  49-53. 

A  single  specimen  from  the  gills  of  Cahiiinix  eahainoi,  'l^uly  1<).  is 
referred  to  this  genus. 

Body  elliptical,  flattened;  posterior  sucking  disk  joined  to  the  l>ody 
by  a  stalk,  provided  with  two  hooks  but  without  radial  ridges;  two 
anterior  suckers,  which  were  circular  in  the  living  but  elliptical  in  the 
preserved  specimen.  The  anterior  end  is  provided  with  numerous 
small  lobes,  wiiich  probably  represent  two  lobate  antero-lateral  pro- 
longations of  the  body  with  lobulate  borders.  The  genital  aperture 
is  on  the  left  side  of  the  median  line  a  short  distance  ])ehind  the 
left  sucker.  The  specimen  was  rolled  up  when  first  seen  and  was  too 
fragile  to  allow  of  satisfactory  manipulation. 

Dimensions,  in  millimeters,  l)alsam:  Length  8;  length  of  body  2.25; 
breadth,  anterior  0.6,  maximum  1;  diameter  of  stalk  0.1;  posterior 
sucking  disk,  length  0.45,  breadth  0.42:  transverse  diameter  of  ante- 
rior sucker  0.13;  length  of  hooks  0.8. 

MICROCOTYLE,  species. 
Plate  VII,  tig.  54. 

Body  lanceolate,  tapering  both  anteriorly  and  posteriorly  from 
about  the  middle.  Vitellaria  conspicuous  along  each  margin,  and 
leaving  only  a  narrow  median  line,  extending  the  entire  length  of  the 
body  proper  from  a  point  just  behind  the  cirrus. 

Dimensions,  in  millimeters,  life:  Length  of  body  proper  4.  of  pos- 
terior suctorial  part  8.2;  breadth,  anterior  0.16,  maximum  0.6;  each 
anterior  sucker,  length  0.09,  breadth  0.04;  about  fifty  pairs  of  poste- 
rior suckers,  each,  length  O.OT,  breadth,  0.03.  An  ovum  in  oviduct 
of  specimen  mounted  in  balsam  measured  0.69  l)v  0.19. 


The  above  notes  were  made  on  a  specimen  collected  from  the  gill  of 
0((la/)iu.s  calamus,  Jul}'  14. 

On  the'  same  date  another  specimen  was  obtained  from  the  gill  of 
Diplodus  sargus.  Only  the  body  was  seen,  and  it  was  in  poor  condi- 
tion. Dimensions,  in  millimeters,  life:  Length  1.5;  breadth,  anterior 
0.12,  maximum  0.25;  length  of  an  anterior  sucker  0.06,  breadth  0.04. 
The  cluster  of  copulatory  spines  resembles  that  of  the  specimen  from 


Plate  XV,  iigs.  98,99. 

Asjyklogaster  ringens  Linton,  Bull.  Bureau  of  Fisheries,  XXIV,  pp.  367,  397,  figs. 

It  is  possible  that  either  the  genus  As2ndog aster  should  be  revised 
in  order  to  include  this  species,  or,  which  is  more  in  accord  with 
present  tendencies,  a  new  genus  will  have  to  be  provided  for  it; 

This  species  was  found  in  but  one  Bermuda  fish,  Iridio  radiatus, 
from  which  two  specimens  were  obtained  on  Jul}^  31. 

These  specimens  agree  closely  with  forms  found  in  Micropogon 
undidatiis  and  Trachynotus  carolinus  at  Beaufort,  and  referred,  with 
some  hesitation,  to  this  genus. 

The  large  A^entral  disk  is  elliptical,  with  about  forty-two  loculi 
around  the  border,  lietween  which  are  marginal  sense  organs.  There 
are  about  eighteen  transversely  elongated  depressions,  thus  suggest- 
ing Cotylaspis^  but  there  is  a  low  median  ridge  which  divides  the 
depressions  into  two  longitudinal  series  of  alveoli,  which,  with  the 
marginal  loculi,  make  four  rows  of  depressions,  a  characteristic  of  the 
genus  Aspidogaster.  On  account  of  the  indistinctness  of  this  median 
ridge,  however,  the  genus  As jyldog aster  offers  but  an  insecure  resting 
place  for  this  species.  The  upper  lip  is  trilobed  and  the  lower  entire, 
or  slightly  undulate.  In  the  Beaufort  specimens  the  under  lip  is  tri- 
lobed. The  structure  of  the  head  suggests  Cotylogasterh\xt  there  is  only 
one  testis.  In  these  specimens  both  the  head  and  the  conical  tail  pro- 
trude a  short  distance  beyond  the  ventral  disk.  Color  white,  except 
in  the  dorsal  region,  where  the  mass  of  ova  impart  a  yellow  color. 

Dimensions,  in  millimeters,  of  specimen  mounted  in  balsam:  Length 
2;  length  of  disk  1.77,  breadth  0.9;  diameter  of  head  0.42,  of  neck 
0.33;  pharynx,  length  0.18,  breadth  0.14;  ova  0.06  by  0.03  and  0.08 
by  0.04. 


Plate  VIII,  fig.  58. 

Distomum  montkelUi  Linton,  Proc.  U.  8.  Nat.  Mus.,  XX,  p.  518-520,  pi.  XLiv, 
figs.  2-8;  Bull.  U.  S.  Fish  Com.  for  1899,  pp.  451,  478,  482;  Bull.  Bureau 
of  Fisheries,  XXIV,  p.  334,  etc.,  pi.  xxii,  fig.  158. 

This  species  was  found  in  two  Bermuda  fishes. 


llycteroperca  apna. 

July  21,  one.  Dimensions,  in  millimeters,  life,  side  view,  com- 
pressed: Length  1.05;  diameter  of  oral  sucker  0.12,  of  ventral  sucker 
0.32;  ova  0.02  by  0.01. 

Synodus  saurus. 

July  20,  twelve.  These  distomes  were  collected  in  the  evening 
and  placed  in  sea  water  to  which  a  little  formaldehj-de  had  been 
added.  They  were  still  active  on  the  following-  morning.  These 
specimens  are  in  agreement  with  this  species  in  the  general  character 
and  relative  positions  of  testes,  ovary,  vitellaria,  and  seminal  vesicle. 
The  habit  of  the  body  suggests  D.  Iseve;  the  testes,  also,  as  in  that 
species,  are  situated  near  the  ventral  sucker.  They  appear  to  be 
identical  with  forms  found  in  Syiiodax  fiHena  at  Beaufort. 

Dimensions,  in  millimeters,  life:  Length  2.55;  diameter  of  oral 
sucker  0.15,  of  ventral  sucker  0.33;  ova  0.018  by  0.012. 

This  species  belongs  to  the  family  Hemiurinj^,  and  is  near  Pro- 
nopyge  Looss. 


Plate  IX,  figs,  (io,  64. 

Distovium  vltellof^um  Linton,  Bull.  U.  S.  Fish  Coin,  for  1899,  p.  290,  pi.  xxxvii, 
figs.  38-39;  p.  416,  etc.,  pi.  xxx,  figs.  333-340;  Bull.  Bureau  of  Fislieries, 
XXIV,  p.  335,  etc.,  pi.  xxiv,  figs.  176-178. 

This  varia))le  distome,  belonging  according   to  Pratt   to  the  sub- 
family I*sil(>><tominai^  was  found  in  five  of  the  Bermuda  fishes. 
Hafhystoma  i>triat>(iii . 

fJuly  17,  one,  small,  imperfect. 
Bodian  ua  fulvus  punvtatus . 

July  22,  one,  minute,  about  1  mm.  in  length. 
Calamus  calamus. 

July  14,  one.  This  specimen  agrees  with  this  species  in  the  general 
arrangement  of  the  genital  organs,  size  of  ova,  and  proportions  of  the 
suckers.  The  ventral  sucker  is  evident!}^  pushed  posteriori}^  ])y  the 
extreme  contraction  of  the  bod}-,  since  the  uterus  lies  for  half  of  its 
length  directly  dorsal  to  it.  Dimensions,  in  millimeters,  life:  Length 
1.72,  breadth  0.67;  ova  O.OG  by  0.04.  In  balsam,  length  1.40,  great- 
est breadth  0.60;  diameter  of  oral  sucker  0.22,  of  pharynx  0.15,  of 
ventral  sucker  0.34. 
Iieenn\don  Jlxwollneatum . 

July  9,  four;  31,  six.     Length  1.35  to  2.78  nun.     While  agreeing 
closely  with  this  species  it  was  noted  that  on  the  dorsal  surface  at 
the  anterior  end  there  was  a  slight  roughening  due  to  low  nodular 
Holocentrus  ascenscionis. 

July  31,  two,  length  1.35  and  1.73  mm. 

106  PROCEEDIN(;S  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.  vol.  xxxm. 

DISTOMUM   SUBTENUE,  new  species. 
Plate  IX,  fig.  65. 

Type.— OAt.  No.  57^9,  U.8.N.M. 

While  none  of  the  distomes  referred  to  this  species  showed  as  much 
of  the  anatomy  as  could  be  desired,  they  were  easily  recognized  in  the 
several  hosts  by  the  large  cirrus  and  the  elongated  ova. 

An  attempt  was  made  to  refer  them  to  some  genus  in  Pratt's 
Synopsis,  l)ut  without  success. 

Bod}^  subcylindrical;  ventral  sucker  larger  than  oral  and  promi- 
nent; testes  two,  globular,  close  together  in  a  medio-dorsal  position, 
and  immediately  preceded  by  the  ovary;  uterus  extending  back  of  the 
testes  to  the  posterior  end  of  the  ))ody;  cirrus  robust;  genital  pore  a 
short  distance  in  front  of  the  ventral  sucker  and  a  little  to  the  left  of 
the  median  line;  vitellaria  confined  to  a  few  isolated  patches  in  the 
median  region  of  the  body  near  the  testes;  uterus  passing  to  the  left 
of  the  cirrus;  ova  somewhat  elongated;  intestinal  cseca  not  clearly 
made  out,  but  apparently  extending  to  the  posterior  end  of  the  body. 
The  ova  are  crowded  at  the  posterior  end  of  the  body  behind  the 
testes,  whence  they  extend  ventrally  to  a  point  a  little  in  front  oi  the 
ovary.  The  longer  diameter  of  the  ova  is  more  than  twice  the  shorter. 
In  a  ventral  view  the  apertures  of  the  suckers  are  seen  to  be  trans- 
verse. Dimensions,  in  millimeters,  life:  Length  3.60;  diameter  of 
body  0.63,  of  oral  sucker  0.39,  of  ventral  sucker  0.68;  ova  0.05  by 
0.02.  Dimensions  of  specimen  in  balsam:  Length  2.07;  breadth  0.52; 
oral  sucker,  length  0.25,  breadth  0.30;  pharynx,  short-fusiform, 
length  0.15.  breadth  0.15;  ventral  sucker,  length  0.30,  breadth  0.48; 
ova,  collapsed  and  crowded,  not  easily  measured,  0.042  by  0.015. 

This  species  was  found  in  four  Bernmda  fishes. 
Calarii  us  cahnn  ns. 

August  3,  six;  August  7,  five. 

liarpe  rafa. 

August  7,  two.     These  distomes  arc  smaller  than  those  from  Cala- 
mus,  but  they  agree  with  them  in  essential  particulars;  length  1.02  mm. . 
in  balsam. 
Iridio  hivittntHs. 

July  9,  two,  immature.     These   were  cylindrical,  slightly  arcuate 
with  prominent  ventral    sucker.      Dimensions,  in    millimeters,   life: 
Length  0.6;  diameter  anterior  0.06,  posterior  0.07,  at  ventral  sucker 
LachnolairiiKS  viaxhtuis. 

July  18,  one,  length  1.28  mm. 


Plate  IX,  fipr.  66. 

One  8pecimen  of  this  di.stome  was  found  in  Tent Ji Is  hepatns^  August  H. 

Dimensions,  in  millimeters,  life:  Length  4.8;  diameterof  oral  sucker 
0.3,  of  ventral  sucker  0.5;  ova  0.08  by  0.02. 

Dimensions  of  same  mounted  in  balsam:  Length  4.35;  diameter  of 
neck  0.35,  of  middle  of  bod}"  0,<)3,  near  posterior  end  0.35;  oral  sucker, 
length  0.24,  depth  0.30;  diarueter  of  pharynx  0.12;  ventral  sucker, 
length  0.72,  depth  0.54;  ova  0.027  by  0.015. 

Anterior  end  white  to  ventral  sucker,  back  of  ventral  sucker  pink; 
yellowish  in  alcohol. 

This  distome  is  referred  to  the  genus  Accdculiinii  in  Pratt's  Synopsis. 

DISTOMUM    NITENS    Linton. 
Plate  X,  ti<:s.  (17,  (>S. 
Dhtomum  nitens  Linton,  Proc.  I'.  8.  Nat.  Mus.,  XX,  \>.  ^^^.\4,  pi.  li,  tijrj;.  5,  6;  pi. 

LII,   fig.    1. 

Two  specimens  of  this  distome  were  obtained,  July  16,  from  Tylo- 
surus  acus.  They  were  elongated,  cylindrical,  slightly  irregular  in 
outline,  slender,  suckers  whitish,  body  orange,  neck  lighter  in  color 
than  the  bod}"  and  concave  below  ;  ventral  sucker  somewhat  prominent. 

Dimensions  of  living  worm  in  millimeters:  Length  5;  length  of 
oral  sucker  0.30,  of  ventrd  sucker  0.(53;  ova  0.028  by  0.014. 

No  spines  w^ere  observed  on  these  specimens.  The  ovary  is  trans- 
versely elongated  instead  of  glol)ular;  a  seminal  receptacle  was  noted 
behind  the  ovary.     Other  details  are  given  in  the  sketch. 

Th(\se  specimens  belong  to  this  species  or  are  near  it. 

According  to  the  later  classitication  of  distomes  I).  nitensh&Xongsto 
the  sul)family  Plagiorch/nx^  and  probably  is  near  the  genus  Enodia 

DISTOMUM   GYRINUS,rt  new  species. 
Plate  X,  tigs.  72-74. 

Tyj^e.—C^t.  No.  5800,  U.S.N.M. 

Bod}^  cercaria  shape,  the  tail  portion  equaling,  in  some  cases  exceed- 
ing the  length  of  the  anterior  portion,  smooth;  intestine  not  seen; 
pharynx  absent. 

Anterior  sucker  nmch  larger  than  ventral;  testes  two,  relatively 
large,  lateral,  transverse,  beginning  behind  oral  sucker  and  near  it  and 
extending  posteriori}-  a  short  distance  back  of  the  ventral  sucker; 
seminal  vesicle  in  front  and  to  right  of  ventral  sucker,  dorsal;  ovary 

«  From  the  Latin  word  Gyrinus,  signifying  a,  tadpole. 

108  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

behind  ventral  sucker;  vitellaria  filling  the  tail  portion  and  extending 
forward  on  the  left  side  as  far  as  the  testes. 

Dimensions,  in  millimeters,  life:  Length  1.85;  length  of  tail  0.98; 
diameter  of  anterior  portion  0.45,  of  tail  0.18;  diameter  of  oral  sucker 
0.25,  of  ventral  sucker  0.09.  Dimensions  of  specimen  in  balsam: 
Length  0.98;  anterior  portion,  length  0.88,  diameter  0,21;  posterior 
portion,  length  0.00,  diameter  at  middle  0.08;  diameter  of  oral  sucker 
0.12,  of  ventral  siicker  0.01. 

Average  of  three  specimens,  in  life:  Length  0.95;  diameter  of  oral 
sucker  0.103,  ventral  sucker  0.04. 

In  Pratt's  Synopsis  this  distome  appears  to  be  near  the  genus  Euine- 
gacetes  Looss,  but  in  reality  is  a  very  different  form  from  that. 

These  distomes  were  found  in  two  of  the  Bermuda  fishes. 
Lactophrys  trlyo'iius. 

August  3,  eight,  maxinnun  length  0.95  nun. 
Lactophrys  tricornix. 

August  1,  two,  maxinnun  length  1.S5  nun. 

DISTOMUM    LAMELLIFORME,   new   species. 
Plate  X,  fig.  75;  plate  XI,  figs.  76-78. 

Ti/pe.—C^i.  No.  5801,  U.S.N.M. 

Body  orbicular,  flat  and  leaf-like,  smooth,  often  broader  than  long. 
Ventral  sucker  larger  than  oral,  sessile,  with  circular  aperture,  rela- 
tive proportions  of  suckers  somewhat  varial)le,  but  in  alcoholic  speci- 
mens ventral  sucker  not  twice  the  diameter  of  the  oral.  The  average 
of  four  was:  Oral  sucker  0.075  mm.,  ventral  sucker  O.lO  mm. 

Mouth  subterminal,  pharynx  near  oral  sucker,  globular;  esophagus 
short;  intestinal  crura  simple  extending  to  near  the  posterior  end  of 
the  body. 

Testes  two,  round,  or,  under  pressure,  with  undulate  outline,  situ- 
ated behind  ventral  sucker  on  opposite  sides  of  the  median  line  and 
separated  from  each  other  by  a  space  approximately  equal  to  the 
diameter  of  the  testis.  Seminal  vesicle  to  the  right  of  the  ventral 
sucker  preceded  bj'^  the  prostate  gland  and  both  inclosed  in  the  cirrus 
pouch.  Cirrus  relatively  large.  Vitelline  glands  abundant,  distrib- 
uted throughout  the  posterior  and  lateral  regions  of  the  body  as  far 
forward  as  the  pharynx.  Ovary  behind  the  ventral  sucker  and  between 
the  testes  obsciu-ely  lobed.  Uterus  along  median  line  between  testes 
and  passing  to  left  of  ventral  sucker,  in  some  cases  a  little  in  front, 
in  others  at  same  level,  and  in  3"et  others  a  little  behind  that  organ. 

Ova  relatively  few  and  large. 

Dimensions,  in  millimeters,  life,  specimen  flattened  under  cover 
glass:  Length  0.82,  breadth  1.20;  oral  sucker,  length  0.06,  breadth 
0,07;  ventral  sucker,  length  0.15,  breadth  0.21;  ova  0.075  by  0.036. 
Another,  length  0.72,  breadth  0.65;  another,  length  1.10,  breadth  1.20. 


In  Pratt's  S^niopsis  this  distonic  comes  near  tlio  oenus  Spcvrostoma. 
The  species  was  found  in  three  of  the  Beiimul-.i  fishes. 

J^alisfC'S  c<(r(>linriix!s. 

Jul}'   14,  otic  hundred  and   (it'ty-one;  July   22,  two.     The  sniaHer 
specimens  were  longer  than  broad,  the  larger  ones  were  broader  than 
long.     Many  were  folded  by  the  approximation  of  the  anterior  and 
posterior  ends. 
Lacfopli  rys  1  ricorn  i.s. 

August    1,    one,    circular,    translucent-white,    vitellaria    yellowish. 
Dimensions,    in    millimeters,    life:  Length  1.78;  breadth  l.TT;  diam- 
eter of  oral  sucker  0.14,  of  pharynx  0.(»1>,  of  ventral  sucker  0.15;  ova 
0.058  by  0.036. 
Lactop hr[ix  tr igoims . 

August  3,  one,  small.  Dimensions,  in  millimeters,  life:  Length 
0.64,  breadth  0.72;  diameter  of  oral  sucker  0.07,  of  ventral  sucker 
0.12;  ova  0.o7  by  0.04.  The  vitellaria  were  profuse.  The  stained 
specimen  shows  the  ovary  to  be  trilobed,  the  anterior  lobe  projecting 
dorsal  ly. 

DISTOMUM    TRULLA/*  new  species. 
Plate  XI,  fig.  79. 

Type.— C^t.  No.  5802,  U.S.N.jSI. 

In  Pratt's  Synopsis  this  species  fsdls  in  the  genus  IlaJlcoindra. 

Body  pyriform,  compressed,  densely  covered  with  small,  low,  round 
spines;  oral  and  ventral  suckers  about  equal;  phar3Mix  equal  in  length 
to  the  diameter  of  the  ventral  sucker,  separated  from  the  oral  sucker 
by  a  short  pre-esophagus,  which  may  become  indistinguishable  in  a 
contracted  specimen;  esophagus  short;  rami  of  intestines  simple, 
apparently  extending  to  near  th(^  posterior  end  of  the  body;  testes 
two,  near  posterior  end,  diagonal!}"  placed  and  near  together,  unequal; 
cirrus  pouch  long-clavate,  dorsal  to  ventral  sucker  and  to  the  left; 
uterus  between  testes  and  ventral  sucker,  the  thick-walkni  and  gland- 
ular extremity  lying  beside  the  cirrus  on  the  left;  o\"ary  three-lobed, 
in  front  of  testes  and  contiguous  with  anterior  testis  and  a  little  to  the 
right  of  the  median  line  of  the  l»od}-;  o\a  ratlier  lunnerous,  their 
length  equal  to  about  one-fourth  the  diameter  of  the  ventral  sucker; 
vitellaria  diflfuse,  filling  the  posterior  and  lateral  regions  of  the  body 
as  far  forward  as  the  piiarynx. 

Dimensions,  in  millimeters,  balsam:  Length  1.14;  ])readth,  anterior 
0.27,  middle  0.73,  near  posterior  0.47;  oral  sucker,  length  0.15,  ])readth 
0.14;  pharynx,  length  0.12,  breadth  0.1 1:  ventral  sucker,  length  0.14, 
breadth  0.15;  ova  0.042  by  0.027. 

From  Ocyiinin  cJu'y.Knrns. 

July  22,  three. 

"From  the  Latin  word  tmlhi,  signifying  a  trowel. 

no  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

DISTOMUM   LEVENSENI,  new  species. 
Plate  XII,  fig8.  80-83. 

Type.— C'Ai.  No.  5S03,  U.S.N.M. 

Body  depressed,  linear  but  with  tendencT  to  l)e  inflated  in  the  cer- 
vical reoion,  wholly  covej'ed  with  minute,  low,  rounded  spines,  most 
conspicuous  anteriorly,  but  discernible  along- the  lateral  margins  to  the 
posterior  end.  The  oral  and  ventral  suckers  are  about  equal,  the  lat- 
ter situated  at  about  the  anterior  third  or  fourth  of  the  length;  mouth 
subterminal,  circular,  sometimes  with  the  opening  distorted;  very  short 
pre-esophagus;  pharynx  moderately  elongated;  esophagus  rather  longer 
than  pharynx;  intestinal  crura  extending  to  ])osterior  end  of  the  body. 
The  testes  are  nearly  equalj  slightly  lobed  in  specimens  which  have 
been  killed  under  pressure,  unequal,  the  posterior  being  usually  the 
more  elongated  and  lai'ger.  In  all  cases  the  testes  were  end  to  end 
and  behind  the  middle  of  the  body;  in  compressed  specimens  they  are 
separated  from  each  other  by  a  short  space.  The  seminal  vesicle  is 
behind  the  ventral  sucker  and  inclosed  in  the  cirrus  pouch,  which  is 
inconspicuous.  The  cirrus  passes  to  the  left  of  the  median  line  and 
opens  in  front  of  the  ventral  sucker  a  little  to  the  left.  The  cirrus 
was  not  seen  distinctly,  l)ut  the  whole  pouch  is  elongated.  Ovary 
smaller  than  testes,  irregular  oval,  or  oblong  elliptical,  or  subglobular, 
in  front  of  and  close  to  anterior  testis,  in  uncompressed  specimens;  in 
specimens  killed  under  pressure  it  may  l)e  separated  from  the  anterior 
testis  by  a  space  equal  to  once  or  even  twice  the  diameter  of  the  ovary. 
A  seminal  receptacle  lies  close  to  the  ovary  and  dorsal  to  it.  Vitelline 
glands  diffuse  but  presenting  some  striking  variations  (figs.  81  and 
82);  in  most  cases  they  fill  the  greater  part  of  the  body  l)ehind  the 
ventral  sucker  along  the  marginal  region,  covering  and  concealing  the 
intestinal  rami.  These  glands  appear  to  lie  behind  the  ventral  sucker 
for  the  most  part,  although  a  diffuse  and  deeply  staining  layer,  which 
may  also  be  a  part  of  this  gland,  continues  anteriorly  to  the  pharynx. 
The  uterus  is  in  front  of  the  ovary,  the  ova  being,  for  the  most  part, 
between  the  o\ary  and  the  l)ase  of  the  cirrus  pouch.  The  uterus  con- 
tinues anteriorly  beside  and  to  the  left  of  the  cirrus  to  open  at  the 
genital  aperture  in  front  of  the  ventral  sucker  and  to  the  left.  Ova 
rather  few  and  large. 

This  distome,  according  to  Pratt's  Synopsis,  belongs  to  the  genus 
Allocreadlum.     It  is  near  the  species  D.  ocuJatuiu  Levinsen. 

The  species  was  found  in  two  of  the  Bermuda  fishes. 
Ejpinephelus  onaculosus. 

July  8,  two;  July  29,  four.  The  living  worms  of  the  first  lot  Avere 
yellow^ish  w^hite  with  an  amber-colored  spot  between  the  ventral  sucker 
and  the  ovary  where  the  ova  la}^;  length  2.5  mm.,  breadth  0.5  mm. 
One  of  these,  which  had  been  fixed  over   the  flame  and   afterwards 

NO.  1560. 



mounted  in  balsam,  had  the  following-  dimensions,  in  millimeters: 
Length  1.8,  breadth  0.83;  diameter"  of  oral  sucker  0.08,  of  ventral 
sucker  0.08;  pharynx,  length  0.05,  breadth  0.08;  ova  0.018  by  0.021. 
The  specimens  in  the  second  lot  present  considerable  variation  in 
size  and  proportions.  Three  of  them  agree  fairly  well,  the  fourth  is 
larger.  It  was  somewhat  macerated  and  consequently  was  flattened 
more  than  the  otiiers  when  placed  under  th(^  cover  glass. 

jyniiein^'iotix  of  liiiiKj  sj)ecimcih'^. 



s^ollr.    '-'^-••v"- 


0.  09 
0.  It) 
0.  12 


m  III . 
0.  0«  bv  0.  04 


0.  .52 

mm.            Ill  III. 
0.  Oil           0.  o.=> 
O.i:?            0.10 
0. 12            0.  OS 

The  principal  difference  between  this  lot  and  the  former  is  in  tlie 
size  of  the  ova. 
EpiU(])h(Au>i  xtridtux. 

July  11,  twent}-;  July  11,  four;  Jul}^  18,  twenty-three. 

Most  of  the  distomes  in  the  first  lot  were  broken.  They  were  faint 
flesh  color  l)y  rcHccted,  yellowish-white  by  transmittetl  light. 

Dimensions  of  a  perfect  specimen,  in  millimeters,  life:  Length  2.78; 
breadth,  anterior  0.36,  at  ventral  sucker  0.G8;  oral  and  ventral  suckers 
each  0.21  in  diameter,  with  circular  aperture;  ova  0.015  by  0.022.  In 
the  other  lots  theie  was  great  variety  in  size  and  proportions  but  they 
are  all  apparently  the  same  species. 

DISTOMUM    FENESTRATUM,  new  species. 

Plate  XII,  figs.  86-91. 

Distomum,  specie^,  Bull.  Bureau  of  Fisheries  I'or  1904,  XXIV,  p.  373,  374,  figs. 
2\3,  214. 

Tt/jw.~C'cit.  No.  5801,  U.S.N.M. 

This  species  will  eventually  have  to  be  referred  to  a  new  genus,  but, 
in  view  of  the  fact  that  the  individuals  thus  far  found  are  immature, 
it  seems  to  me  to  be  best  not  to  give  a  generic  name  at  present.  On 
account  of  the  ease  with  which  they  may  ])e  recognized,  however,  a 
specific  designation  appears  desirable. 

The  reproductive  organs  not  heing  in  evidence,  it  is  not  possible  to 
identify  it  with  Pratt's  Synopsis.  The  absence  of  a  pharynx  suggests 
the  subfamily  GorgodeTinse. 

So  far  as  the  anatomy  of  these  distomes  was  worked  out,  their  char- 
acterization is  as  follows:  Body  subcylindrical,  tapering  at  each  end; 
ventral  sucker  much  larger  than  oral  and  situated  at  about  the  anterior 
fifth;  pharynx  none;  esophagus  slender,  comnumicating'  with  the 
capacious  intestine  a  short  distance  in  front  of  the  ventral  sucker. 

112  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

The  intestinal  rami  orioinate  at  the  ventral  sucker  and  dorsal  to  it. 
At  their  origin  they  constitute  a  somewhat  convoluted  or  lobed  mass, 
from  which  they  contijuie  to  the  posterior  end  of  the  body  as  greatly 
int1at(»d,  somewhat  spiral  tubes  with  very  thin  walls  and  tilled  with  a 
clear,  structureless,  or  colloid  material.  The  intestinal  rami  occupy 
the  greater  part  of  the  body  behind  the  ventral  sucker  and  are  very 
conspicuous.  Both  in  the  living  and  the  pi'cserved  material  the  intes- 
tinal rami  appear  as  a  series  of  semitransparent  spaces.  No  genital 
organs,  even  as  rudiments,  were  distinguished. 

Tran verse  sections  reveal  the  following  structure:  The  epidermis  is 
underlaid  by  a  thin  layer  of  longitudinal  libers.  Next  within  this  is 
a  somewhat  broken  layer  which,  from  its  position,  suggests  the 
rudiments  of  vitellaria.  The  remainder  of  the  bod}^  is  filled  with 
parenchyma,  as  shown  in  the  figures. 

Lengths  of  five  living  specimens,  in  millimeters:  2.15;  1.98;  1.68; 
1.28;  1.05.  (Corresponding  breadths:  0.35;  0.48;  0.38;  0.32;  0.27. 
Detailed  measurements  of  one:  Length  2.15,  breadth  0.35;  diameter 
of  oral  sucker  0.06,  of  ventral  sucker  0.21.  One  specimen,  which 
may  be  abnormal,  had  the  following  dimensions:  Length  2.10, 
breadth  0.18;  oral  sucker,  length  O.OT,  breadth  0.06;  ventral  sucker 
not  quite  definite  but  appeared  to  be  0.18  in  diameter. 

Forms  reseml)ling  these  were  found  in  Coryphsena  equisetts  and 
C.  Jdjyp^iTim  at  Beaufort,  North  Carolina,  and  in  Breiwortla  fi/rannis 
at  Woods  Hole,  Massachusetts. 

The}^  were  found  in  one  of  the  Bermuda  fishes. 
Lycodo)  I  t!s  in  or  !i  >  ga . 

August  3,  eighty-four,  in  alimentary  canal.  Most  of  these  speci- 
mens were  found  in  washings  from  the  intestines.  A  few  cysts  under 
the  serous  coat  of  the  intestine  were  opened,  and  from  two  of  them 
distomes  of  this  species  were  obtained.  Nothing  distinguishable  was 
found  in  the  other  cysts.  Thesp  cysts  were  white,  rather  soft,  and 
filled  with  a  whitish,  granular  material. 

DISTOMUM   TOMEX,"  new  species. 
Plate  XIV,  figs.  94-96. 

Ty/?e.— Cat.  No.  5805,  U.S.N.M'. 

Body  long  and  slender,  unarmed;  ventral  sucker  near  the  anterior 
end,  smaller  than  oral  sucker,  with  transverse  aperture;  oral  sucker 
P3a-iform,  the  larger  end  in  front,  aperture  circular  and  terminal;  no 
pharynx;  esophagus  distinct;  intestinal  rami  extending  to  the  posterior 
end  of'  the  body;  genital  papilla  prominent,  at  base  of  oral  sucker  on 
ventral  side,  with  2  external  apertures;  uterus  with  greater  part  of 
ova  at  posterior  end  of  body,  but  opening'  at  the  genital  papilla;  vas 

»  From  the  Latin  word  tomex,  signifying  a  cord. 


defenis  distinct  along  the  median  line  anteriorally,  not  so  distincth'^ 
seen  near  the  testes  as  shown  in  the  sketch.  Other  genitalia  not  quite 
satisfactoril}'  made  out.  What  were  taken  to  be  the  testes  are  two 
elongated,  lobed  bodies,  one  following  the  other,  but  diagonally  placed, 
and  situated  near  the  posterior  end,  but  in  front  of  that  portion  of  the 
uterus  which  contains  the  greater  part  of  the  ova.  Another  organ, 
probabl}^  the  ovary,  lies  beside  the  anterior  testis.  Clusters  of  deeply 
staining  bodies,  which  extend  from  about  the  anterior  sixth  to  a  point 
a  little  in  front  of  the  middle,  ma}^  possibh^  be  the  vitellaria,  although 
some  of  them  appeared  to  be  folds  of  the  intestinal  rami. 

Dimensions  of  specimen  mounted  in  balsam,  in  millimeters:  Length 
12;  diameter  of  anterior  projection  containing  oral  sucker  0.14;  diam- 
eter of  body,  anterior  0.33,  at  ventral  sucker  0.48;  anterior  sucker, 
length  0.14,  breadth,  anterior  0.08,  posterior  0.06;  genital  papilhi, 
length  0.04,  breadth  0.05;  ventral  sucker,  length  0.07,  breadth  0.11; 
length  of  esophagus  0.3;  distance  of  ventral  sucker  from  genital  papilla 
0.46,  from  anterior  end  0.63;  ova  0.018  by  0.012.  Length  of  living- 
worm  14;  breadth  0.2  to  0.5. 
From  Eplnejphelus  striatus. 

Jul}"  14,  one. 

I  do  not  find  any  distome  at  all  resembling  this  in  Pratt's  Synopsis. 


The  following  distomes  are  not  given  specific  names  on  account  of 
either  the  small  amount  of  material  in  each  case  or  its  unsatisfactory 

It  is  hoped  that  the  notes  which  it  was  possible  to  make,  together 
with  the  naming  of  the  host  in  each  instance,  will  prove  to  be  of  use 
to  future  investigators. 
DtHtoinvm,  species  from  Serlola  fasclata.     (Plate  VII,  figs.  55,  56.) 

July  31,  two.  These  worms  being  immature  and  partly  macerated, 
but  little  of  their  anatomy  could  be  made  out.  Testes,  two,  globular, 
near  together,  one  following  the  other  and  near  the  posterior  end; 
ovary  small,  globular,  in  front  of  anterior  testis  and  separated  from 
it  by  a  distance  about  equal  to  the  diameter  of  the  testis.  The  ante- 
rior end  of  one  was  retracted,  and  there  was  a  small  mass  of  black 
pigment  in  each  between  the  oral  and  ventral  suckers.  The  vitellaria 
were  not  distinct.  The  character  of  the  intestines  could  not  be  made 
out.     Each  of  the  specimens  was  linear  and  smooth. 

Dimensions  in  millimeters,  life:  Length  3.30;  breadth  at  ventral 
sucker  0.40,  behind  ventral  sucker  0.30;  diameter  of  oral  sucker  0.19, 
of  ventral  sucker  0.30. 

Dimensions   of   specimen   in   balsam:  Length   2.55,    breadth   0.25; 
diameter  of  oral  sucker  0.18,  of  ventral  sucker  0.24;  distance  of  ven- 
tral sucker  from  anterior  end  0.37,  distance  of  posterior  testis  from 
Proc.  N.  M.  vol.  xxxiii— 07 8 

114  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

posterior   end  0.22.     The  pharynx  was  not  visible  in  this  specimen, 
but  in  the  other  its  length  was  0.06.     In  the  latter  specimen  the  length 
of   the   oral    sucker  was  0.16,    of   the    ventral    sucker   0.21,    whole 
length  2. 
Distonmim^  species  from  Angelichthys  ciliaris.     (Plate  VII,  fig.  57.) 

July  14,  two;  July  IT,  two.  None  of  the  specimens  were  in  good 
condition.  The  body  is  subcylindrical  and  curved  ventrally.  Numer- 
ous dark  brown  blotches  were  noted  in  one.  These  are  conspicuous 
in  the  mounted  specimen,  and  appear  to  represent  the  intestines. 
Some  deepl}"  staining  granular  masses  lay  near  each  lateral  margin  at 
about  the  posterior  third.  They  have  the  general  structure  of  vitel- 
laria.  The  ova,  to  the  number  of  about  two  hundred,  lay  between 
these  bodies. 

Dimensions  in  millimeters,  life:  Length  2.16,  breadth  0.7;  suckers 
near  together  and  about  equal,  the  anterior  0.18  in  diameter;  ova  0.030 
by  0.014.     Length  of  another  1.65;  breadth  0.42. 

Distomum  {Lecithocladium)^  species  from  Seriola  dumerili.     (Plate 
VIII,  figs.  59,  60.) 

July  16,  nine;  July  24,  one.  Body  cylindrical,  finel}^  ringed,  a 
character  which  may  disappear  when  the  specimen  has  been  for  some 
time  under  slight  pressure;  posterior  end  of  body  retractile;  neck 
cylindrical,  very  contractile,  with  a  tendenc}'  to  arch;  testes  close 
together  behind  the  ventral  sucker,  the  left  a  little  in  advance  of  the 
right;  cirrus  and  cirrus  pouch  in  neck,  genital  pore  just  behind  the 
oral  sucker  and  a  little  to  the  left  of  the  median  line;  seminal  vesicle 
in  front  of  testes;  ovary  close  behind  testes;  folds  of  uterus  behind 
testes  and  ovary,  passing  forward  to  right  of  cirrus  to  the  genital 
pore;  vitellaria  tubular,  convoluted,  on  either  side  of  ovary;  ventral 
sucker  much  larger  than  oral,  pharynx  oval,  diameter  about  equal  to 
length;  rami  of  intestine  extending  nearl}^  to  the  posterior  end. 

Dimensions,  in  millimeters,  balsam:  Length,  exclusive  of  retractile 
portion,  1.14,  diameter  0.30;  diameter  of  oral  sucker  0.15,  of  pharynx 
0.06,  of  ventral  sucker  0.27;  ova  0.016  by  0.007. 
DistoTmim.,  species  from  TeutJds  hepatus.     (Plate  VIII,  fig.  61.) 

July  21,  one  and  fragment,  neither  in  good  condition. 

The  stained  and  mounted  fragment  shows  only  the  following  meager 
details:  Beginning  at  the  posterior  end  the  body  is  seen  to  be  filled 
with  ova.  A  small  structure,  0.7  mm.  from  the  posterior  end,  about 
0.2  mm.  in  diameter,  transversely  striated,  is  apparently  a  seminal 
receptacle.  At  the  anterior  border  of  this  organ  is  a  cluster  of  oval 
bodies,  four  or  more  in  number,  which  may  represent  a  deeply  lobed 
ovar}^  with  lobes  0.1  mm.  in  length.  At  a  distance  0.6  mm.  in  front 
of  these  bodies  a  testis  was  made  out,  and  beside  it  the  faint  indica- 
tions of  another.  About  0.6  mm.  in  front  of  the  testis  a  large  seminal 
vesicle  was  seen. 


Dimensions,  in  millimeters,  balsam:  Length  1.57,  diameter  0.52; 
oral  sucker,  leno-th  0.11,  breadth  0.12;  diameter  of  pharynx  0.09; 
ventral  sucker,  length  0.35,  breadth  0.33;  ova  0.018  by  0.009,  mainly 
at  the  posterior  end  of  the  body.  Vitellaria  diffuse  in  median  part  of 
the  bod}^;  oral  sucker  retracted,  ventral  sucker  also  slightly  with- 

The  length  of  the  fragment  is  3.75  mm.     It  represents  onlj^  the 
post-acetabular  region. 
Distoinuin^  species  from  Tylosurus  aens.     (Plate  VIII,  fig.  62.) 

July  16,  one.  Color  of  body  orange,  neck  light  orange,  suckers 
whitish.  The  bod}"  is  fusiform,  tapering  more  to  the  posterior  end 
than  to  the  anterior.  Ventral  sucker  larger  than  oral;  pharynx  sepa- 
rated from  oral  sucker  by  a  pre-esophagus.  Ovar}"  subglobular, 
behind  ventral  sucker;  uterus  between  ovar}^  and  ventral  sucker  and 
passing  to  the  left  of  the  ventral  sucker  to  the  genital  aperture,  which 
is  in  front  of  the  ventral  sucker  and  on  the  left  of  the  median  line. 
Vitellaria  diffuse  lateral  and  posterior,  abundant,  extending  to  ventral 
sucker.  Testes  not  clearly  made  out,  but  appear  to  be  represented  by 
a  mass  of  cells  behind  the  ovary.  Cirrus  and  its  pouch  in  front  of  the 
ventral  sucker,  and  to  the  left.     Ova  few  and  large. 

Dimensions  of  mounted  specimen,  in  millimeters:  Length  1.77; 
diameter,  anterior  0.25,  at  ventral  sucker  0.63,  near  posterior  end 
0.15;  diameter  of  oral  sucker  0.22,  of  pharynx  0.13,  of  ventral  sucker 
0.36;  ova  0.07  by  0.01:. 

According  to  the  later  classification  of  the  distomes  this  species 
probably  belongs  to  the  genus  Allocreadtimi. 
Distomum ,  species  from  Chxtodon^  species.     (Plate  X,  fig.  69.) 

July  30,  two;  August  3,  four;  all  the  specimens  in  poor  condition, 
as  if  macerated. 

So  far  as  could  be  made  out  from  these  imperfect  specimens  they 
have  the  following  characters:  Ventral  sucker  a  little  larger  than  oral; 
ovar}"  with  three  or  four  lobes  and  situated  half  way  lietween  the  ven- 
tral sucker  and  the  posterior  end;  vitellaria  abundant,  diffuse,  at  pos- 
terior end  and  along  margins  to  ventral  sucker,  overlying  other 
organs  in  places.  To  the  rear  of  the  ovary  and  at  its  right  side  are 
about  nine  bodies  which  appear  to  be  testes.  The  cirrus  and  its  pouch 
were  indistinctly  seen,  but  they  appear  to  pass  dorsal  to  the  ventral 
sucker  to  open  in  front  of  it  on  the  left  of  the  median  line.  There  is 
a  distinct  prostate,  with  a  seminal  vesicle  at  its  posterior  edge,  just 
behind  the  ventral  sucker.  In  a  larger  specimen  than  the  one 
sketched  the  seminal  vesicle  is  farther  back;  the  ova  are  rather  few, 
mostly  in  front  of  the  ovaiy,  but  a  few  are  behind  it,  or  at  least  very 
close  to  it.  The  uterus  passes  to  the  left  of  the  cirrus  to  open 
immediately  in  front  of  the  ventral  sucker,  and  close  to  the  median 



line.     The  prostate  is  at  the  posterior  border  of  the  ventral  sucker,  a 
little  to  the  left. 

Dimensions,  in  millimeters,  life:  Length  2.25,  breadth  0.54:;  diam- 
eter of  oral  sucker  0.10,  of  pharynx  0.06,  of  ventral  sucker  0.13;  ova 
0.051  b}^  0.036.     Length  of  smaller  specimens  1  and  1.5. 
Distoimim,  species  from  Bodianus fiihuis punctatus.    (Plate  X,  fig.  70.) 

July  22,  one,  immature.  Dimensions,  in  millimeters,  life:  Length 
0.0,  breadth  0.13;  breadth  of  oral  sucker,  retracted,  approximately 
0.12;  ventral  sucker,  length  0.10,  breadth  0.12.  Measurements  of  the 
specimen  in  balsam  show  that  the  diameter  of  the  two  suckers  and  the 
pharynx  is  about  the  same,  namely  O.OT;  each  a  little  wider  than  long. 

In  the  mounted  specimen  several  granular  bodies  are  disclosed  which 
are  the  rudiments  of  the  reproductive  organs.  The  anterior  end  is 
beset  with  exceedingly  minute  spines. 

Dlstontmn,  species  from  Sphyrxna  sphyrsena.     (Plate  X,  fig.  71.) 

July  17,  three,  in  poor  condition,  as  if  macerated  b}^  the  digestive 
juices  of  their  host.  The  barracuda  indeed  may  not  be  the  proper 
final  host  of  these  distomes. 

-Bod}^  elongated,  the  posterior  half  nearly  linear,  tapering  to  ante- 
rior end;  oral  sucker  lost  in  all  the  specimens;  pharynx  preceded  by 
a  pre-esophagus  and  about  two-thirds  the  size  of  the  ventral  sucker. 
The  ventral  sucker  and  its  aperture  longer  than  broad.  Testes  two, 
oval,  on  median  line,  separated  from  each  other  by  a  distance  slightly 
less  than  the  length  of  one,  the  posterior  testis  situated  at  about  its 
own  length  from  the  posterior  end  of  the  body.  Ovary  globular  and 
placed  in  front  of  the  anterior  testis,  from  which  it  is  separated  by  a 
short  interval.  Vitellaria  diffuse,  posterior  and  lateral,  extending 
forwards  to  a  point  about  0.7  mm.  behind  the  ventral  sucker.  Faint 
indications  of  a  seminal  vesicle  were  seen  behind  the  ventral  sucker, 
and  of  a  setninal  receptacle  in  front  of  the  ovary.  The  ova  are  rather 
large  and  numerous,  the  body  being  crowded  with  them  for  a  distance 
of  3.75  mm.  in  front  of  the  ovary. 

Dimensions  in  millimeters  of  specimen  mounted  in  balsam:  Length 
15;  maximum  diameter,  at  posterior  testis,  0.*J6,  at  pharynx,  0.33; 
pharynx,  length  0.33,  breadth  0.25;  ventral  sucker,  length  0.15, 
breadth  0.37;  distance  of  pharanx  from  ventral  sucker  1.8;  distance  of 
posterior  testis  from  posterior  end  0.9;  posterior  testis,  length  1.05, 
breadth  0.60;  anterior  testis,  length  0.90,  breadth  0.54;  distance 
between  testes  0.67;  diameter  of  ovary  0.30;  distance  of  ovary  from 
first  testis  0.91;  ova  0.06  by  0.03.  The  anterior  end  was  macerated 
and  drawn  out  into  a  slender  thread,  the  oral  sucker  being  lost  and 
the  pharynx  about  0.75  mm.  from  the  anterior  end.  On  account  of 
the  macerated  condition  of  these  distomes  the  absence  of  spines  is 
without  sitrnificance. 


Dlstomicw,  species  from  Ballstes  cHToUnendH.     (Plate  XII,  tii^.  84.) 

July  14,  three.  Bod}"  thickish,  depressed,  covered  with  spines  which 
are  low  and  rounded  in  front,  dense  on  head  and  anterior  part  of 
body,  less  dense  posteriorly.  Ventral  sucker  larger  than  oral;  mouth 
subterniinal;  esophagus  none;  intestinal  rami  broad  and  extending- to 
posterior  end  of  body;  testes  two,  close  together,  one  in  front  of  the 
other,  about  halfway  between  the  ventral  sucker  and  the  posterior 
end,  not  lobed;  ovary  subglobular,  in  front  of  testis,  near  and  a  little 
to  the  right;  uterus  in  front  of  testes  passing  to  the  left  of  the  ven- 
tral sucker  to  open  in  fiont  of  it  and  a  little  to  the  left.  Cirrus  and 
its  pouch  very  indistinct.  Seminal  vesicle  in  front  of  ovary  and 
behind  ventral  sucker  but  not  clearly  shown.  Cirrus  dorsal  to  ventral 
sucker  and  on  left  side.  Vitelline  glands  diffuse,  posterior  and 
marginal,  covering  and  hiding  other  organs  and  extending  in  front 
of  ventral  sucker.     Ova  relatively  few  and  large. 

Dimensions,  in  millimeters,  life.  Length  8.15;  breadth  0..56;  diam- 
eter of  oral  sucker  0.22,  of  pharynx  0.15,  of  ventral  sucker  0.15;  ova 
0.06  by  0.03. 

In  Pratt's  Synopsis  this  species  appears   to  belong   in  the  genus 
Disfouiuj/i ,  species  h'om  Paranthia^  fuvcifer.     (Plate  XIII,  fig.  85.) 

July  29,  one.  Body  nearly  linear,  covered  with  low,  rounded  spines; 
oral  sucker  slightly  exceeding  the  ventral;  ventral  sucker  nearl}" 
equally  distant  from  the  two  extremities,  aperture  transverse;  pharynx 
large,  esophagus  distinct,  intestinal  rami  extending  to  posterior  end; 
testes  two,  one  following  the  other,  near  posterior  end;  ovary  at  front 
edge  of  anterior  testis;  uterus  between  ovary  and  ventral  sucker; 
vitellaria  diffuse,  posterior  and  lateral,  extending  in  front  of  ventral 

Dimensions,  in  millimeters,  life:  Length  1.38;  breadth,  anterior 
0.18,  at  ventral  sucker  O.lO;  oral  sucker,  length  0.18,  ])readth  0.15; 
pharynx,  length  0.16,  breadth  0.12;  diameter  of  ventral  sucker  0.15; 
ova  0.05  by  0.036.  Same,  in  balsam:  Length  1.28;  oral  sucker,  length 
and  breadth,  each  0.13;  ventral  sucker,  length  0.10,  breadth  0.12. 
The  outline  of  the  testes  diti'ers  from  that  shown  in  the  sketch,  which 
was  made  from  life;  each  testis  is  broader  than  long  and  the  margins 
are  uneven. 

Although  the  specimen  seems  to  be  in  fairly  good  condition  and  the 
testes,  ovary,  and  vitellaria  are  well  'differentiated  ])y  the  stain,  there 
is  no  indication  of  cirrus,  pouch,  or  genital  aperture. 

This  distome  appears  to  belong  to  the  genus  Ihdicoiiietra  of  the 
later  classification. 

118  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxrii. 

Distoinum^  species  from  Salariichthys  textilis. 

July  16,  one.  This  distome  was  exceedingly  minute.  It  was  inclosed 
in  an  amber-colored,  globular  cj^st.  It  was  seen  while  examining 
some  foodstuff  with  the  microscope.  • 

Diameter  of  the  cyst  about  0.2  mm.  The  distome  was  curved  in  a 
horseshoe  shape  inside  the  cyst. 

Numerous  minute  spherical   bodies,    probably   concretions    in    the 
excretory  vessels,  were  noted.     These  concretions  measured  0.004  mm. 
in  diameter. 
Distomiim^  species  from  Teutlds  ccerulem. 

July  22,  one,  partly  macerated.  This  distome  was  stained  and 
mounted,  but  is  not  in  a  condition  to  admit  of  identification  or  satis- 
factory description. 

The  mount  yields  a  lateral  view  of  the  compressed  specimen.  The 
vitellaria  are  diffuse,  not  close  to  the  margin,  but  fflling  the  interior 
of  the  body  from  the  posterior  end  to  the  ventral  sucker.  The  ven- 
tral sucker  is  very  indistinct;  uterus  in  front  of  ovary;  ova  relatively 

Dimensions,  in  millimeters,  life:  Length  1.35,  breadth  0.83;  oral 
sucker  0.21,  pharynx  0.10,  ventral  sucker  0.21;  ova  0.036  by  0.021. 

So  far  as  can  be  made  out,  the  anatomy  bears  a  general  resemblance 
to  that  of  D.  viteUoHiiiii. 


Plate  XV,  fig. -97. 

Monostomum  vinahedwardsil  Linton,  Bull.  U.  S.  Fish.  Com.  for  1899,  p.  470,  pi. 
XXIV,  figs.  373-376;  Bull.  Bureau  of  Fisheries,  XXIV,  pp.  379,  410,  figs. 

This  species  was  found  in  two  of  the  Bermuda  fishes. 
Neomcen  i,s  Kynagris. 

July  18,  fifteen  large  and  two  small.     Dimensions,  in  millimeters, 
formalin:    Larger,  length  2.98,    maximum    breadth   0.98.     Smaller, 
length  0.57,  breadth  0.30. 
Ocyurim  cliTy^nruH. 

July  7,  three;  July  11,  twenty-four;  July  22,  twenty.  Large  and 
small  specimens  were  found  together,  as  in  the  snapper. 

MONOSTOMUM,  species. 

Plate  XIV,  figs.  92,  93. 

Three  small  monostomes,  from  two  Bernmda  fishes  appear  to  belong 
to  the  same  species.  In  each  case  they  were  in  poor  condition,  being 
somewhat  macerated. 


Bathy stoma  striatum. 

July  17,  one.     Dimensions,  in  millimeters,  life:  Length  1;  breadth, 
anterior  0.22,  middle,  posterior  0.15;    ova,  somewhat  variable, 
largest  0.018  by  0.011. 
HxritAilon  fiavolineat  uni. 

July  31,  two.  Dimensions  of  larger,  in  millimeters,  life:  Length 
1.05;  breadth,  anterior  0.12,  middle  0.31,  posterior  0.12;  diameter  of 
oral  sucker  0.09,  of  pharynx  0.03,  of  genital  sucker  0.08;  ova  0.018 
by  0.011. 

GASTEROSTOMUM,   species. 

Trematodes  belonging  to  this  genus  were  found  on  two  occasions  in 
the  rock  fish  {Mycteroperca  apua),  in  each  case  in  poor  condition. 

The  relative  position  of  the  vitellaria,  ovary,  testes,  uterus,  and 
cirrus  nuich  as  in  G.  arcuatu/ji;  the  vitellaria,  however,  are  more 
crowded,  in  some  of  the  specimens  at  least,  than  in  that  species, 
although  agreeing  closely  in  number,  28  having  been  counted  in  one 
and  29  in  another.  The  anterior  end  is  bluntly  rounded,  and  the 
anterior  sucker  is  relatively  large,  as  in  (J.  hacnlatum. 

July  21,  twenty;  length  2  nun.,  breadth  0.3  mm.;  ova  0.021  by  (».015 
and  0.03  by  0,02  mm.  July  22,  five;  no  two  alike  in  shape,  but  gen- 
erally slender;  length  0.66  mm.,  breadth  0.3  nuu. 


Plate  XV,  tigs.  100-102. 

This  is  possibly  a  new  genus,  related,  but  not  closely,  to  Pkyllodis- 

Body  nearl}'  circular,  rather  thin,  with  edges  folded  under.  The 
neck  is  subcylindrical  and  sharply  marked  off  from  the  body.  Ven- 
tral sucker  larger  than  oral,  with  a  nearly  circular  aperture.  Mouth 
circular,  prohal)ly  nearly  terminal,  pharynx  not  clearly  seen  and  very 
small,  if  any.  The  intestinal  rami  are  simple  and  elongated,  l)eginning 
near  the  oral  sucker  and  extending  to  the  posterior  end,  where, 
although  they  were  not  clearly  seen,  they  appear  to  meet.  The  repro- 
ductive organs,  if  correctly  interpreted,  have  the  following  arrange- 
ment: Testes  two,  transversel}'  placed,  not  granular,  but  appearing  as 
crumpled  or  folded  structures;  ovary  in  front  of  right  testis,  near  it 
and  ventral;  vitellaria  two,  lobed,  immediately  behind  ventral  sucker; 
uterus  between  and  behind  testes;  genital  aperture  behind  oral  sucker 
at  bifurcation  of  intestine;  cirrus  and  pouch  in  neck.  Ventral  disk 
nearly  circular,  marked  with  transverse  lines,  and  minute  longitudi- 
nal striffi  between  the  lines. 

Dimensions,  in  millimeters,  life:  Length  of  disk  0.75,  breadth 
0.93;  neck,  arched  and  bent  ventrally,  diameter  0.42,  length,  esti- 
mated, 0.87.  Specimen  mounted  in  balsam:  Body,  length  0.75, 
breadth  0.90;   neck,   length  0.75,   breadth  0.36;  oral  sucker,  length 

120  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

0.24,  breadth  0.27;  ventral  sucker,  leng^th  0.34,  breadth  0.30;  diameter 
of  ventral  disk  0.58;  ova  of  different  sizes,  largest  0.042  b}^  0.015. 
This  specimen  was  found  in  Balistes  eai'olineihsis^  'J^uh'  1^- 


I  am  indebted  to  my  friend  Prof.  C.  B.  Wilson   for  the  identifica- 
tion of  the  only  species  of  parasitic  copepod  found. 
Lepeoj)htheirus  dissrmidatus'  Wilson. 

Proc.    U.    S.   Nat.   Mus.,  XXVIII,  pp.    631-635,    pi.    xxii.     This 
species  was  found  on  two  of  the  Bermuda  fishes. 
S^pin eplielus  striat us. 

July  11,  two;  July  18,  two.     Found  only  on  the  large  groupers. 
Myderoperca  apua. 

Five  specimens  collected  by  Mr.  Louis  Mowbray,  St.  Georges, 


The  parasitic  isopods  ol)tained  by  me  in  Bermuda  were  sent  to  Dr. 
Harriet  Richardson,  who  has  kindl}-  furnished  the  following  identifi- 
Cymothoa  a-strtim  (Linnasus). 

Mr.  Louis  Mowbray  of  St.  Georges,  Bermuda,  brought  to  the  lab- 
oratory two  isopods,  one  large  the  other  small.  The  snrall  one  was 
from  the  mouth  of  a  fish  which  was  identified  by  Mr.  Mowbray  as 
Trachurops  cruraenopldhahuuH.  It  was  collected  on  March  6,  1903. 
The  large  specimen  was  from  the  mouth  of  a  fish  which  he  identified 
as  Priacanthus  arenatus. 
lyvna  nana  Schoedte  and  Meinert, 

From  Athenna  harriiigtonensis.,  July  15,  numerous.     These  isopods 
were  easily  removed  from  the  fish,  and  they  could  detach  themselves 
at  will.     They  were  abundant;  all  that  were  seen  were  females  with 
JVerocUa  acuminata  Schoedte  and  Meinert. 

From  Lachnolahnus  ntaxiinus^  August  3,  one,  from  fin.     The  speci- 
men was  a  female,  length  32  mm.,  breadth  17  nmi. 
Coixdlena,  species. 

This  specimen  was  brought  in  with  other  material  collected  on  a 
dredging  expedition  to  the  Challenger  Banks  conducted  by  Capt. 
W.  E.  Meyer,  August  1  and  2.     The  host  was  not  noted. 




a.  ventral  sucker.  pJt.  phar3-nx. 

c.  cirrus.  ^r.  seminal  receptacle. 

cp.  cirrus  pouch.  sv.  seminal  vesicle. 

e.r.  excretory  vessel.  t.  testes. 

g.  genital  aperture.  u.  uterus. 

gs.  genital  sucker.  vd.  vus  deferens. 

L  intestine.  vg.  vitelline  gland. 

o.  ovary.  vr.   vitelline  reservoir. 

on.  esophagus.  rd.  vitelline  duct. 

p.  prostate  gland. 

Plate  L 

Ascaris,  species  from  Mi/cferopcrca  apua. 

Fig.  1.   Optical  section  of  anterior  end  shoAving  characteristic  diverticulum  of  intes- 
tine {id),  and  of  esophagus  {od);  in  balsam;  length  of  esophagus  L5  mm. 
la.  Head  enlarged;  diameter  0.12  mm. 
16.   Ventral  view  of  posterior  end,  balsam;  diameter  at  anal  aperture  0.0!)  mm. 

Immature  Nematode  from  Epineplielns  mandim(x. 

2.  Diagrammatic  sketch  of  anterior  end,  life. 

Iiiniadnre  Nematode  from  Jlavjie  rufa. 

3.  Posterior  end;  diameter  at  anal  ajierture  0.03  mm. 

lelitfn/oiiema,  species  from  Lgcadoidi-t  )norbiga. 

4.  Anterior  end,  optical  section,  life;  diameter,  anterior,  0.09  nun. 
4a.  Posterior  end  of  same;  diameter  0.07  mm. 

Ileteratis  foveolata  Rudolph i . 

5.  Female  from  Diplodas  mrgns;  lengtli  S  mm. 
5a.  Male;  length  4  mm. 

56.  Posterior  end  of  male,  lateral  view,  life;  distance  of  anal  aperture  from  tip 

0.015  mm.;  au,  anal  aperture;  h,  bursa;  .s'^*,  spicule. 
5c.  Posterior  end  of  female,  life;  diameter  at  anal  aperture  0.12  mm. 

6.  Optical  section,  balsam,  specimen  from  Lgcodontis  vtorhtga;  length  of  esopha- 

gus 0.8  mm. 

7.  Diagram  of  anal  papilla-.     The  specimen  from  which  this  sketch  was  made 

was  from  N'eomnenis  grixeuK. 

Plate  II. 

Ileterak is  foveolata  Rudolphi,  continued. 

Fig.  8.  Transverse  section  of  specimen  from  Mycteroperca  apua.  Anterior  end  of 
pharynx  showing  beginnings  (a  a)  of  longitudinal  divisions  of  esophagus. 
The  position  of  the  third  division  will  be  at  the  lower  end  of  the  figure 
where,  in  this  section,  a  few  of  the  teeth  are  shown;  maximum  diameter, 
0.13  mm. 

122  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.  vol.  xxxiii. 

Fig.  9.  Transverse  section  back  of  pharynx  showing  structure  of  esophagus; 
diameter,  0.13  mm. 

10.  Transverse  section  of   esophagus  of  specimen  from  Micropogon  undulatus, 

Beaufort,  North  Carolina,  introduced  here  for  comparison;  diameter, 
0.08  mm. 

Heterakis,  species. 

11.  Lateral  view  of  female  from  Neoma'nis  griseui^,  l)alsam;  length,  6  mm. 
I  la.  Lateral  view  of  same,  enlarged. 

116.   Posterior  end,  ventral  view  of  female  from  Hivniulon  carbonariuin. 

12.  Nearly  transverse  section  of   lips  showing  four  of  the  mouth  papillpe  and 

the  teeth;  length  of  section,  0.12  mm.  Figs.  12  to  15  are  made  from  a 
specimen  collected  at  Beaufort,  from  the  southern  flounder  {ParaJicJithyx 

13.  Sketch,  somewhat  diagrammatic,  of  anterior  end   of  pharynx;  breadth  of 

gap  of  mouth,  0.11  mm.     See  fig.  15. 

14.  Section   behind  pharynx  showing   structure  of  esophagus;   diameter,  0.25 

mm;  a,  lateral  area;  m,  muscle  cell. 

Plate  HI. 

Heterakis,  species,  continued. 

Fig.  15.  Section  of  posterior  end  of  pharynx,  showing  the  division  of  the  cuticle  into 
three  parts  which  become  the  three  symmetrical  longitudinal  divisions 
shown  in  fig.  14;  breadth  of  gap,  0.10  mm. 

16.  Dorsal  view  of  specimen  shown  in  fig.  11,  enlarged. 

17.  Cross  section  of  anterior  end  of  specimen  from   Neomsenis  grisens,  partly 

diagrammatic;  breadth  of  section,  0.17  mm. 

18.  Cross  section  of  pharynx,  showing  beginning  of  divisions  of  cuticle  into 

three  parts;  maximum  diameter,  0.26  mm. 

19.  Section  a  little  behind  that  sketched  in  fig.  18.     Note  the  very  thick  cuticle; 

pa,  pulp  of  papilla;  maximum  diameter  of  section,  0.30  mm. 

20.  Cross  section  of  esophagus,  near  base;  maximum  diameter,  0.14  mm. 

Plate  IV. 

Erhlnorhynchus  medius,  new  species. 

Fig.  21.  Adult  male  with  bursa  everted,  from  Mycteroperca  apua;  in  balsam;  length, 
40  mm.     b,  bursa;  eg,  cement  gland;  /,  lemnisci;  ps,  proboscis  sheath. 

22.  Anterior  end   of  female,  proboscis  and  neck  everted;  length  of  proboscis, 

1.35  mm. 

23.  Another,  anterior  end  of  body  partly  inverted;  length   of  proboscis,  1.28 

mm.;  a,  spine  from  body  enlarged;  actual  length,  0.04  mm. 

24.  Transverse  section  of  proboscis,    middle;   diameter,  exclusive  of    hooks, 

0.4  mm. 

25.  Same,  near  base;  rm,  retractor  muscle. 

26.  Immature  male  from  Calamus  calamus;  balsam;  length,  12  nun. 

27.  Immature  female;  balsam;  length,  14  mm. 
28-30.  Hooks  from  proboscis,  enlarged;  length,  0.08  mm. 


Plate  V. 

DiscocephaJum  pUeatum  Linton,  from  OxirJiarJihius  plntijodon. 

Fig.  31.  Worms    attached    to    mucous    membrane,    heads  embedded,    Ufe;   about 
natural  size. 

Rhynchohotliriuin  speciosinn  Linton. 

32.   Head  and  neck  of  scolex  from  cyi^t  in  Epinephelns  striatus;  balsam;  length 
to  base  of  contractile  bulbs  5  mm.;  rh,  contractile  bulbs;  ])S,  proboscis 
83.   Posterior  end  of  same. 
34,  35.  Two  views  of  proboscis;  diameter,  including  hooks,  0.06  mm. 

Rhynchohothriiim  .ynrdconmtnni,  new  spet'ies. 

36.   Head   and  neck   of    scolex  from   cyst   in  Epinephelus  maculosux;   balsam; 
length   to  base   of   Imlbs   5   mm.;  a.  Posterior  end  of   larva;  cb,   bulbs; 
ps,  sheath.   . 
37,  38.  Two  viev/a  of  proboscis;  diameter,  incjuding  hooks,  0.06  mm. 

Plate  VL 

Otohoihrimn  penetrans,  new  sjiecies,  from  Tylosurus  acus. 

Fici.  39.  Blastocyst  (plerocercus),  alcoholic;  length,  10  mm. 

40.  Scolex,  alcoholic;  length,  3.5  mm. 

41.  Front  view  of  bothria. 

42.  Scolex,  alcoholic;  length,  4  mm. 

43.  Front  view  of  head. 

44.  Another,  with  proboscides  everted;  breadth,  2  mm. 

45.  Scolex  with  anterior  end  retracted;  breadth  at  base  of  bulbs,  2.1  nun.;  ui 

balsam;  cb,  bulb;  ps,  sheath. 
46-48.  Different  views  of  proboscides,  all  near  base;  diameter,  incluiling  hixjks, 
0.22  mm. 

Plate  VIL 

Encotyllahe,  species,  from  Calamus  calamus. 

Fig.  49.  Ventral  view,  life;  length,  3.5  mm. 

50.  Lateral  view  of  posterior  end. 

51.  Anterior  end,  ventral  view;  in  balsam. 

52.  Dorsal  view  of  same. 

53.  Posterior  end;  in  balsam. 

Microcotyle,  species,  from  .('alamus  calamus. 

54.  Hooks  on  retracted  cirrus  highly  magnified;  in  balsam. 

Disfomum,  species,  from  Seriolafusciatd. 

55.  Lateral  view;  in  balsam;  length,  2  mm. 

56.  Ventral  view  of  another  specimen;  in  balsam;  length,  2.5  mm. 

Disiomum,  species,  from  AngeUchlhys  ciliaris. 

57.  Lateral  view,  life;  length,  1.26  mm. 

124  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

Plate  VIII. 
Distomum  monticellii  Linton,  from  Synodus  saurus. 
Fig.  58;   View  of  specimen,  in  balsam;  lengtli,  2.55  mm. 

Disitomnm  { Lecithockidinm) ,  species,  from  Scriola  (himerili. 

59.  Specimen  with  tail  everted;  length,  1.65  mm. 

60.  Another,  tail  inverted;  length,  1.14  mm. 

Distomum,  species,  from  Teidhia  lieputus. 

61.  Lateral  view,  life,  specimen  partly  macerated;  length,  2.55  mm. 

Didomiim,  species,  from  Tj/losuruff  acus. 

62.  Ventro-lateral  view,  balsam;  length,  1.77  mm. 

Plate  IX. 
Distomum  vitellosum  Linton,  from  Ihvmidou  farolineatum. 

Fig.  63.  Sketch  from  life,  specimen  partly  macerated;  length  2.78  mm. 

64.  Ventral  view  of  specimen  from  Calamiix  calamus,  balsam;  length  1.4  mm. 

Distomum  subtenue,  new  species,  from  Calanms  calamus. 

65.  Lateral  view,  balsam;  length  1.5  mm. 

Distomum  [Accaccelium)  macrocoti/le  Diesing,  from  Teuthis  hepatus. 

66.  Lateral  view,  balsam;  length  4.35  mm. 

Plate  X. 
Distomum  nitens  Linton,  from  Tylosurus  acus. 

Fig.  67.  Sketch  of  specimen  mounted  in  balsam;  length  4.5  mm. 

68.  Ventral  view  of  anterior  end. 

Distomum,  species,  from  Cluetodon,  species. 

69.  Ventral  view,  life;  breadth  0.3  mm. 

Distomum,  species,  from  Bodiaiius  fulvus  punctatus. 

70.  Sketch  from  life,  anterior  end  inverted;  length  0.9  mm. 

Distomum,  species,  from  Splii/rnna  sphi/runa. 

71.  Ovum,  alcoholic;  longer  diameter  0.07  mm. 

Distomum  gi/rinus,  new  species,  from  Lactophrys  trigonus. 

72.  Dorsal  view,  balsam;  length  0.95  mm. 

73.  Ventral  view  of  another,  balsam,  diameter,  anterior  0.24  mm. 

74.  Ventral  view,  life,  specimen  from  Lactophrys  iricornis;  length  1.58  mm. 

Distomujii  lamelliforme,  new  species,  from  Lactophrys  trigonus. 

75.  Ventral  view,  balsam;  diameter  0.57  mm. 


Plate  XI. 
Dlstomum  lamelUforme,  new  species,  continued. 

Fig.  76.   Ventral  view  of  specimen  from  7?rt//s<es  oar-o/me^i.s/.s,  balsam;  l)readth  0.9  mm. 

77.  Dorsal  view,  life;  length  0.82  mm.,  breadth  1.20  mm. 

78.  Ventral  view  of  sj^ecimen  from  Lactophrijs  iricornis,  life;  length  1.78  mm. 

Distomum  trulla,  new  species,  fi'om  Ocyurus  chrysiirus. 

79.  Ventral  view,  balsam;  length  1.14  mm. 

Plate  XII. 
Dktominn  leccni^eni,  new  species. 

Fig.  80.   Dorsal  view  of  specimen  from  Epirtepltelus  striatu!^,  balsam;  length  1.3  mm. 

81.  Dorsal  view  of  specimen  from  EpiiiepJtelus  vkicuIosuk,  balsam;  length  1.8  mm. 

82.  Posterior  end  of  same,  showing  excretory  vessel  with  muscular  bulb;  diam- 

eter of  bulb  0.03  mm. 

83.  Ventral  view  of  another;  length  0.9(3  mm. 

Dislomiun,  species,  from  BnUsles  caroliiiensii^. 

84.  Dorsal  view,  life;  length  1.77  mm. 

Plate  XIII. 
Dhtomum,  species  from  Paranlliias  fvrcifer. 
Fig.  85.  Dorsal  view,  life;  length  1.38  mm. 

Distomiim  fe)ie>ilrafum,  new  species,  from  Li/coilontis  7noringa. 

86.  Ventral  view,  balsam;  length  1.65  mm. 

87.  Anterior  end  of  same,  enlarged. 

88.  Sketch  of  a  less  usual  form  than  that  shown  in  figure  86,  life;  length  2.4  mm. 

89.  Transverse  section  of  neck;  diameter  0.16  mm.      <-ii,  cuticle;  gl,  glandular 

layer;  Ini,  longitudinal  muscles;  oe,  esophagus. 

90.  Transverse  section  through  anterior  part  of  ventral  sucker;  diameter  0.18  mm. 

/,  convoluted  beginning  of  intestine;    rs,  ventral  sucker;  other  letters  as 
in  fig.  89. 

91.  Transverse  .section,  middle  of  body;  transverse  diameter  0.27  mm. 

/'/,  intestine;  other  letters  as  in  tig.  89. 

Pl.ate  XIV. 
3Ionosfo))uiiii,  species,  from  Balliystoma  driatum. 
Fig.  92.   Dorsal  view,  life;  length  1  mm. 

Mouosto)ni(m,  species,  from  Hieinulonjiavolineatum, 

93.  Ventral  view,  life;  length  1.05  mm. 

DiMomwn  tomex,  new  species,  from  EpinepJielus  striatus. 

94.  Ventral  view,  balsam;  length  12  mm.     «',  ova;  length  0.018  mm. 

95.  Anterior  end  of  same;  diameter  at  ventral  sucker  0.48  mm. 

96.  Genital  papilla;  transverse  diameter  0.05  nun.     c,  aperture  of  cirrus;  «,  aper- 

ture of  uterus. 

126  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxm. 

Plate  XV. 

Monostomum  vlnal-edivardsii  Linton,  ffom  OcijuruR  chri/surus. 
Fig.  97.   Dorsal  view,  balsam;  length  2  mm. 

.[spidoga-^fer  rivgens  Linton,  from  Iridio  radiatus. 

98.  Dorsal  view,  balsam;  length  2  nun. 

99.  Ventral  view  of  head  and  anterior  portion  of  sucking  disk,  balsam;  dia- 

meter of  head  0.42  mm. 

Undetermined  Trematode,  allied  to  Pliyllodistomum,  from  Balistes  carolinensis. 

100.  Ventral  view,  life;  diameter  of  body  0.93  mm.;  d,  disk. 

101.  Same,  stained  and  mounted  in  balsam. 

102.  Portion  of  ventral  disk  highly  magnified;  distance  between  strite  0.015  mm. 




Parasites  of  Bermuda  Fishes. 

For  explanation  of  plate  see  page  121. 



Parasites  of  Bermuda  Fishes. 

For  explanation  of  plate  see  pages  121,  122. 


PROCEEDINGS,   VOL.    XXXIII      PL.    Ill 

Parasites  of  Bermuda  Fishes. 

For  explanation  of  plate  see  page  122. 



Parasites  of  Bermuda  Fishes. 

For  explanation  of  plate  see  page  122. 



Parasites  of  Bermuda  Fishes. 

For  explanation  of  plate  see  page  123. 



Parasites  of  Bermuda  Fishes. 

For  explanation  of  plate  see  page  123. 



Parasites  of  Bermuda  Fishes. 

For  explanation  of  plate  see  page  123. 



Parasites  of  Bermuda  Fishes. 

For  explanation  of  plate  see  page  124. 



Parasites  of  Bermuda  Fishes. 

For  explanation  of  plate  see  page  124. 



Parasites  of  Bermuda  Fishes. 

For  explanation  of  plate  see  page  124. 



Parasites  of  Bermuda  Fishes. 

For  explanation  of  plate  see  page  125. 




Parasites  of  Bermuda  Fishes. 

For  explanation  of  plate  see  page  125. 



Parasites  of  Bermuda  Fishes. 

For  explanation  of  plate  see  page  125. 



Parasites  of  Bermuda  Fishes. 

For  explanation  of  plate  see  page  125. 



Parasites  of  Bermuda  Fishes. 

For  explanation  of  plate  t,EE  page  126. 


By  Austin  Hobart  Clark, 

Of  the  United  States  Bureau  of  Fisheries. 

In  a  previous  paper  ^'  I  published  preliminary  descriptions  of  new 
species  of  unstalked  crinoids  l^elonging-  to  the  genus  Decametrocrinim 
and  the  Elegans,  Eschrichtii,  and  Tenella  groups  of  the  genus  Antedon^ 
from  the  collections  made  by  the  U.  S.  Fisheries  steamer  Alhatross  in 
the  north  Pacific  and  in  the  Japanese  seas.  In  the  present  paper  are 
included  the  new  species  belonging  to  the  Basicurva,  Spinifera,  and 
Palmata  groups  of  the  genus  Antedo7i.,  together  with  the  bidistichate 
representatives  of  the  Acoela  group  (which  are  here  referred  to  as 
comprising  the  Multicolor  group),  the  species  lacking  the  pinnule  of  the 
third  brachial,  a  species  in  which  the  first  pinnule  is  the  longest,  and 
another  species  of  the  Elegans  group.  Three  new  species  of  Cornatula 
are  also  described,  and  a  species  of  Cornatula  and  another  of  Atele- 
crhius  are  renamed.  Attention  is  called  to  the  varied  and  handsome 
coloration  of  the  Multicolor  group  in  life,  a  group  in  which  this  feature 
appears  to  attain  its  maximum  so  far  as  the  Crinoidea  are  concerned. 
A.  ruhrojlava  is  very  handsome,  bright  yellow,  banded  with  equally 
bright  red,  each  color  occup34ng  areas  about  half  an  inch  wide;  this 
is  the  onl}'  species  I  have  seen  alive  with  this  type  of  coloration;  but 
a  specimen  of  A.  .styllfer  taken  at  Kagoshima  in  1859  still  shows  evi- 
dence of  having  been  similarly  colored,  although  the  specimen  of  the 
latter  which  I  obtained  is  entirely  different.  The  species  described  in 
this  paper  will  be  described  in  more  detail  and  figured  later.  The 
keys  preceding  the  descriptions  are  based  on  those  of  Dr.  P.  H.  Car- 
penter, so  far  as  possible;  but  all  the  species  described  since  the  pub- 
lication of  the  Challenger  report  have  been  taken  into  consideration, 
and  the  characters  of  the  new  species  here  described  are  presented  in 
such  a  wa}^  that  their  relations  to  those  previously  known  will,  it  is 
hoped,  be  perfecth'  clear. 

ffProc.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus.,  XXXIII,  pp.  69-84. 

Proceedings  U.  S.  National  Museum,  Vol.  XXXIII— No.  1 561 . 


128  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.  vol.  xxxiii. 


A.  Ten-armed  species,  with  the  disk  and  ambulacra  plated,  but  the  rays  not  wall- 

sided;  the  pinnules  stiff  and  rod-like [ Accela  group]. 

a.  First  radials  produced  anteriorly,  separating  the  second  radials;  second  radials 

and  axillaries  rounded  and  widely  separated (29)  Antedon  thetis. 

aa.  The  radials  have  flange-like  lateral  processes,  which  are  in  apposition  later- 
ally  (4)  A.  separata. 

B.  Bidistichate  species,  with  the  disk  and  ambulacra  plated,  but  the  rays  not  wall- 

sided  ;  the  pinnules  stiff  and  rod-like [Multicolor  group]. 

a.  First  radials  anchylosed,  forming  a  radial  cup  with  interradial  processes  reach- 
ing to  the  disk  and  widely  separating  the  rounded  second  radials;  15  cirri 

of  35  joints (l)-^i-  multicolor. 

aa.  First  radials  not  anchylosed;  interradial  processes  very  narrow,  lower  part  of 
second  radials  meeting  above  them;  larger  part  of  the  second  radials  and 
the  axillaries  widely  separated  laterally:  20-25  cirri  of  45  joints. 

(2)  A.  versicolor, 
aaa,.  First  radials  appear  as  small  interradial  triangles  with  no  distal  process;  sec- 
ond  radials  in   api:)Osition  for   entire  lateral  edge,   but   axillaries  widely 

separated (3)  A.  propinqua. 

aaaa.  The  radials  have  flange-like  lateral  processes,  which  are  in  apposition  later- 
h.  Lower  brachials  (and  distichals  when  present)  rounded,  and  widely  sepa- 
rated from  those  on  adjacent  rays (4)  ^4.  separata. 

bb.  The  first  distichals  have  flange-like  processes,  and  are  in  apposition  laterally, 
c.  Cirri  short,  with  30  short  joints;  the  second  or  third  (or  both)  pairs  of  pin- 
nules much  elongated;  first  radials  only  just  visible. 

(5)  A.  flavopnrpurca. 

cc.  Cirri  long  and  slender,  with  40  elongated  joints;  the  proximal  pinnules 

not  elongated;  first  radials  large  and  prominent (6)   A.  callista. 

C.  Ten-armed  species,  in  which  the  radials  and  lower  brachials  have  flattened  sides. 

[Basicurva  group.] 
a.  Pinnule  aml^ulacra  plated. 

b.  The  later  cirrus  joints  have  dorsal  spines. 

c.  First  pinnule  smaller  than  the  second;  cirri  three-fourths  length  of  arms, 

with  80  joints;  dorsal  surface  of  railials  smooth (7)  A.  anthus.O' 

cc.  First  pinnule  nearly  or  quite  as  long  as  the  second;  cirri  longer  than  the 

arms,  with  about  110  joints (8)  A.  macropoda.a 

ccc.  First  pinnule  longer  than  the  second. 
d.  Over  60  cirrus  joints. 
e.  First  pinnule  much  flattened  exteriorly;  cirri  very  slender,  with  about 
70  joints;  radials  and  brachials  strongly  carinate;  arms  compressed, 

with  prominent  overlapping  spines (9)   A.  hana. 

dd.  30  to  50  cirrus  joints. 

e.   First  pinnule  flattened  on  outer  side;    much  larger  and  stouter  than 
/.  Cirri  in  15  vertical  rows;  radials  and  lower  brachials  thickly  set  with 

short  spines (10)  A.  villosa.a 

ff.  Cirri  in  five  well-separated  double  vertical  rows;  radials  and  lower 
brachials  bordered  with  stout  spines (30)  A.  hawaiieyisis.  f> 

«  Also  a  bidistichate  species;  see  p.  129. 
f>  Also  a  tridistichate  species. 


ee.  First  pinnule  not  flattened  on  outer  side;  cirri  in  10  vertical  rows. 

/.  20  cirri ;  calyx  and  arm  bases  smooth A.  latipinna. « 

ff.  30  cirri;  calyx  and  arm  bases  spiny (11 )  A.  pubescens. 

lib.   Less  than  30  cirrus  joints,  without  dorsal  si)ines. 

c.  Pinnules  of  eighth  and   following  l)rachials  have  broad   lower  joints  and 
strong  plates  covering  the  genital  glands. 
d.  Third  and  fourth  joints  of  genital  pinnules  broad  and  nearly  flat  on  the 
outer  side,  but  the  fifth  joint  smaller. 
e.  First  radials  visible;  arm  bases  smooth;  7-10  cirrus  joints. 

(12)   .1.  liepburninna. 
dd.  Lower  joints  of  genital  pinnules  uniformly  expanded. 
e.  First  radials  concealed;  less  than  20  cirrus  joints. 
/.  Calyx  and  arm  bases  rugose;  first  pinnule  flagellate,  with  40  or  more 

joints (13)  .4.  kitn. 

ff.  Rays  separated  laterally;   radials  scale-like,    with  a  thin  marginal 

flange;  second  radial  hemispherical (14)  A.  scalar  is. 

cc.  Pinnules  of  tenth  and  following  brachials  have  the  lower  joints  as  long  as 
or  longer  than  wide,  with  no  extensive  plating  over  the  genital  glands. 

d.  Basals  prominent;  radials  long,  not  carinate. (15)  A.  r/arrettiana.f> 

dd.  Basals,  first  radials,  and  often  more  or  less  of  the  second  radials  con- 
cealed;   (drri   stout   and    rounded   basally,    slender   and   compressed 

distally ( 16 )   .1.  orkm. 

aa.  Pinnule  ambulacra  not  plated. 

b.  Three    radials  visible;  stoutest   piimnle  on   second    lirachial;   30-40    rather 

elongate  cirrus  joints (17)     A.  minor. 

D.  Bidistichate  species  with  the  radial  axillaries  and  some  of  the  following  joints 
more  or  less  wall-sided,  and  a  well-marked  ambulacral  skeleton  on  the  pin- 
nules   [Spinifera  group] . 

a.  Over  30  cirrus  joints,  the  later  ones  spiny. 

b.  The  first  pinnule  much  smaller  than  the  second;  less  than   20  cirri  in  five 
well-separated  double  rows;  arms  long  and  slender,  with  more  than  100 

joints;  cirri  long  and  rather  stout,  with  about  80  joints ( 7 )     .1.  anthus. 

bb.  The  first  pinnule  about  the  same  length  aa,  or  only  slightly  shorter  than,  the 
second;  cirri  longer  than  the  arms,  stout,  with  about  110  joints. 

(8)      A.  macropoda. 
bbb.  The  first  pinnule  as  long  as  or  longer  than  the  second;  cirri  shorter  than 
the  arms, 
c.  Centro-dorsal  conical  or  shortly   columnar,   with  5  double  rows  of  cirrus 
(/.  20  arms  of  sharply  carinate  joints. 

('.  70-90  slender  cirrus  joints .1.  quinquecostatu.  " 

ee.  50-55  stout  cirrus  joints (18)     .1.  diadenui. 

dd.  20  arms  of  rounded  joints;  radials  not  carinate;  surface  of  radials  and 
lower  brachials  smooth;  first  pinnule  not  much  stouter  than  succeed- 
ing; 35-40  cirrus  joints (19)      A.  asfer. 

ddd.  Less  than  15  arms  of  rounded  joints;  radials  not  carinate;  surface  of 
radials  and  lower  brachials  covereil  with  spines;  first  pinnule  nuich 
larger  and  stouter  than  the  succeeding;  50  cirrus  joints. 

(10)   A.  rillusa. 

dddd.  Less  than  15  arms  of  rounded  joints,  but  radials  strongly  carinate;  30 

cirrus  joints (20)     A.  albojlava. 

"Inserted  for  comparison. 
''  Also  a  l)idistichate  species;  see  p.  130. 
Proc.  N.  M.  vol.  xxxiii— 07 9 

130  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxm. 

aa.  Less  than  25  cirrus  joints,  usually  smooth. 

h.  Centro-dorsal  conical,  the  cirri  in  5  radial  clusters;  cirri  rather  slender,  with 
16 smooth  joints;  basals  and  first  radials  large  and  prominent. 

(15)      A.  qarrettiana. 
hb.  Centro-dorsal  discoidal,  the   marginal   cirri    without  definite  arrangement; 
basals  and  first  radials  concealed;  radials  narrow,  rounded  or  flattened; 
cirri  stout  and  rounded  basally,  slender  and  compressed  distally. 

(16)     A.  or  ion. 

E.  Ten-armed  species  with  no  pinnule  on  the  third  brachial. 

a.   First  pinnule  the  longest (21 )     ^1.  ruber. 

aa.  First  two  pinnules  about  equal,  or  the  first  slightly  shorter  than  the  second; 
long  conical  processes  at  the  junctions  of  the  two  outer  radials  and  first  two 
brachials (22)     A.  dwmedeir. 

aaa.  Second  pinnule  much  elongated,  the  joints  with  serrate  ends;  radials  and 
lower  brachials  smooth,  not  tubercular (23)     A.  tlgrhia. 

F.  Ten-armed  species  with  the  first  pinnule  the  longest. 

a.  About  30  smooth  cirrus  joints,  the  basal  ones  elongate (24)     ^1.  bowersi. 

G.  Bidistichate  species  with  an  unplated  disk  and  no  definite  ambulacral  skeleton; 

the  sides  of  the  lower  brachials  are  scarcely,  if  at  all,  flattened;  the  first  pinnule 

smaller  than  its  successors [Palm  ata  group] . 

a.  The  third  brachial  has  a  pinnule. 

b.  One  post-radial  axillary;  the  rays  (juite  free  laterally. 

c.  40-45  cirrus  joints;  lateral  flange-like  processes  on  the  radials  and  distichals. 

(25)  A.  abbotti. 
bb.  One  post-radial  axillary,  the  radials  and  distichals  in  close  contact  laterally. 

(26)  A.  stylifer. 
bbb.  Two  or  more  post-radial  axillaries. 

c.  Third  pinnule  larger  than  the  second. 
d.  Cirri  not  sjiiny. 

e.  Cirri  elongate,  with  40  or  more  joints (27)     A.  delicatissivia. 

H.  A  syzygy  in  the  radial  axillary [Elegans  group]. 

a.  Cirri  very  stout,  the  joints  about  as  broad  as  long;  there  are  no  dorsal  spines, 
but  the  penultimate  joint  bears  a  strong  opposing  spine;  second  radials  visi- 
ble (11  arms  in  the  type) (28)     A.  rubroflava. 

I.   ANTEDON   MULTICOLOR,  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  a  thick,  bearing  15  cirri  in  a  single  marginal  row; 
these  are  20  mm.  long  with  about  35  short  joints,  of  which  the  sixth 
and  seventh  are  squarish,  the  others  wider  than  long;  the  joints  over- 
lap somewhat  and  distally  bear  small  dorsal  spines. 

First  radials  completely  anch^doscd  laterally,  extending  up  in  a 
tongue-like  process  in  each  interradial  area  to  the  disk,  thus  widely 
separating  the  second  radials;  second  radials  oblong,  slightly  over 
twice  as  wide  as  high;  axillaries  pentagonal,  slightl}-  less  than  twice 
as  wide  as  high.  Axillaries  and  second  radials  of  each  ray  rounded 
and  widely  separated  from  those  of  adjacent  rays;  the  lower  part 
of  the  calyx  bears  a  strong  resemblance  to  that  of  Atelecriniis 
IjalanoldeH. ;  but  the  "basal  ring"  in  the  case  of  Antedon  mvlticolor 
is  formed  of  the  coalesced  first  radials,  consequently  there  are  only 
two  radials  above  it,  whereas  in  Atelecrinus  there  are  three.  The 
articulation  between  the  two  outer  radials  in  Antedon   midticolor  is 


of  such  a  character  as  to  ahnost  appear  syzygial,  and  the  two  joints 
are  entirely  incapable  of  motion  on  one  another;  but  the  articulation 
between  the  first  and  second  radials  admits  of  a  very  considerable 
dorso-ventral  motion.  Judging  from  Dr.  P.  H.  Carpenter's  figure  of 
Atelecrinus  halanoides,  a  similar  condition  appears  to  occur  in  that 
species.  Distichals  two,  resembling  the  two  outer  radials,  but  higher 
in  proportion  to  their  width;  20  arms  (K)  mm.  in  length  with  about  75 
brachials,  quadrate  proximally,  becoming  triangular,  about  as  high  as 
wide,  about  the  tenth  or  eleventh.  The  longer  edges  of  all  the 
brachials  are  convex  and  ])ear  a  pinnule  in  the  center.  The  second 
brachial  is  considerably  swollen  on  the  side  bearing  the  pinnule. 
Syzygies  occurs  in  the  third  brachial,  again  about  the  tenth  or  twelfth, 
and  distally  at  intervals  of  2,  sometimes  3,  joints. 

First  pinnule  short  and  very  slender,  iiexilde,  with  19  joints,  the 
first  two  enormously  expanded,  the  remainder  very  small  and  squar- 
ish; second  pinnule  usually  more  than  twice  its  length,  stiff,  stout,  and 
rod-like,  with  15-20  joints,  the  first  two  much  expanded,  the  remainder 
elongate.  The  length  of  the  second  pinnule  is  very  variable  even  in  a 
single  specimen;  the  second  pinnule  on  one  arm  may  be  half  as  long 
again  as  that  on  another,  or  one  of  the  second  pair  may  be  much  longer 
and  stouter  than  its  fellow;  however,  the  second  pinnule  is  alwaj^s 
much  longer  than  the  first,  and  always  stifle  and  spine-like,  while  the 
first  is  weak  and  flexible.  The  third  pinnule  is  usually  considerabl}- 
smaller  than  the  second,  though  similar  in  character,  and  from  theiv 
on  the  length  gradualh^  diminishes  to  the  seventh  or  eighth,  after 
which  they  remain  very  uniform  to  the  ends  of  the  arms.  The 
enlargement  of  the  two  lower  joints,  which  is  greath^  exaggerated  on 
the  first  pinnule,  is  much  less  marked  on  the  second,  still  less  on  the 
third,  and  hardly  noticeable  after  the  fourth. 

The  color  in  life  is  usually  a  delicate  light  graj'ish  purple,  or  lavender, 
with  narrow  bands  of  dull  yellow  on  the  arms;  one  specimen,  however, 
is  pure  white,  the  arms  crossed  by  a  broad,  deep  purple  band  near  the 
middle  and  another  near  the  tip.  The  cirri  are  light  lavender,  usually 
with  a  narrow  band  of  yellow  about  the  end  of  each  joint. 

This  small  group,  of  which  A.  )ni(ltir(>h>r\s  the  type,  illustrates  better 
than  any  other  with  which  I  am  acquainted  in  life  the  utter  worthless- 
ness  of  color  as  a  specific  character  among  many  of  the  unstalked 
crinoids.  All  but  one  of  my  specimens  were  lavender,  narrowl}^  banded 
with  dull  yellow;  this  is  the  color  of  all  my  examples  of  A.  Jiavopur- 
furea  except  three,  which  are  a  beautiful  orange  yellow,  becoming 
bright  orange  on  the  rays  and  centro-dorsal;  it  is  also  the  color  of 
A.  dellmtissiiiia  of  the  Palmata  group,  most  closely  related  to  A. 
limaculata  Carpenter,  which  is  dark  purple  up  to  the  last  axillar}^  then 
white;  but  this  last  type  of  coloration  also  occurs  in  ^1.  manca  {  —  A. 
disciforinis— A.  elarx),  a  species  widely  difl'erent  from  A.  hmiaculata 

132  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

and  usually  dull  white,  spotted  more  or  less  thickly  with  grayish  or 
reddish  purple,  resembling  some  color  phases  of  ^i.  diomedege,.  One 
specimen  of  A.  multicolor  is  white,  with  purple  bands,  almost  exactly 
like  the  type  of  A.  callwta.  A.  ■  ersicolor,  which  is  most  nearly  allied 
to  A.  laulticoloT^  is  reddish  brown,  resembling  species  of  the  A.  palmata 
group,  but  quite  different  from  any  known  form  of  coloration  in  its 
own  group.  A.  propiiiqita,  also,  which  is  reddish  brown  marbled  with 
white,  is  quite  different  from  any  others  in  the  group. 

Ty2)e.—C?it.  No.  22610,  U.S.N.M.;  ivom  AJhatros><  station  No.  4894; 
32^  33'  00"  north  latitude,  128°  32'  10"  east  longitude  (Eastern  Sea); 
95  fathoms;  August  9,  1906. 

2.  ANTEDON  VERSICOLOR,  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  a  low  disk,  bearing  20-25  marginal  cirri;  these  are 
moderatel}"  stout,  23  mm.  long,  composed  of  45  short,  squarish  joints, 
overlapping  somewhat,  and  bearing  spines  distally. 

First  radials  visible  as  triangles  in  the  interradial  areas,  the  distal 
apices  much  produced;  the  sutures  between  the  first  radials  are  dis- 
tinctly \'isible;  second  radials  oblong,  between  three  and  four  times  as 
wide  as  high,  bluntly  carinate,  in  apposition  basally,  free  distally; 
axillaries  widely  pentagonal,  twice  as  wide  as  high,  bluntly  carinate 
in  their  posterior  half,  wide!}'  separated;  distichals  like  the  two  outer 
radials,  but  rather  higher  in  proportion.  Twenty  arms  9(»  mm.  long 
with  130  brachials,  the  first  5  irregularl}"  oblong,  then  quadrate  to  the 
twelfth,  after  which  they  become  triangular,  about  as  high  as  wide, 
the  long  outer  side  convex  and  bearing  the  pinnule  at  its  distal  apex; 
brachials  strongly  overlapping,  slightly  compressed  and  slightly  cari- 
nate; first  syzj'gy  in  the  third  brachial,  another  about  the  eighteenth, 
and  others  distally  at  intervals  of  one,  two,  or  three  joints. 

First  pituiule  about  7  nuu.  long,  slender,  delicate,  and  flexible,  with 
30  joints,  the  first  enormously"  expanded,  the  second  very  broad  and 
trapezoidal,  the  others  very  small  and  square;  second  pinnule  10  nnu. 
long,  stiff'  and  spinelike,  with  25  joints,  the  first  two  much  enlarged, 
the  remainder  elongated;  third  pinnule  13  nun.  long,  resembling  the 
second,  but  with  the  joints  more  elongate;  fourth  similar,  but  slightly 
shorter;  the  following  pinnules  decrease  in  length  to  about  the  ninth, 
which  is  7  mm.  long  with  15  joints,  the  first  two  broad,  the  others 
elongated,  after  which  there  is  a  slight  increase  in  length  distally;  the 
distal  expansion  of  the  first  joint  is  marked  on  all  the  pinnules,  but 
less  so  distally;  on  most  of  the  pinnules  after  the  fifth  it  rises  into  a 
low  tubercle. 

Color  in  life  rich,  deep  purplish  brown,  the  basal  portion  of  the 
arms  with  a  row  of  lateral  3"ellow  spots;  rays  yellow,  transversely 
banded  with  purplish  brown;  cirri  purplish  brown,  with  the  distal 
half  yellow;  disk  purplish  brown,  marbled  with  yellow  in  the  inter- 
ambulacral  areas. 


Type.—Q?it.  No.  22620,  U.S.N.M.;  from  Alhatrosi^  station  No.  4884; 
32°  32'  00"  north  latitude,  129°  30'  45"  east  longitude  (Eastern  Sea); 
53  fathoms;  August  8,  1906. 

3.  ANTEDON   PROPINQUA,  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  discoidal.  bearing  25  marginal  cirri  in  two  alternate 
rows;  cirri  25  mm.  long,  moderately  slender,  with  45  joints,  the  basal 
half  of  which  are  rather  longer  than  wide,  the  distal  half  bearing- 
strong  dorsal  spines. 

First  radials  visible  as  a  low  interradial  triangle  with  no  apparent 
median  suture;  second  radials  low  and  wide,  their  lateral  edges  pro- 
duced into  tlangelike  marginal  processes  which  meet  those  of  the 
adjacent  second  radials,  so  that  the  second  radials  are  all  in  apposition 
for  their  entire  length;  axillaries  pentagonal,  with  the  lateral  edges 
produced,  but  entirely  free;  the  two  distichals  resemble  the  two  distal 
radials,  but  their  sides  are  rounded  without  lateral  processes,  and 
they  are  proportionately  higher.  Twenty  arms,  70  nmi.  long,  with 
about  120  joints,  of  which  the  basal  3  are  roughly  oblong,  then 
quadrate  to  the  tenth  or  eleventh,  then  triangular,  about  as  long  as 
wide;  the  long  sides  of  all  are  convex,  bearing  the  pinnule  at  the 
distal  apex. 

The  first  pinnule  is  very  small,  delicate,  and  flexible,  with  2i»  joints, 
the  lirst  enoi-mously  eidarged,  the  second  less  than  half  as  large,  the 
remainder  very  small  and  squarish;  the  second  pinnule  is  much  longer 
and  stouter,  stiff  and  rod-like,  with  about  15  joints,  the  first  short  and 
broad,  the  second  sijuarish,  the  remainder  much  elongated;  the  third 
pinnule  is  even  longer  and  stifi'er,  after  which  the  pinnules  gradually 
decrease  to  about  the  eighth,  then  increase  very  slightly  distally. 

Color  in  life  reddish  and  purplish  brown  marbled  with  light  yellow, 
the  dark  and  the  light  in  about  equal  proportions;  rays  and  lower 
brachials  purple,  with  a  medium  line  of  white;  two  or  three  areas  of 
white  with  purple  spots  distally  on  the  arms. 

Type.— Q2it.  No.  22621,  U.S.N.M.;  from  Albatross  station  No.  4895; 
32°  33'  10"  north  latitude,  128°  32'  10"  east  longitude  (Eastern  Sea);  95 
fathoms;  August  9,  1906. 

4.  ANTEDON    SEPARATA,   new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  rounded-discoidal,  bearing  about  15  cirri  in  two  irreg- 
ular rows;  these  are  15  nmi.  long,  with  35  joints,  of  which  about  one- 
half  are  slightly  longer  than  wide  and  the  distal  two-thirds  bear  dorsal 

First  radials  narrow  and  band-like;  second  radials  short,  oblong; 
axillaries  low  and  wide,  pentagonal;  the  two  last  usually  have  the  lat- 
eral edges  more  or  less  produced  and  Hangelike  and   in  apposition. 

134  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxm. 

Seven  of  the  specimens  have  10  arms  only,  two  have  11,  and  one  has 
12;  arms  55  mm.  long,  with  85  brachials,  the  first  5  quadrate,  then 
triangular  about  as  long  as  wide,  becoming  quadrate  and  elongate 
distal]}^;  the  long  sides  of  the  joints  are  convex,  and  bear  the  pinnules 
in  the  distal  angles. 

First  pinnule  small,  slender,  and  delicate,  the  first  two  joints  greatly 
enlarged,  the  others  small  and  squarish;  second  pinnule  much  longer 
with  elongated  joints,  the  pinnules  from  then  on  remaining  very 
uniform  to  the  end  of  the  arm,  the  second  and  third  being  onh^  ver}' 
slightly"  or  not  at  all  longer  than  the  succeeding. 

Color  in  life  bright  yellow,  banded  with  purple;  lower  brachials 
purple;  cirri  deep  purple,  or  purple  banded  with  white. 

Type.—C^i.  No.  22622,  U.S.N.M.;  ivom  Allatross  station.  No.  4893; 
32°  32'  00"  north  latitude,  128°  32'  50"  east  longitude  (Eastern  Sea) ; 
106  fathoms;  August  9,  1906. 

5.  ANTEDON   FLAVOPURPUREA,  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  low-hemispherical,  the  pole  somewhat  flattened,  bear- 
ing about  20  marginal  cirri  in  two  irregular  rows;  the  cirri  are  15  mm. 
long  and  have  30  rather  stout  joints,  the  first  10  slightl}^  longer  than 
wide,  the  others  short;  all  the  joints  are  slightly  compressed  and  have 
expanded  and  overlapping  distal  edges,  and  the  distal  two-thirds  are 
provided  with  a  dorsal  spine,  which  becomes  more  prominent  toward 
the  tip;  penultimate  joint  and  terminal  claw  rather  small. 

First  i-adials  just  visible,  not  produced  anteriorly;  second  radials 
oblong,  terminating  laterally  in  a  tubercle,  and  furnished  with  a  strong 
median  keel;  axillary  triangular,  about  twice  as  wide  as  high,  with  a 
median  tubercle  just  forward  of  the  center,  continued  backward  in  a 
keel,  corresponding  with  the  keel  on  the  second  radial;  surface  of 
second  radial  and  axillar}^  rough,  and  furnished  with  a  few  small  blunt 
tubercles.  Two  articulated  distichals,  the  first  irregular!}^  oblong, 
slightl}'  raised  in  the  center,  furnished  exteriorly  with  a  broad  lateral 
flange,  the  axillary  triangular,  a  low  tubercle  on  its  lower  margin. 
Usual]}'  20  arms  of  aV)Out  120  joints,  the  first  5  irregularly  oblong, 
then  triangular  to  about  the  middle  of  the  arm,  about  as  high  as  wide, 
then  becoming  quadrate;  all  the  brachials  have  overlapping  edges,  the 
lower  ones  furnished  with  a  row  of  tine  sharp  teeth.  A  syzygy  in  the 
third  brachial,  another  about  the  fourteenth,  and  others  at  intervals 
of  about  4  joints. 

The  first  pinnule  is  small,  slender,  and  delicate,  4  nun.  long,  with  15 
joints,  the  first  2  disproportionately  large,  the  others  longer  than 
wide;  second  i)innule  6  mm.  long,  with  15  joints,  the  first  2  enlarged, 
the  rest  elongate;  the  third  pinnule  is  7  mm.  long  and  resembles  the 
second.  The  following  pinnules  decrease  gradually  in  length  to  the 
seventh  or  eighth,  which  are  4.5  mm.  long,  with  about  10  joints,  then 


gradualh"  increase  distal ly,  where  they  are  6  or  T  mm.  long,  with  12-15 
joints.  The  pinnules  from  about  the  tenth  to  the  twenty-fourth  brach- 
ials have  the  first  5  or  6  joints  somewhat,  though  not  greatly,  expanded. 

Color  in  life,  lavender,  the  arms  crossed  })y  bands  of  dull  yellow; 
cirri  yellow;  lower  pinnules  yellow,  banded  at  the  junction  of  alter- 
nate joints  with  purple.  Other  specimens  are  similar,  but  the  rays 
and  centro-dorsal  orange,  the  cirri  purple.  Another  type  of  coloration 
is:  raj'^s  and  centro-dorsal  orange,  the  arms  clear  yellow,  sometimes 
faintly  blotched  with  light  purple;  cirri  deep  purple,  banded  with 

Tijjje.—C^L  No.  22623,  U.S.N.M.;  ivomAlhatr cm Bi^mon,  No.  1935; 
80°  57'  20"  north  latitude,  130°  35'  10"  east  longitude  (off  Kagoshima 
Gulf);  103  fathoms;  August  16,  1906. 

6.   ANTEDON   CALLISTA,   new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  short-columnar,  bearing  about  30  cirri  in  two  rows; 
these  are  23  mm.  long,  slender,  with  about  10  joints,  most  of  which 
are  longer  than  wide,  the  lower  ones  very  nuich  so:  the  distal  two- 
thirds  bear  dorsal  spines. 

First  radials  comparatively  large  from  one-half  to  nearly  the  whole 
height  of  the  second  radials  in  the  median  line,  not  produced  interra- 
dially,  in  apposition  all  around,  the  sutures  almost  obsolete;  second 
radials  low  and  wide,  about  four  times  as  broad  as  long,  roughly 
oblong,  the  edges  in  apposition  laterally;  axillaries  triangular  or  low 
pentagonal,  about  twice  as  wide  as  high;  radials  and  axillaries  bluntl}^ 
carinate;  distichals  (when  present)  2,  like  the  two  outer  radials,  but 
the  first  distichal  has  a  broad  lateral  flange  on  its  outer  side.  Fifteen 
arms  70  mm.  long,  the  first  two  l)rachials  oblong,  then  quadrate  to  the 
eighth,  then  triangular,  about  as  long  as  wide;  the  brachials  in  the 
proximal  half  of  the  arm  are  somewhat  tuberculai"  syzygies  in  the 
third  l)rachial,  the  eighth  to  twelfth  (usually  the  eighth),  and  distally 
at  intervals  of  2  or  3  joints. 

First  pinnule  5  mm.  long,  very  slender  and  delicate,  the  first  two 
joints  greatly  expanded,  the  remainder  short  and  squarish;  second  ]5in- 
nule  6  or  7  mm.  long,  with  20  joints,  the  first  expanded,  the  next  two 
short,  the  remainder  elongated.  The  following  pinnules  decrease  very 
slightly  in  length  as  far  as  the  basal  third  of  the  arm,  then  increase 
very  slightly  distally.  The  expansion  of  the  proximal  pinnule  joints 
is  not  marked  after  the  first  three. 

Color  in  life,  white,  a  broad  band  of  deep  purple  in  the  basal  third 
of  the  arm,  and  two  or  three  narrower  bands  distally. 

Type.—OAi.  No.  22624,  U.S.N.M.;  from  Alhatr<m  si-Aiion,  No.  1903; 
32°  31'  10"  north  latitude,  128°  33'  20"  east  longitude  ^Eastern  Sea); 
139-107  fathoms;  August  10,  1906. 

136  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         tol.  xxxiii. 

7.  ANTEDON  ANTHUS,  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  long-  and  columnar,  terminating  in  a  truncated  cone 
with  a  shallow  central  crater  having  a  coarsely  papillose  border  and 
5  low  interradial  ridg-es.  The  cirri  are  very  regularly  arranged  in  10 
vertical  rows,  usually  of  2  each;  the  vertical  rows  are  in  pairs,  each 
pair  separated  from  its  neighbors  by  a  broad  vertical  line  or  shallow 
groove,  radial  in  position.  The  cirri  are  20  in  number,  60  mm.  long, 
with  80  joints  of  fairly  uniform  width,  but  becoming  rather  narrower 
distally.  The  first  6  or  T  joints  bear  dorsal  spines;  the  following 
joints  are  smooth  up  to  about  the  twentieth,  where  spines  begin  again 
to  develop,  becoming  prominent  distall}'  The  first  7  or  8  joints  are 
wider  than  long,  then  squarish  or  slightly  longer  than  wide  to  about 
the  twentieth,  then  gradually  becoming  shorter  distally. 

The  ends  of  the  basal  rays  are  just  visible  as  small  tubercles  at  the 
base  of  the  upper  pair  of  cirri  in  each  interradial  area.  The  radials 
resemble  those  of  Antedon  longicirra^  but  the  axillaries  are  shorter. 
The  radials  and  first  brachials  are  rounded,  but  not  very  convex, 
and  there  is  no  central  tubercle  as  described  in  A.  longicirra  nor 
median  keel  as  in  A.  macropoda.  The  first  7  brachials  are  short 
and  oblong,  the  following  triangular,  wider  than  high,  after  the  for- 
tieth becoming  compressed  and  carinate  and  developing  a  forward 
projecting  dorsal  spine.  The  radials  and  first  10  brachials  have 
flattened  sides.  Distichals  2,  like  the  2  outer  radials.  A  syzygy  in 
the  third  (in  one  case  the  fourth)  brachial,  again  in  the  eighth-four- 
teenth, and  distally  at  intervals  of  2-5  (usually  2)  joints.  The  arms 
are  13  in  number,  80  mm.  long. 

First  pinnule  comparatively  short,  with  0  joints,  stout  basally, 
tapering  to  a  point.  Second  pinnule  more  than  half  as  long  again, 
with  12  joints;  third  pinnule  about  the  same,  or  slightly  shorter;  the 
next  2  or  3  are  very  slightly  shorter,  the  length  then  increasing  dis- 
tally. All  the  pinnules  are  flattened  on  their  outer  sides,  with  their 
distal  edges  sharply  carinate. 

Color  in  life,  dull  brownish  yellow,  the  cirri  almost  white. 

Type.-^C^t.  No.  22625,  U..S.N.M.;  from  Albatross  station  No.  4936; 
30°  54'  40"  north  latitude,  130°  37'  30"  east  longitude  (off  Kagoshima 
Gulf);  103  fathoms;  August  16,  1906. 

8.  ANTEDON   MACROPODA,  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  columnar,  the  terminal  portion  conical,  ending  in  a 
rosette  of  5  tubercles,  radiall}"  situated.  Cirri  about  15  in  number, 
somewhat  longer  than  the  arms,  100  mm.  in  length,  situated  in  10  rows 
very  close  together,  not  separated  ofl'  into  pairs,  as  in  Antedon 
anthus^  one,  sometimes  two,  in  each  row;  cirri  with  100-120  joints, 
those  in  the  proximal  half  but  slightly,  if  any,  longer  than  wide,  those 


in  the  distal  half  short;  the  cirri  are  broadest  in  the  distal  third;  ter- 
minal claw  very  small;  there  are  no  dorsal  spines  on  the  proximal 
joints,  and  the  distal  dorsal  spines  are  not  so  prominent  as  in 
A.  anthus. 

Basals  visible  as  a  more  or  less  prominent  interradial  tubercle. 

First  radials  short;  second  i-adials  rather  large;  axillaries  triangular 
or  pentagonal,  rather  low;  the  radials  are  carinate,  usually  rather 
strongly;  distichals  (when  present)  2,  resembling  the  two  outer  radials, 
but  rather  higher  in  proportion  to  their  width.  Ten  to  twelve  arms, 
95  mm.  long,  of  more  than  100  joints,  at  first  oblong,  rather  short, 
becoming  triangular,  wider  than  long  after  about  the  ninth,  and  about 
the  middle  of  the  arm  becoming  laterally  compressed  and  developing 
strong  forward-projecting  median  spines.  The  last  four  or  five  joints 
are  very  short,  high,  and  compressed,  bear  no  pinnules,  and  are  strongly 
curved  inward,  giving  the  appearance  of  the  arm  having  been  broken 
off  at  the  tip,  as  the  distal  pinnules  exceed  the  arm  joints  by  3  or  1  mm. 
A  syzygy  in  the  third  brachial,  another  in  the  ninth-eleventh,  and 
others  distally  at  intervals  of  1  or  5  joints. 

The  pinnules  are  styliform  and  very  stiff,  like  those  of  ^1.  onthu!^; 
the  first  pinnule  consists  of  13  joints,  and  is  only  slightly,  when  at  all, 
shorter  than  the  second,  which  consi.sts  of  10.  The  remaining  pinnules 
are  very  uniform  in  length,  and  have  about  15  joints;  all  are  strongly 

Color  in  life  light  brownish-yellow,  cirri  white. 

Type.— C^t.  No.  22626,  U.S.N.M.;  from  Albatross  station  No.  4935; 
30°  57'  20"  north  latitude,  130°  35'  10"  east  longitude  (off  Kagoshima 
Gulf);  103  fathoms;  August  16,  1906. 

g.   ANTEDON    HANA,"  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  small,  hemispherical,  divided  by  5  interradial  lines 
into  trapezoidal  areas,  each  with  2  rows  of  cirri  of  2  each,  making  20 
in  all.  Cirri  45  mm.  long,  slender  and  much  compressed,  with  65-75 
short  joints,  basally  slightl}^  longer  than  wid(\  becoming  wider  than 
long  after  about  the  twenty-fifth,  the  joints  distally  developing  sharp 
dorsal  spines. 

First  radials  crescentic,  ver}^  narrow,  with  a  fringe  of  teeth  along 
the  superior  liorder;  second  radials  narrow,  very  deeply  incised  by  the 
axillaries,  and  furnished  with  teeth  along  their  entire  edge;  axillaries 
slightly  wider  than  long,  with  a  high  median  keel  in  the  posterior  half. 
Ten  arms,  60  mm.  long,  with  about  100  joints,  the  first  8  roughl}^ 
oblong  with  strong  lateral  processes  and  a  blunt  median  keel,  overlap- 
ping in  a  short  spine  anteriorly,  the  succeeding  joints  quadrate,  much 
compressed,  with  a  shai'p  median  keel  and  long  overlapping  spine. 

«  From  the  Japanese  word  hana,  signifying  flower. 

138  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

First  pinnule  the  longest,  about  5  mm.  long  with  8-10  stout  squarish 
joints,  the  first  much  expanded;  following  pinnules  decrease  in  length 
to  the  lifth,  after  which  they  gradually  increase  distally,  becoming 
much  more  slender,  reaching  a  length  of  8  mm.  with  15-18  joints. 
The  radials,  first  3  or  1  brachials  (including  the  first  two  pinnules),  are 
flattened  laterally. 

Color  in  life  bright  yellow,  sometimes  banded  with  white;  cirri 
white,  with  a  few  narrow  bands  of  yellow. 

2}/j>d.— Cat.  No.  22632,  U.S.N.M.;  from  Albatross  station  No.  4903; 
32^  31'  10"  north  latitude,  128°  33'  20"  east  longitude  (Eastern  Sea); 
139-107  fathoms;  August  10,  1906. 

lo.   ANTEDON   VILLOSA,  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  bluntly  conical,  the  cirri  arranged  in  15  vertical  rows, 

3  in  each  interradius,  2  or  3  cirri  in  each  row,  making  10-15  in  all; 
the  cirri  about  the  basal  part  of  the  centro-dorsal  are  33  mm.  long 
with  50  joints,  the  fourth-eleventh  longer  than  wide,  the  remainder 
rather  short;  all  but  the  basal  6  or  7  bear  dorsal  spines,  which  become 
more  prominent  distally;  the  apical  cirri  are  usually  somewhat  shorter 
and  stouter,  with  30-40  joints;  the  bare  apical  portion  of  the  centro- 
dorsal  has  5  interradial  ridges,  and  is  thickly  covered  with  fine  hair-like 

The  basals  are  visible  as  small  tubercles  at  the  angles  of  the  calyx; 
first  radials  just  visible,  very  narrow  and  crescentic;  second  radials 
short,  about  three  times  as  wide  as  high;  axillaries  widely  pentagonal, 
and  wider  than  high.  Ten  (in  one  example  eleven,  bidistichate)  arms 
95  mm.  long,  with  90-110  joints,  the  first  10  oblong,  then  quadrate, 
becoming  more  elongate  distall}-;  a  syzj^gy  in  the  third  brachial, 
another  about  the  sixteenth  or  eighteenth,  and  others  distally  at  inter- 
vals of  4-8  joints. 

First  pinnule  10  mm.  long,  very  stout,  with  20  short  joints,  tapering 
gradually  from  the  base  to  the  tip,  and  flattened  on  the  outer  side; 
second  pinnule  7  mm.  long,  with  15  joints,  much  more  slender  than  the 
first;  the  following  pinnules  about  6  mm.  long,  with  13  or  14  joints; 
distal  pinnules  14  mm.  long,  stout,  carinate,  with  about  22  joints,  the 
basal  half  of  which  are  squarish,  the  rest  elongate;  pinnule  ambulacra 
plated.  The  radials  and  4  or  5  lower  brachials  are  thickly  set  with 
fine  hair-like  spines;  pinnule  joints  strongly  overlapping  and  with  the 
distal  edges  set  with  spines;  arm  joints  with  both  the  proximal  and 
distal  edges  turned  outward  and  furnished  with  spines. 

Color  in  life  bright  yellow,  the  centro-dorsal,  radials,  and   lower 

4  or  5  brachials  dark  greenish;  cirri  j^ellow. 

Type.—Q^X.  No.  22630,  U.S.N.M.;  from  Alhatross  station  No.  4780; 
52^  01'  00"  north  latitude,  174"  39'  00"  east  longitude  (western  Bering 
Sea);  1,046  fathoms;  June  7,  1906. 


II.  ANTEDON   PUBESCENS,  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  rather  small,  blimtl}-  conical,  with  10  vertical  rows  of 
cirrus  sockets,  usually  8  in  a  row;  cirri  25  to  30  in  number,  slender, 
30  mm.  long,  with  50  to  55  joints,  the  basal  10  or  12  longer  than  wide, 
distalh"  developing  rather  low  dorsal  spines. 

Basals  and  first  radials  just  visible  in  the  angles  of  the  cal3"x,  the 
former  as  small  tubercles;  second  i-adials  short  and  band-like,  sharply 
carinate,  with  raised  and  serrate  edges;  axillaries  low  and  wide,  a 
sharp  keel  in  the  posterior  half.  Ten  arms,  80  mm.  long,  the  first  6 
or  7  brachials  oblong,  the  rest  quadrate,  becoming  elongate  distally; 
syzygies  in  the  third  l)rachials,  again  about  the  fourteenth,  and  distall}^ 
at  intervals  of  2,  3,  or  4  joints. 

First  pinnule  7  mm.  long,  with  21  or  more  short  joints,  the  basal  4 
or  5  of  which  are  produced  dorsally  into  a  broad  thin  keel;  all  the 
joints  have  their  edges  armed  with  bunches  of  very  fine  spines;  second 
pinnule  5  mm.  long,  with  10  joints,  the  basal  3  or  4  of  which  have  a 
thin  dorsal  keel  which,  however,  is  not  nearly  so  wide  as  that  on  the 
first  pinnule;  the  first  and  second  pinnules  are  somewhat  flattened 
laterally;  the  three  following  pinnules  are  in  general  similar  to  the 
second,  but  more  slender;  the  next  3  or  -l  pairs  have  the  third  to 
sixth  joints  laterally  expanded,  covering  the  genital  glands,  after  which 
the  pinnules  become  slender  and  more  elongated,  reaching  a  length 
of  8  nun.  with  15  joints. 

The  radials  and  lower  brachials  are  covered  with  numerous  and 
thick-set  very  fine  spines,  which  become  less  apparent  after  about 
the  tenth  brachial,  after  which  the  joints  develop  an  overlapping 
border  of  very  fine  teeth,  and  longitudinal  striations,  which  last,  on 
the  distal  brachials,  become  more  pronounced,  and  break  up  on  the 
outer  portion  of  the  joints  into  numerous  fine  spines. 

Color  in  life,  light  yellow. 

Ti/jje.—Csit  No.  22631,  U.S.N.M.;  from  .1M./?'/yav.v  station  No.  4919; 
30^  34'  00"  north  latitude,  129°  19'  30"  east  longitude  (Eastern  Sea); 
440  fathoms;  August  13,  1906. 

12.  ANTEDON  HEPBURNIANA/'  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  low-hemispherical  with  a  rough  dorsal  pole,  but 
without  interradial  processes,  bearing  about  10  marginal  cirri;  these 
are  7  mm.  long,  usually  in  a  single  row,  and  consist  of  about  10  stout 
joints  which  do  not  develop  a  dorsal  spine. 

Basals  visible  as  interradial  tubercles. 

First  radials  short  and  band-like,  with  curved  borders,  the  lateral 
edges  raised  into  a  blunt  tubercle;  second  radials  longer,  about  four 

a  I  take  great  pleasure  in  dedicating  this  species  to  Lieut.  Arthur  J.Hepburn, 
U.  S.  N.,  to  whom  is  largely  due  the  success  attending  the  recent  cruise  of  the 
Albatross  in  the  north  Pacific. 

140  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

times  as  wide  as  high,  and  bluntly  carinate;  axillaries  low  and  wide, 
about  three  times  as  wide  as  high,  with  a  blunt  median  keel;  the 
radials  and  first  4  or  5  brachials  have  wall-like  sides.  Ten  arms,  45 
mm.  long,  the  tirst  brachials  oblong  with  a  blunt  median  keel,  becom- 
ing quadrate  after  the  hftli,  and  more  elongate  toward  the  end  of  the 
arms;  a  syzygy  in  the  third  brachial,  another  about  the  tenth,  and 
distall}'  at  intervals  of  3  or  4  joints. 

First  pinnule  2.5  mm.  long,  with  10  to  13  short  joints,  the  first  4  or  5 
consideral)ly  wider  than  the  others;  the  pinnule  on  the  third  brachial 
is  similar,  but  slightly  shorter,  with  the  basal  joints  not  so  much 
enlarged;  the  second  pinnule  (fourth  brachial)  is  2  mm.  long,  with  6 
joints,  of  which  the  third  and  fourth  are  laterally  greatl}'  expanded; 
the  next  5  pinnules  are  similar,  with  6  or  7  joints,  and  usualh"  the 
third  and  fourth,  sometimes  the  third,  fourth,  and  fifth,  greatly 
expanded  laterally;  distally  the  pinnules  l)ecome  uniformly  tapering 
and  slender,  reaching  3.5  mm.  in  length,  with  about  a  dozen  joints 
but  little  longer  than  wide. 

Color  in  life,  bright  3'ellow. 

Type.— Cat.  No.  22635,  U.S.N.M.;  from  Alhafross  station  No.  4890; 
32"  2C'  30"  north  latitude,  128^  36'  30"  east  longitude  (Eastern  Sea); 
135  fathoms;  August  9,  1906. 

This  species  is  related  to  Antedon  incisa  Carpenter,  but  differs 
markedly  in  the  character  of  the  pinnules  and  cirri,  and  in  the 
arrangement  of  the  latter  on  the  centro-dorsal. 

13.   ANTEDON   LATA,  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  a  thick  disk,  bearing  about  20  rol)ust  cirri  in  two 
marginal  rows;  the  cirri  are  21  mm.  long  and  have  15  short  and  stout 
joints,  of  which  the  sixth  and  seventh  are  the  longest,  and  are  slightly 
longer  than  wide;  the  distal  joints  do  not  bear  spines,  but  oxerlap 
somewhat  dorsally. 

First  radials  concealed;  second  radials  and  axillaries  short  and  wide, 
the  edges  crenulate,  a  large  blunt  tubercle  occupying  the  center  of 
each,  with  several  other  smaller  bhuit  tubercles  about  the  edges;  the 
radials  and  first  5  or  6  brachials  are  wall-sided  and  in  close  apposition. 
Ten  arms,  115  mm,  in  length,  the  first  two  brachials  very  irreg'ularly 
oblong  with  large  median  tubercles  and  crenulated  edges;  the  third 
brachial  is  more  regularly  ol)long,  the  hypozygal  with  a  row  of  4  or  5 
small  blunt  tubercles;  the  following  7  brachials  are  irregularly  quad- 
rate, their  surfaces  uneven,  but  not  tubercular;  after  the  tenth  the 
brachials  become  triangular,  slightly  wider  than  high,  the  edges  over- 
lapping somewhat,  this  condition  l)ecoming  more  prominent  distally, 
where  the  joints  become  again  quadrate;  S3^zygies  in  the  third  bra- 
chials, again  about  the  twelfth,  and  distall}^  at  intervals  of  7  to  10 


The  first  pinnules  are  10  mm.  long-,  comparatively  slender,  with 
about  10  short  joints,  the  basal  8  or  10  flattened  exteriorly  and  rather 
broad;  the  pinnule  tapers  rather  gradually  from  the  base  to  the  tip; 
the  second  pinnule  is  much  shorter  than  the  tirst  and  has  about  23 
joints,  of  which  the  proximal  8  or  9  are  much  expanded  laterally;  the 
third  pinnule  like  the  second,  but  somewhat  shorter,  the  C  basal  joints 
even  more  expanded,  reaching  a  maximum  on  the  third  or  fourth, 
then  tapering  toward  the  tip;  following  pinnules  to  the  fiftieth  bra- 
chial similar,  but  the  number  of  joints  increasing  from  12  on  the 
fourth  pinnule  (eighth  brachial)  to  20  on  the  pinnule  on  the  fiftieth 
brachial;  as  the  great  lateral  ex])ansion  is  always  confined  to  the  first 

6  joints  (reaching  a  maximum  on  the  third  or  fourth,  then  gradually 
decreasing  to  the  sixth,  which,  distally,  is  of  normal  diameter)  it 
necessarily  follows  that  the  expanded  joints  covering  the  genital 
glands  progressivel}'  occupy  less  and  less  of  the  pinnule;  while  in  the 
lower  they  take  up  most  of  its  length*  in  that  on  the  fiftieth  brachial 
they  occupy  barely  the  proximal  thii'd;  distally  the  pinnules  are  11 
mm.  long,  slender,  with  about  20  elongated  joints.  The  ambulacra 
are  well  plated. 

Color  in  life,  3'ellowish  })rown. 

Type. — Cat.  No.  22028,  U.S.N.M.;  from  Albatross  station  No.  1918; 
30^  22'  00"  north  latitude,  129^^  08'  30"  east  longitude  (Eastern  Sea); 
361  fathoms;  August  13,  1906. 

14.  ANTEDON   SCALARIS,   new  species. 

Centi'o-dorsal  short-columnar,  terminating  in  a  stellate  figure  with 
rounded  angles  and  elevated  center,  bearing  about  its  edges  numerous 
small  knoblike  tubercles,  one  at  the  base  of  each  of  the  apical  cirri. 
Cirri  stout,  20  mm.  long,  with  16  joints,  about  20  in  number,  irregu- 
larly situated  in  two  or  three  rows,  with  all  of  the  joints  longer  than 
wide,  not  bearing  dorsal  spines. 

First  radials  concealed;  second  radials  hemispherical,  the  curved  side 
down;  axillary  with  the  proximal  border  well  rounded,  almost  a 
semicircle;  the  last  two  joints  have  their  lateral  and  posterior  borders 
produced  into  a  thin  flange;  on  one  of  the  rays  in  the  type  there  is  a 
fourth  radial,  a  little  more  than  half  the  size  of  the  second,  interpo- 
lated between  the  second  radial  and  the  axillary.  Ten  arms  110  mm. 
long,  the  first  two  brachials  short,  their  lateral  edges  produced,  the 
following  to  the  eighth  irregularly  quadrate,  then  triangular,  as  long 
or  rather  longer  than  wide,  becoming  quadrate  at  the  tips  of  the  arms; 
a  syzygy  in  the  third  brachial,  another  in  the  eighth-eleventh,  and  dis- 
tally at  intervals  of  2  or  3  joints. 

First  pinnule  7  mm.  long,  slender,  tapering,  and  almost  flagellate, 
with  22  squarish  joints;  second  pinnule  shorter  with  15  joints,  the  first 

7  short  and  broad,  the  others  very  small;  following  pinnules  to  the 

142  rilOCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

eighth  or  ninth  with  10  joints,  of  which  the  third-seventh  are  bluntly 
keeled  and  much  expanded  dorso-ventrally,  and  bear  a  large  genital 
gland,  protected  with  large  plates;  the  terminal  joints  of  these  pin- 
nules are  minute,  the  basal  not  especially  stout;  the  terminal  pinnules 
are  10  mm.  long,  with  15  moderately  elongated  joints,  the  ambulacra 
well  plated. 

Color  in  life  yellowish  brown. 

7^/^^^. —Cat.  No.  22629,  U.S.N.M.;  from  Alhatross  station  No. 
4918;  30°  22'  00"  north  latitude,  129°  08'  30"  east  longitude  (Eastern 
Sea);  361  fathoms;  August  13,  1906. 

15.  ANTEDON    GARRETTIANA,«  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  subconical,  Ijearing  about  15  closely  set  cirri,  roughly 
divisible  into  5  radial  clusters,  indicated  by  slight  dorsal  prolongations 
of  the  basals;  cirri  20  mm.  long,  with  16  joints,  all  somewhat  longer 
than  wide,  sharply  carinate  dorsally,  but  without  dorsal  spines. 

Basals  prominent,  appearing  as  tubercles  between  (and  below)  the 
first  radials. 

First  radials  short,  smooth,  with  a  strong,  rounded  dorsal  keel; 
second  radials  much  longer,  between  two  and  three  times  as  wide  as 
high,  also  with  a  strong  rounded  median  keel;  axillaries  widely  pen- 
tagonal, about  twice  as  wide  as  high,  with  a  rounded  keel  extending 
from  the  base  to  the  apex  of  the  pentagon;  radials  and  first  3  brachials 
in  close  contact  all  around,  and  with  sharply  flattened  sides.  Eleven 
arms,  65  mm.  long,  bidistichate;  first  9  brachials  discoidal,  the  first  with 
a  strong  rounded  keel,  which  soon  becomes  inconspicuous  and  disap- 
pears altogether  on  the  eighth;  succeeding  brachials  quadrate,  becom- 
ing elongate  toward  the  end  of  the  arms;  a  syzygy  in  the  third  brachial, 
another  about  the  thirteenth,  and  distally  at  intervals  of  6-10  joints. 

First  pinnule  slightly  the  longest,  6  mm.  long,  with  20  nearly  square 
joints,  the  first  but  little  wider  than  the  others,  which  taper  regularly 
to  a  point;  the  following  pinnules  gradually  decrease  in  length  to  about 
the  seventeenth  brachial,  which  has  a  very  short  pinnule,  then  increase 
again  distally,  whore  the  pinnules  are  6  mm.  long,  moderately  slender, 
with  15  joints. 

Color  in  life,  dull  yellowish  white. 

Tyj)e.—Q?it.  No.  22633,  U.S.N.M.;  ivom  Alhatross  station  No.  4894; 
32°  33'  00"  north  latitude,  128°  32'  10"  east  longitude  (Eastern  Sea); 
95  fathoms;  August  9,  1906. 

This  species  comes  nearest  to  A.  acideaia  Carpenter,  from  which, 
however,  it  is  readily  distinguished  by  the  presence  of  prominent 
basals,  the  much  greater  proportionate  length  of  the  radials,  and  the 
obsolete  and  faintly  indicated  carination  of  the  lower  brachials. 

a  For  the  late  Lieut. -Commander  Leroy  M.  Garrett,  U.  S.  N.,  the  commanding 
officer  of  the  Albatross  during  the  recent  cruise. 


i6.  ANTEDON   ORION,  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  a  tliick  disk,  bearing-  9-25  (usually  about  12-15) 
smooth  cirri,  irregularly  disposed  in  one  or  two  rows  about  the  mar- 
gin. The  cirri  are  20  mm.  long,  with  15-25  joints,  the  distal  bearing 
low  spines.  The  cirri  are  of  peculiar  shape;  the  tirst  5-7  joints  are 
large  and  stout,  rounded,  the  first  3  very  short  and  wide,  the  others 
longer  than  wide;  the  remaining-  joints  are  conspicuously  less  in  diam- 
eter, compressed,  and  short;  moreover,  the  stout  basal  joints  are  dull 
greenish  in  color,  and  have  a  dull  surface;  the  slender  distal  joints  are 
light  yellow  in  color,  with  a  highly  polished  surface;  the  transition 
takes  place  on  a  joint  shaped  like  a  truncated  cone,  the  distal  portion 
encircled  b}^  a  raised  and  highly  polished  collar;  this  joint  is  usually 
darker  in  color  than  those  preceding-  it,  and,  like  them,  has  a  dull 
surface,  except  for  the  terminal  collar.  In  most  cases  it  is  very 

The  disk  is  moderately  but  sometimes  rather  scantily  plated;  the 
ambulacra  are  always  well  plated. 

First  radials  usually  concealed;  second  radials  short  and  bandlike, 
bluntly  carinate,  the  edg-es  rough;  axillaries  triangular  or  widely  pen- 
tagonal, always  much  Vvdder  than  high,  the  surface  rugose.  Distichals 
two,  the  first  very  short,  the  axillary  about  as  wide  as  high,  almost 
triangular.  Ten  to  eighteen  arms,  110  mm.  long;  first  brachials  very 
short  and  bandlike;  the  succeeding  brachials  to  the  tenth  or  twelfth 
irregularly  oblong  or  slightly  quadrate,  short,  and  slightl}"  tubercu- 
lar; following  brachials  more  distinctly  quadrate,  soon  becoming  tri- 
angular, the  distal  edges  abruptl}^  turned  outward,  this  condition 
becoming  marked  after  the  tenth,  at  which  point  projections  in  the 
produced  distal  edge  on  alternate  sides  of  the  arm  begin  to  appear, 
which  distally  draw  nearer  and  nearer  in  the  median  line,  resulting, 
after  the  thirtieth  brachial,  in  a  strong  median  carination,  produced 
distally  into  overlapping  spines,  resembling  those  in  Anfedon  (juinque- 
costata;  after  the  thirtieth  brachial,  too,  the  arms,  which  heretofore 
have  been  rounded  dorsally ,  become  laterally  compressed,  the  diameter 
decreasing  rather  suddenly  and  the  arms  becoming-  narrow. 

First  pinnule  the  longest,  6.5  mm.  long,  with  16  short  scpiarish 
joints,  somewhat  flattened  on  the  outer  side,  the  basal  stout,  the  distal 
tapering  gradually;  second  pinnule  like  the  first,  but  slightly  shorter; 
following  pinnules  decreasing  in  length  to  about  the  sixth,  which  is 
4  mm.  long,  with  9  joints,  all  rather  broad  except  the  last  two;  distally 
the  length  increases  graduall}"  to  T  or  8  mm.,  with  18  squarish  joints, 
tapering  gradually  from  the  base.  All  the  pinnules  are  strongly 

Color  in  life  bright  yellow,  usually  banded  rather  narrowly  with 
white;  cirri   dull   greenish   basally,  light  yellow  distally,  the  colors 

144  PROCEEDINGS  OP  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

separated  by  a  darker  band.     Some  specimens,  more  often  the  larger 
ones,  are  grayish,  the  distal  portion  of  the  arms  bright  j^ellow. 

Type.— C^it.  No.  22627,  U.S.N.M.;  from  Albatross  station  No.  4934; 
30"  58'  30"  north  latitude,  130°  32'  00". east  longitude  (Eastern  Sea); 
152-103  fathoms;  August  16,  1906. 

17.  ANTEDON  MINOR,  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  conical,  rather  long,  with  30-40  cirri  15  mm.  long 
with  40-45  joints,  the  basal  half  of  which  are  longer  than  wide,  the 
terminal  third  with  a  very  slight  dorsal  spine. 

The  pinnule  ambulacra  are  not  plated. 

Three  radials  visible;  the  first  crescentic  and  furnished  with  several 
large  blunt  teeth  in  the  middle  of  the  distal  edge;  the  second  wide, 
low,  irregularly  oblong,  furnished  laterall}'  with  several  large  blunt 
teeth,  often  interlocking  with  those  on  the  neighboring  brachials,  and 
a  row  of  large  blunt  teeth  on  the  distal  edge;  axillaries  high,  produced 
anteriorly  into  a  sharp  angle.  Ten  arms  50  mm.  long;  first  brachial 
irregular  in  shape  with  a  much  longer  outer  than  inner  edge,  and 
incised  by  the  backward  projection  of  the  second  brachial,  which  is 
irregularly  quadrate;  third  to  fifth  brachials  oblong;  following 
brachials  quadrate,  about  as  wide  as  high,  becoming  elongate  later. 

First  pinnule  with  8  or  10  elongated  joints,  considerably  longer  and 
stouter  than  its  successors,  which  decrease  in  length  to  about  the  fifth, 
then  gradually  increase  distall}^,  A\''here  they  are  about  6  mm.  long  with 
12  joints,  the  first  2  expanded  and  trapezoidal,  the  others  elongated 
and  slender. 

Color  in  life  light  yellow. 

Type.— Cat.  No.  22638  U.S.N.M.;  from  Albatross  station.  No.  4965; 
33°  35'  20"  north  latitude,  135°  10'  50"  east  longitude  (off  southern 
Japan);  191  fathoms;  August  28,  1906. 

This  species  is  nearest  to  Antedon  pusUla  Carpenter,  but  it  differs 
in  the  much  more  numerous  cirri,  which  are  longer  and  more  slender 
with  a  much  greater  number  of  joints,  in  the  character  of  the  centro- 
dorsal,  which  is  conical  and  usually  rather  long  instead  of  low-hemi- 
spherical, and  in  the  aspect  of  the  radials,  which  are  markedly  longer. 

18.  ANTEDON   DIADEMA,  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  long  and  columnar,  the  tip  conical,  bearing  about  20 
slender  cirri  in  10  rows  of  2  each,  those  of  one  row  alternating  in  posi- 
tion with  those  of  the  adjacent  rows;  cirri  25  mm.  long  with  50-56 
joints,  the  basal  half  elongate,  the  distal  short  with  prominent  dorsal 

Basals  just  visible  as  small  interradial  tubercles. 

Radials  rather  long,  the  first  and  second  about  the  same  size,  the 
axillary  widely  pentagonal,  broader  than  high,  the  axillary  and  second 

NO.  1561.  NEW  UXSTALKED  ('RINOII)S— CLARK.  145 

radial  with  a  high  and  sharp  median  keel;  distichals  two,  like  the  two 
outer  radial.s,  and  with  a  prominent  keel;  11  to  18  arms,  80  nnn.  long 
(onl\'  one-iifth  longer  than  the  cirri),  the  first  8  brachials  oblong, 
rather  long,  then  becoming  quadrate;  all  the  brachials  are  stionglj 
carinate  and  compressed,  the  arms  becoming  very  narrow  after  the 
basal  third,  where  the  brachials  begin  to  develop  overlapping  dorsal 

First  pinnule  considerably  the  largest,  with  8  or  10  elongated  joints; 
the  following  pinnules  decrease  in  length  to  the  fifth  or  sixth,  then 
increase  again  slowly  distally. 

Color  in  life  bright  yellow. 

Type.—OAi.  No.  22637,  U.S.N.M.;  ivom  Alhatross  station.  No.  4931; 
30°  58'  30"  north  latitude,  130"  32'  00"  east  longitude  (off  Kagoshima 
Gulf);  152-103  fathoms;  August  16,  1006. 

ig.  ANTEDON  ASTER,  new  species. 

This  species  is  nearest  to  Antedon  qumqweostata  Carpenter  {=A. 
conifera  Hartlaub),  of  which  I  have  7  Japanese  examples  for  compari- 
son; but  the  cirri  are  shorter  and  proportionately  stouter,  with  35^0 
joints,  the  radials  and  brachials  are  rounded  and  not  compressed,  the 
former  with  their  edges  armed  with  fine  teeth,  the  distal  brachials 
strongly  overlapping,  the  distal  half  as  well  as  the  distal  edge  of  each 
joint  beset  with  numerous  fine  teeth. 

Color  in  life  bright  yellow. 

Ty2^e.—C^t.  No.  22636,  U.S.N.M.;  ivom  AJhatross  station,  No.  5088; 
35°  11'  25"  north  latitude,  139°  28'  20"  east  longitude  (Sagami  Bay, 
southern  Japan);  369-105  fathoms;  Octo])er  25.  1906. 

20.   ANTEDON   ALBOFLAVA,  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  hemispherical  or  bluntly  conical,  bearing  about  15 
cirri;  cirri  20  mm.  long  with  30  short  joints,  only  a  very  few  of  which 
are  longer  than  wide,  the  sixth  and  following  with  sharp  dorsal  spines. 

First  radials  visible  as  paired  interradial  tubercles,  sometimes  as 
a  very  narrow  band  below  the  second  radials;  second  radials  short, 
deeply  incised  by  the  axillaries,  strongly  carinate;  axillaries  over  twice 
as  wide  as  high,  with  a  pronounced  median  keel.  Thirteen  to  15  arms, 
65  mm.  long,  of  about  110  joints;  first  8  or  9  brachials  oblong,  then 
triangular,  about  as  long  as  wide,  the  distal  brachials  overlapping;  a 
pronounced  median  keel  on  the  first  two  brachials;  distichals  two, 
resembling  the  two  outer  radials  and,  like  them,  strongly  carinate. 

First  pinnule  6  mm.  long  with  12  squarish  joints,  flattened  exteriorly; 
following  pinnules  successively  shorter  to  the  fifth  or  sixth,  which  is 
3  mm.  long  with  7  short  joints,  then  becoming  gradually  longer  again 
distally,  where  the  pinnules  are  8  mm.  long  with  17  or  18  rather  short 

Proc.  N.  M.  vol.  xxxiii— 07 10* 

146  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxni. 

Color  in  life  light  yellow,  banded  with  white;  cirri  white. 

Type.— Cat  No.  2263-1:,  U.S.N.M.;  from  AlIxffroKs  station,  No.  4936; 
30°  54'  40"  north  latitude,  130°  37'  30"  east  longitude  (off  Kagoshima 
Gulf);  103  fathoms;  August  16,  1906. 

21.   ANTEDON    RUBER,  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  low,  bearing  about  30  cirri  in  1.5  vertical  rows;  cirri 
11  mm.  long  with  about  30  Joints,  the  first  8  longer  than  wide,  the 
others  short,  sharplj'  carinate  distally,  but  without  distinct  dorsal 

First  radials  narrow  and  crescentic,  in  apposition  laterally ;  second 
radials  about  twice  as  wide  as  high,  oblong;  axillaries  pentagonal, 
nearly  as  high  as  wide.  Ten  arms  35  mm.  long,  the  first  five  brachials 
nearly  oblong,  then  quadrate,  becoming  elongated  toward  the  ends  of 
the  arms;  syzygies  in  the  third,  and  seventh-tenth  brachials,  and 
about  every  other  joint  distalh^ 

First  pinnule  on  second  brachial,  4  mm.  long,  with  13  joints,  the 
distal  ends  raised  and  serrate  or  spinous;  the  third  brachial  has  no  pin- 
nule, the  second,  third,  and  fourth  pinnules  are  of  the  same  character 
as  the  first,  but  gradually  decrease  in  length;  distal  pinnules  6  mm. 
long  with  about  12  joints,  slighth'  expanded  at  their  junctions. 

The  disk  of  this  species  is  well  plated  in  the  areas  between  the  arms; 
the  anal  tube  is  about  three  times  the  diameter  of  the  disk  in  length, 
reaching  to  the  fifteenth  brachial. 

Color  in  life  salmon  red,  the  pinnules  yellow,  the  cirri  white. 

Type.— Ocit.  No.  22643,  U.S.N.M.;  from  .l/Z^a/mw  station,  No.  4894; 
32°  33'  00"  north  latitude,  128°  32'  10"  east  longitude  (Korean  Straits); 
95  fathoms;  August  9,  1906. 

22.  ANTEDON   DIOMEDEiE,  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  small,  rounded-conical  (rarely  long  conical)  bearing 
30-40  slender  cirri  in  15  closel}'  set  vertical  rows;  cirri  30  mm.  long, 
slender,  with  about  40  joints,  the  basal  half  elongate,  the  distal  short, 
developing  strong  dorsal  spines. 

First  radials  oblong,  about  twice  as  wide  as  high,  in  apposition  all 
around;  second  radials  similar,  but  rather  higher,  and  well  separated; 
axillaries  about  as  wide  as  high,  with  an  extravagantly  elongated  con- 
ical tubercle  on  the  junction  of  the  second  radial  and  axillar}-.  Ten 
arms,  70  mm.  in  length,  with  about  70  joints,  at  first  irregularly 
oblong,  then  quadrate,  becoming  elongate  distally;  there  is  another 
long  tubercle  on  the  junction  of  the  first  two  brachials.  Syzygies 
occur  in  the  third,  eighth,  and  twelfth  brachials,  and  distally  at  inter- 
vals of  3  joints. 

The  third  brachial  bears  no  pinnule;  the  pinnule  on  the  second 
brachial  is  7  mm.  long,  moderatel3^  stout,  with  about  12  joints,  roughl}^ 


twice  as  lono-  as  wide;  the  pinnule  on  the  fourth  brachial  (second  pin- 
nule) is  similar,  and  a))out  the  same  size,  usuall}-  slightly  shorter, 
rarel}^  somewhat  longer:  the  next  few  pinnules  decrease  in  lengtii,  the 
distal  pinnules  becoming  longer  again  and  very  slender,  with  al)out  20 
elongated  joints. 

Color  in  life  rich  reddish  purple,  spotted  and  blotched  with  white; 
the  radials  and  lower  brachials  are  white,  the  tubercles  purple,  the 
radials  with  narrow  purple  transverse  lines;  cirri  white,  banded  with 
purple.  Younger  examples  are  lighter  in  color,  very  small  ones  being 
nearly  all  white. 

Type.—OAi.  No.  22640,  U.S.N.M.;  irom  station  No.  4947; 
31'-  28'  20"  north  latitude;  130°  35'  30"  east  longitude  (oft'  the  southern 
shore  of  Nipon);  51  fathoms;  August  20,  lt>06. 

23.  ANTEDON   TIGRINA,  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  discoidal,  much  smaller  than  the  disk,  bearing  25-30 
marginal  cirri  in  a  single  irregular  row;  the  cirri  are  10  mm.  long,  with 
about  20  short  joints,  of  which  the  distal  half  bear  small  paired  spines, 
which  )>ecome  single  near  the  tip. 

First  radials  concealed,  or  barel}"  visible;  second  radials  over  twice 
as  wide  as  high,  oblong,  well  separated  laterally;  axillaries  pentagonal, 
alow,  rounded  tubercle  at  the  junction  of  the  axillary  and  second  radial. 
Ten  arms,  reaching  50  mm.  in  length  in  the  largest  specimen;  first  6 
brachials  oblong  (except  the  third,  which  is  almost  square)  about  twice 
as  wide  as  high;  the  next  two  or  three  quadrate,  the  following  trian- 
gular, becoming  quadrate  and  elongate  distal!}^ ;  distal  edges  of  brachials 
finely  serrate,  and  turned  outward  and  slightly  backward;  syzygies 
in  the  third,  eighth,  and  twefth  brachials,  and  distally  at  intervals  of 
4-9  joints. 

First  pinnule  (on  second  brachial)  about  5  mm.  long,  slender,  with 
13  joints,  the  first  3  or  4  squarish,  the  others  longer  than  wide;  the 
third  brachial  has  no  pinnule;  second  pinnule  (on  fourth  brachial) 
about  10  mm.  long,  with  20  joints,  the  first  2  about  as  long  as  wide, 
the  others  elongated;  following  3  or  4  pinnules  decrease  rapidl}'  in 
length;  the  distal  pinnules  are  9  or  10  mm.  long,  slender,  with  20-25 
joints,  not  greatly  elongated;  the  joints  of  the  lower  pinnules  are 
slightly  expanded  distall} ,  with  finely  serrate  margins;  the  first  5  or 
(5  pairs  of  pinnules  are  very  stilf. 

Color  (in  spirits)  whitish,  the  brachials  broadly  edged  with  deep  red- 
dish brown;  radials  and  first  6  or  7  brachials  purple,  with  a  median 
band  of  white;  lower  pinnules  white,  purple,  or  banded,  the  distal  pin- 
nules usually  purplish  or  reddish  brown;  cirri  light  purplish. 

Type.  (Silt.  No.  22642,  U.S.N.M.;?  Kagoshima  Bay,  Japan;  the 
19  specimens  of  this  species  were  obtained  by  the  United  States  North 

148  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxiiii. 

Pacific  Explorino-  Expedition,  under  Capt.  John  Rodgers,  U.  S.  Navy, 
and  are  labeled  "Kagoshinia  Bay;"  but  there  appears  to  be  some 
doubt  as  to  whether  they  really  were  obtained  there." 

24.   ANTEDON   BOWERSI  ''  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  conical,  bearing  about  80  cirri  in  15  closely  set  vertical 
rows;  the  cirri  are  13  mm.  in  length,  with  30  joints,  of  which  only 
about  the  first  7  are  longer  than  wide;  the  distal  joints  do  not  bear 

First  radials  just  visible,  in  apposition  all  around;  second  radials 
oblong,  short,  and  wide,  well  separated;  axiliaries  pentagonal,  wdder 
than  high.  Ten  arms,  40  mm.  long,  the  first  5  brachials  oblong, 
then  quadrate,  becoming  elongate  distally;  syzygies  in  the  third, 
eighth,  and  twelfth  brachials,  and  distally  at  intervals  of  1  or  2  joints. 

First  pinnule  (on  second  brachial)  the  largest,  4  mm.  long,  stiff,  with 
10  elongated  joints;  second  pinnule  (on  fourth  brachial)  similar,  but 
shorter,  and  rather  less  stout;  following  pinnules  more  slender,  and 
increasing  in  length  to  about  6.5  mm.,  with  15  joints,  the  first  2 
expanded  and  trapezoidal,  the  others  elongated. 

Color  in  life  brownish  yellow,  the  skeleton  and  cirri  nearly  white. 

Type.— Cat  No.  22611,^  U.S.N.M.;  from  A/hatros^  station  No.  4931; 
30'^  58'  30"  north  latitude;  130-  32'  00"  east  longitude  (off  Kagoshima 
Gulf);  152-103  fathoms;  August  16,  1906. 

25.  ANTEDON   ABBOTTI,'  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  saucer-shaped,  with  15  marginal  cirri;  theseare23  nun. 
long,  stout,  with  40-45  short  joints,  the  distal  bearing  a  small,  low 
tubercle  dorsally. 

First  radials  just  visible,  the  distal  corners  free;  second  radials 
about  twice  as  wide  as  long,  bearing  distally  on  the  lateral  edges  small 
tubercules;  axiliaries  pentagonal,  rather  long,  also  with  lateral 
tubercles;  distichals  2,  like  the  outer  radials,  but  first  distichals  in 
apposition  for  almost  their  entire  length;  the  distichals  and  the  first 
brachials  have  lateral  tu])ercules;  no  further  arm  division.  Twenty 
arms  100  mm.  long,  the  first  S  or  9  brachials  ol)long,  then  quadrate, 
soon  becoming  triangular,  a])out  as  wide  as  high;  a  S3^z3'gy  in  the  third 
brachial;  in  the  arms  having  an  additional  syzygy  it  is  in  the  fort}'- 
first  (twice),  forty-second,  forty-fourth,  forty-seventh,  fifty-fourth, 
and  ninetieth  brachials,  respectively. 

The  disk  is  very  deeply  incised. 

"  Since  the  description  of  Aniedon  tigrina  was  put  in  type  I  have  examined  sev- 
eral specimens  of  the  species  taken  in  Sagami  Bay  in  litOO,  so  I  have  no  doubt  that 
the  originals  really  did  come  from  Japan. 

''  For  the  Hon.  George  M.  Bowers,  the  Commissioner  of  Fish  and  Fisheries. 

'"For  Dr.  W.  L.  Abbott,  to  whom  we  are  indebted  for  much  of  our  knowledge 
regarding  the  fauna  of  the  Indo-Malayan  region. 


First  pinnule  5  mm.  long,  with  20  squarish  joints,  tapering  evenly 
from  the  base;  second  pinnule  12  mm.  long,  veiy  stout,  with  20  short 
joints;  following  pinnules  rather  smaller  than  the  tirst,  becoming 
elongate  distally. 

Color  (in  spirits)  dark  purplish  brown,  cirri  and  second  pair  of 
pinnules  lighter  and  yellowish. 

Ti/jx'.— Cut.  No.  22644,  U.S.N.M.;  froiu  Pulo  Taya,  China  Sea; 
obtained  in  July,  18!»!>,  by  Dr.  W.  L.  Al)bott. 

26.   ANTEDON   STYLIFER,   new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  hemispherical,  bare  at  the  pole,  with  30  cirri;  cirri 
20  mm.  long,  with  30  joiuts,  very  slightly  longer  than  wide,  remark- 
ably uniform  in  size;  there  are  no  dorsal  nor  opposing  spines. 

First  radials  just  visible;  the  second  short,  in  close  contpct  laterally, 
and  less  than  half  the  height  of  the  irregularl}-  rhombic  axillary;  tirst 
distichal  oblong,  a))Out  two  and  one-half  times  as  wide  as  high,  the  axil- 
laiy  triangular,  about  half  as  high  as  wide;  the  junction  between  the 
2  outer  radials  and  the  2  distichals  is  elevated  into  a  low  tubercle;  the 
radials,  distichals,  and  first  brachials  are  in  close  contact  laterally. 
Nineteen  arms  TO  mm.  long,  with  about  150  joints,  the  first  8  ol)long, 
then  triangular  (much  wider  than  high)  to  the  fortieth  brachial,  after 
which  they  become  irregularl}' oblong;  s3"Z3'gies  in  the  third  brachials, 
again  about  the  twelfth,  and  distally  at  intervals  of  about  4  joints;  the 
lower  brachials  are  slightly  tubercular,  tuid  all  the  brachials  have 
slightl}'  overlapping  edges. 

First  piniuilo  8  mm.  long,  rather  slender,  with  10  moderately  elon- 
gated joints;  second  pinnule  11  mm.  long,  with  17  joints,  stouter  than 
the  first;  third  pinnule  15  mm.  long,  stout,  stiti",  and  rigid,  with  16 
long  cj^lindrical  joints;  this  pinnule  is  much  stouter  and  stiti'er  than 
any  of  the  others;  fourth  pinnule  10  mm.  long,  fifth  7  mm.  long;  distal 
pinnules  8  mm.  long,  with  about  20  joints,  tapering  gradually  from  the 
base  to  the  point. 

Color  in  life  purple,  the  skeleton  and  cirri  light  brownish  yellow. 

Ti/pe.— Cat.  No.  22645,  U.S.N.M.;  from  Alhairos.^  station  No. 
4929;  30^  12'  30"  north  latitude,  130°  43'  00"  east  longitude  (Eastern 
Sea);  84  fathoms;  August  15,  1906.      . 

27.   ANTEDON   DELICATISSIMA,   new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  low-hemispherical,  a  large  area  at  the  pole  bare, 
bearing  about  30  marginal  cirri;  these  are  30  mm.  long,  with  40  joints, 
much  elongated  basally,  short  distally,  none  of  them  bearing  dorsal 

150  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

Disk  naked,  deeply  incised,  the  anal  tube  greatly  elongated  (9  mm, 
in  length),  the  anal  interambulacrum  being  much  larger  than  the 
others,  the  mouth  subcentral. 

First  radials  concealed;  second  radials  short,  in  lateral  contact  for 
the  basal  half;  axillaries  low-pentagonal,  well  separated  laterall}^; 
distichals  and  palmars  2,  articulated  (the  latter  developed  on  the 
outer  side  of  the  rays  only),  resemljling  the  two  outer  radials,  but 
longer  in  proportion  to  the  width.  Twenty-eight  arms  70  mm.  long, 
the  first  10  brachials  ol)long,  then  short-quadrate,  becoming  oblong 
again  distally;  syz\'gies  in  the  third  (sometimes  the  second)  l)ra 
chials,  again  about  the  fourteenth  to  twentieth,  and  distally  at  inter- 
vals of  3-5  joints. 

First  pinnule  short,  5  nun.  in  length,  with  15  short  joints;  second 
pinnule  longer;  third  pinnule  much  the  longest,  11  mm.  long,  with 
about  20  elongated  cylindrical  joints;  succeeding  pinnules  short, 
becoming  long  and  slender  distall^^ 

Color  in  life  light  purplish  gray,  the  skeleton  yellowish  white,  with 
a  narrow  purple  median  line. 

ri/j>e.  C^t.  No.  22646,  U.S.N.M.;  from  Alhatnmx  station  No.  4930; 
30^  12'  00"  north  latitude,  130^^  14'  00"  east  longitude  (Eastern  Sea); 
84  fathoms;  August  15,  1906. 

This  species  comes  nearest  to  Antedon  himdeulafa  P.  II.  Carpenter, 
from  which  it  differs  in  its  elongate  cirri,  with  nearly  double  the 
num])er  of  joints,  the  short  inters3"gial  interval  and  the  more  proxi- 
mal position  of  the  second  syzygy,  the  proportions  of  the  lower 
pinnules,  and  the  less  number  of  arms. 

The  color  of  A.  himaculata  is  probably  quite  unreliable  as  a  specific 
character,  for  of  the  80  specimens  I  have  at  hand  of  A.  manca 
one  is  colored  exactly  as  described  for  A.  Mmaculata^  although  all  the 
others  are  quite  different.  A.  delicatissvma  in  color  agrees  most 
nearly  with  certain  specimens  of  .4.  multicolor. 

28.  ANTEDON    RUBROFLAVA,   new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  discoidal,  broad,  slightly  concave  on  the  dorsal  sur- 
face, bearing  35-40  very  stout  cirri  in  two  marginal  rows;  the  cirri 
have  15-20  joints,  stout,  about  as  wide  as  long,  which  exhibit  a  slight 
tendency  to  overlap  ventrally,  but  do  not  bear  dorsal  spines;  the  joints 
are  somewhat  compressed  and  are  constricted  in  the  middle,  thus 
giving  especial  prominence  to  the  articulations;  the  penultimate  joint 
is  furnished  with  an  opposing  spine. 

First  radials  concealed;  second  radials  partiallv  concealed;  axilla- 
ries pentagonal,  wider  than  high,  with  a  syzygy;  distichals  3,  the 
axillary  a  syzygy.  P^leven  arms  180  nun.  long,  with  260  or  more 
joints,  the  first  8  or  9  })rachials  nearly  oblong,  becoming  distally 
triangular,  all  the  brachials  with  overlapping  edges,  furnished  with 


two  or  more  rows  of  ver}'  fine  teeth;  there  is  a  slight  rounded  tubercle 
on  the  junction  of  the  first  two  brachials;  syzygies  occur  in  4he  third 
brachial,  ag;iin  about  the  eighth  or  ninth,  and  usually  in  the  twelfth 
or  thirteenth,  with  others  distally  at  intervals  of  5-7  joints  in  the 
proximal  part  of  the  arm  and  3  joints  toward  the  tip. 

The  first  pinnule  is  on  the  second  distichal  and  reseml)les  that  on 
the  second  brachial;  pinnule  on  second  brachial  8  mm.  long,  of  about 
28  joints,  flagellate,  the  second  to  the  foiu'th  joint  furnished  with  large 
dorsal  keels;  the  pinnule  on  the  fourth  brachial  is  11-15  mm.  long,  with 
35-10  joints,  flagellate,  the  first  2  or  3  joints  with  a  dorsal  keel;  the 
pinnule  on  the  sixth  brachial  is  12-16  nmi.  long,  with  about  40  joints; 
that  on  the  eighth  is  about  the  same,  that  on  the  tenth  slightly  shorter, 
like  that  on  the  twelfth;  from  this  point  the  pinnules  gradually 
decrease  in  length  and  ])ecome  more  slender,  the  joints  much  more 
elongate;  the  pinnule  on  the  fortieth  brachial  is  9  mm.  long,  with  23 
long  and  very  slender  joints. 

The  color  in  life  is  brilliant  3"ellow,  the  arms  broadly  banded  with 
bright  red;  the  cirri  are  dull  orange  red, 

Ti/j)e.— Cat.  No.  22631),  U.S.N.M.;  from  Alhatr<m  station  No.  4880; 
34^  16'  00"  north  latitude,  130^  16'  00"  east  longitude  (Korean  Straits); 
59  fathoms;  August  2,  1906. 

This  species  is  readily  distinguishable  from  A.  hartlauh!  by  having 
fewer  arms,  which  are  longer  and  more  slender,  by  having  the  second 
radials  visible,  and  b}^  the  character  of  the  cirri,  which  are  more 
numerous,  stouter,  with  shorter  joints,  and  with  a  prominent  opposing 
spine  on  the  penultimate.  The  very  brilliant  and  unusual  coloration 
may  be  a  good  specific  character. 

29.   ANTEDON   THETIS,  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  discoidal,  bearing  about  12  marginal  cirri;  these  are 
about  10  mm.  long,  with  25  to  30  joints,  of  which  the  fourth,  fifth,  and 
sixth  are  squarish;  the  others  wider  than  long,  developing  prominent 
spines  distally. 

First  radials  very  short;  but  laterall}"  they  are  in  apposition,  form- 
ing a  large  interradial  triangle,  produced  anteriorl3%  separating  the 
second  radials;  second  radials  rather  short,  trapezoidal;  axillaries  pen- 
tagonal, less  than  twice  as  wide  as  high;  the  second  radials  and  axil- 
laries are  rounded  laterally,  and  widely  separated.  Ten  arms  30  nmi. 
long;  the  first  brachials  on  each  arm  in  close  apposition  for  their  entire 
length,  roughly  oblong;  second  brachials  squarish,  strongly  convex 
exteriorly;  third  brachials  longer  than  wide,  constricted  in  the  middle; 
following  2  or  3  brachials  quadrate,  then  becoming  triangular,  longer 
than  wide,  the  outer  side  convex,  ))ecoming  elongate  and  quadrate 

First  pinnule  small,  short,  and  weak,  witii  al)()ut  25  sciuarish  joints; 

152  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

the  first  joint  is  enormoush''  expanded  laterals,  the  second  intermedi- 
ate between  it  and  the  other  joints;  second  pinnule  greatly  elongated, 
stiff,  and  spinelike,  with  15  elongated  joints;  third  pinnule  usually 
shorter,  but  similar  in  character;  following  pinnules  decrease  in  length, 
becoming  somewhat  longer  distally.     Pinnule  ambulacra  plated. 

Color  (in  spirits)  light  purple,  banded  with  dull  yellow;  cirri 
purple,  banded  with  white. 

Tijpe.—OAt.  No.  22654,  U.S.N.M. ;  from  Alhatross  station,  No.  3744; 
Suno  Saki  bearing  east,  8.83  miles  distant  (off  Nipon,  Japan);  46 
fathoms;  May  19,  1900. 

This  species  belongs  to  the  Accela  group,  but  is  readily  distinguished 
from  the  other  10-armed  species  by  having  the  second  radials  sepa- 
rated by  a  forward  projection  from  the  first  radials,  as  in  A.  multicolor^ 
combined  with  the  lack  of  any  lateral  processes  on  the  radials. 

30.  ANTEDON   HAWAIIENSIS,  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  large,  hemispherical  or  short  columnar,  with  5  Avell- 
separated  doul)le  rows  of  cirri,  usually  about  20  cirri  in  all;  these  are 
32  mm.  long,  rather  slender,  with  50  to  55  short  joints,  the  fourth  to 
the  eighth  rather  longer  than  wide,  the  others  wider  than  long;  from 
the  tenth  onward  dorsal  spines  are  developed  which  are  long  and 

Basals  sometimes  just  visible;  first  radials  just  visible,  crescentic; 
second  radials  very  short;  axillaries  about  one  and  one-half  times  as 
wide  as  long.  The  radials  and  first  (sometimes,  also,  the  second) 
brachials  (or  first  and  second  distichals,  when  present)  fringed  with 
numerous  rather  long,  stout  spines;  there  maj'  be  also  a  few  scattered 
spines  on  their  dorsal  surface.  Distichals,  when  present,  4  (3+4). 
Ten  to  12  arms  110  nun.  long,  the  first  6  brachials  oblong,  wider  than 
long,  then  triangular,  about  as  long  as  wide;  distally  the  arms  are 
compressed,  and  the  brachials  develop  long,  curved,  overlapping  spines, 
as  in  A.  spinifera.  A  S3"zygy  in  the  third  (or,  after  a  distichal  series, 
the  first)  brachial,  another  at  about  the  twentieth,  and  distally  at 
intervals  of  from  two  to  four  joints. 

First  pinnule  the  longest,  very  stout,  flattened  exteriorly,  with 
about  12  joints,  tapering  rapidly  after  the  seventh  or  eighth;  second 
and  following  pinnules  much  more  slender,  shorter,  with  fewer  joints 
but  slightly  longer  than  wide;  the  distal  pinnules  are  somewhat  elon- 
gated, with  elongate  joints,  except  the  first  two,  which  are  short, 
somewhat  expanded,  and  trapezoidal. 

Color  (in  spirits)  white,  the  radials,  distichals,  and  lower  brachials 

%>e.— Cat.  No.  22653,  U.S.N.M. ;  from  Alhatross  station.  No.  3475; 
21°  08'  00"  north  latitude,  157°  43'  00"  west  longitude  (Hawaiian 
Islands);  351  fathoms;  December  6,  1891. 


31.  COMATULA  MARI^,«  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  discoidal,  9  ram.  in  diameter,  bearing  about  30  mar- 
ginal cirri  in  two  irregular  rows;  cirri  25  mm.  long,  moderate!}^  stout, 
with  27  to  30  joints,  the  proximal  half  of  which  are  somewdiat  longer 
than  wide,  the  distal  lialf  short;  from  the  sixth  joint  the  distal  dorsal 
edge  begins  to  project,  forming  prominent  broad  dorsal  spines  on  the 
distal  two-thirds  of  the  cirrus. 

First  radial  concealed;  second  radials  rather  short,  very  broad,  in 
apposition  laterally;  axillaries  more  than  twice  as  broad  as  long,  free 
laterally.  Twenty-six  arms,  160  mm.  long.  The  distichal  and  palmar 
series  in  this  species  are  quite  unique,  no  other  previously  descril)ed 
form  at  all  approaching  it  in  irregiUarity.  There  are  9  distichal 
series  present,  3  consisting  of  an  axillary  onl}^,  1  of  2  joints  united 
by  S3'zygy,  4  of  2  articulated  joints,  and  1  of  4  joints,  the  2  outermost 
united  by  syz3^gy.  Of  the  7  palmar  series,  3  are  of  3  joints,  the  2  outer 
united  by  syzyg}^,  2  are  of  2  joints  united  by  syzygy,  1  is  of  2  articu- 
lated joints  and  1  is  of  1  joints,  the  2  outer  united  1)}^  syzygy.  The  lirst 
arm  syzygy  is  usuall}^  in  the  second  brachial,  but  often  in  the  first; 
sometimes  both  the  first  and"  second  are  syz3'gies,  while  again  there 
may  be  none  until  the  third.  Succeeding  s^^zygies  are  quite  irregu- 
lar; the  second  may  be  anywhere  from  the  sixteenth  to  the  fortieth 
brachial,  and  the  distal  intersyzjgial  interval  anj^where  from  7  to  22 
or  more  joints.  The  arms  are  slender,  remarkably  uniform  in  width; 
the  first  5  to  7  lirachials  are  oblong,  then  triangular  about  twice  as  wide 
as  long,  ])ecoming  short  and  discoidal  in  the  distal  half  of  the  arm;  all 
the  brachials  overlap  somewhat,  the  distal  edges  being  finely  serrate. 

The  lower  pair  or  two  of  pinnules  arc  20  mm.  long,  and  slender,  the 
lower  5  or  (!  joints  the  largest,  but  not  especially  enlarged.  The  fol- 
lowing pinnules  decrease  rapidly  in  length  to  about  the  sixth  pair; 
the  following  4  or  5  pairs  of  pinnules  are  comparatively  stout,  with 
the  4  or  5  basal  joints  enlarged  somewhat,  after  which  the  pinnules 
become  more  elongated.  The  distal  edges  of  all  the  pinnule  joints 
are  everted,  prominent,  and  serrate. 

Color  in  life  brownish  3  ellow,  the  pinnules  grayish. 

Ti/pe.— Cut.  No.  22655,  U.S.N.M.;  from  AlkUross  station,  No.  4880; 
34°  16'  00"  north  latitude,  130°  16'  00"  east  longitude  (near  the  Oki 
Islands,  Sea  of  Japan);  59  fathoms;  August  2,  1906. 

32.  COMATULA   SOLASTER,  new  species. 

Centro-dorsal  large,  flat,  and  discoidal,  bearing  about  20  cirri  in  a 
single  marginal  row;  these  have  about  20  or  21  (rarely  more,  though 
sometimes  as  many  as  30)  joints,  the  third  to  the  seventh  much  elon- 

aFor  Mrs.  Mary  W.  Clark,  of  Boston,  who  has  been  of  great  assistance  to  me  in 
my  work  on  the  unstalked  crinoids. 

154  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

gated,  the  others  shorter  than  broad,  the  distal  bearing  low  spines. 
The  cirri  are  moderately  stout,  resembling  those  of  O.  jajponica. 

Kadials  usually  concealed  as  far  as  the  axillary.  Axillaries  trian- 
gular, over  twice  as  broad  as  long.  Distichals  and  palmars  4  (3  +  4),  in 
close  apposition,  and  flattened,  as  in  the  Basicurva  group  of  Antedon. 
In  some  places  the  distichals  are  separated  enough  to  make  room  for 
the  dorsal  keel  of  the  much  flattened  distichal  pinnule,  but  the  perisome 
is  never  visible  from  the  dorsal  surface.  Twenty  to  80  arms,  very 
stout,  tapering  rather  rapidly,  the  brachials  quadrate,  very  short,  and 
strongly  overlapping.  Lower  pinnules  not  especially  large,  but 
greatly  compressed  and  very  strongly  carinate  for  the  basal  8  to  12 
joints.  This  carination  decreases  in  degree  after  the  first  3  or  4  pairs 
of  pinnules,  but  is  evident  even  on  the  distal  pinnules.  The  pinnules 
(except  for  the  first  few  pairs)  have  their  joints  overlapping  and 
finely  spinous. 

Color  in  life  dark  purple,  the  disk,  cirri,  and  pimuiles  brownish 

Tyjje.—Q^ii.  No.  22656,  U.S.N.M.;  from  AJhatross  station  No.  4944; 
31°  38'  15"  north  latitude,  130°  46'  50"  east  longitude  (in  Kagoshima 
Gulf);  43  fathoms;  August  17,  1906. 

This  species  is  readily  distinguished  by  its  very  massive  radials  and 
distichals,  which  form  a  solid  cup,  so  that  none  of  the  perisome  is  per- 
ceptible from  the  dorsal  side;  very  small  specimens  show  that  this 
character  is  assumed  at  an  early  period  of  gi"owth.  In  the  adults  the 
radials  and  distichals  are  so  closely  welded  together  that  it  becomes 
difficult  to  trace  the  sutures. 

33.   COMATULA   SERRATA,   new  species 

Centro-dorsal  a  thick,  flat,  pentagonal  disk  with  about  15  marginal 
cirri  in  two  irregular  rows;  the  cirri  are  small,  with  10  joints,  the 
third  and  fourth  much  elongated,  becoming  rapidly  shorter  distally. 
The  terminal  7  joints  bear  small  dorsal  spines,  that  on  the  penul- 
timate being  the  largest;  terminal  claw  rather  long. 

First  and  most  of  the  second  radials  concealed;  two  outer  radials 
united  by  sj'zygy;  distichals  4  (3+4);  rarely  2(1  +  2);  rays  separated 
from  the  second  radial;  first  brachials  closely  united  interiorly,  the 
second  brachials  free;  first  two  brachials  united  by  S3  zygy.  First  three 
brachials  oblong,  then  quadrate,  becoming  triangular,  about  as  wide  as 
long  after  the  seventh;  the  radials,  distichals,  palmars,  and  brachials 
all  have  everted  and  serrate  edges;  in  the  only  arm  remaining  the 
ninth,  twelfth,  fifteenth,  eighteenth,  and  twenty-first  brachials  are 
syzygies.     The  pinnule  joints  have  strongly  spinous  distal  edges. 

Color  in  life  dull  greenish. yellow. 


T}/pe.~Cat.  No.  22657,  U.S.N.M.;  from  A/hafros.'^  station  No.  481)5; 
32-  3;r  10"  north  latitude,  128°  32'  10"  east  lono-Jtude  (south(>rn  part 
of  the  Sea  of  Japan);  95  fathoms;  August  9,  r,)0(). 

Another  specimen,  from  station  No.  4893,  is  somewhat  smaller,  but 
otherwise  agrees  perfectly  witli  the  t^^pe.  One  of  the  raj's,  however, 
has  the  distichal  series  of  only  two  joints,  united  by  syzygy,  like  the 
palmars;  neither  of  the  specimens  has  the  disk  in  position. 

34.   COMATULA   ORIENTALIS,  new  name. 

In  the  Challenger"  report  on  the  Coniatuhe  Dr.  P.  Herbert  Carpenter 
gave  the  name  Actlnornetra  Hltnple.r  to  a  cui'ious  little  species  from 
the  Admiralty  Islpaids;  in  1881,  however,^  he  stated  that  in  the  Paris 
Museum  he  found  specimens  of  Comatula  jparvicirra  bearing  the  name 
of  G.  ahnjplex.  He  mentioned  certain  peculiarities  of  these  specimens, 
showing  how  they  differ  from  Miiller's  original  description  of  Alecto 
parirleirra,  thus  making  it  clear  that  the}'  can  not  belong  to  the  Chal- 
lenger species  to  which  he  gave  the  name  Actmometra  shnple,!'.  As  the 
two  are  congeneric,  however,  it  becomes  necessar}^  to  designate  the 
species  described  in  the  i  'hallenger  report  b}'  a  new  name,  and  for  it  I 
propose  the  name  Coiiiatula  orlentali^. 

35.   ATELECRINUS   POURTALESI,'    new  name. 

In  1869,''  L.  F.  de  Pourtales  described  Aiitedon  cahenKix  from  two 
specimens  dredged  in  450  fathoms  off  Cojima,  near  Ilabana,  Cuba;  but 
his  description  is  applical)le  ordy  to  the  larger  and  more  perfect  speci- 
men. Although  later  he  seems  tt)  have  suspected  that  the  two  were 
different,  he  never  gave  a  name  to  the  smaller  form. 

In  1881''  Doctor  Carpenter,  in  his  preliminary  report  on  the  Comatu- 
lidae  collected  by  the  United  States  Survey  Steamer  Blal'e^  showed  that 
the  smaller  specimen  was  not  only  specifically  but  generically  distinct 
from  the  larger  one,  and  he  proposed  the  genus  Aielecrinas  for  it  and 
an  allied  forni,  also  from  Cuba,  whi(di  he  called  Atelecrlnus  cuhensis 
and  Atelecrlnus  halanoldes^  respectivel3\  The  name  cuhensis  he  credits 
to  Pourtales,  sajang  that  the  species  "may  retain  the  name  cuhensis, 
originally  conferred  upon  it  hy  Mr.  Pourtales."  But,  although  the 
Antedon  cvl>ens!s  was  a  composite  species,  the  type  specimen  is  clearl}- 
indicated  in  the  the  original  description,  and  it  is  quite  a  different 

«  Challenger  Reports,  Zoology,  XXVI,  ]).  312. 
&  Notes  from  the  Leyden  Museum,  III,  j).  20  . 

<■  For  the  late  L.  F.  de  Pourtales,  to  whom  we  owe  much  of  our  knowledge  respecting 
the  crinoid  fauna  of  the  Caribbean  Sea. 

<^Bull.  Mus.  Comp.  Zool.,  I,  No.  11,  p.  :!56. 
'■Bull.  Mus.  Comp.  Zool.,  IX,  No.  4,  p.  166. 

156  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.        vol.  xxxiii. 

thing  from  Atelecrmun  enhensis  of  Carpenter,  belonging  to  a  different 

Now,  Doctor  Carpenter  has  restricted  the  use  of  Antedon  euhensis 
to  the  smaller  of  the  two  original  specimens  described  b}'^  Pourtales, 
while  Pourtales  himself  indicated  the  larger  as  the  t3"pe  of  the  species; 
the  name  can  not,  of  course,  be  applicable  to  both,  and  must  stand  for 
the  species  represented  by  the  larger  specimen.  As  this  leav^es  the 
species  called  by  Doctor  Carpenter  Afeleeriniis  euhensis  (Pourtales) 
without  a  name,  I  propose  that  it  be  known  as  Atelecrinus  pourtalesi. 


By  David  Stark  Jordan  and  Albert  Christian  Herre. 

Of  Stanford  Unlrt'rsUi/,  Cnlifornid. 

In  the  present  paper  is  given  an  account  of  the  tishes  of  the  families 
of  Cirrhitidaj  and  Aploclactylidtv  known  to  inhabit  the  waters  of  Japan. 
It  is  based  on  the  collections  of  Professors  Jordan  and  Snyder,  series 
of  which  are  deposited  in  the  U.  S.  National  Museum. 


a.  Dorsal  spines  10,  the  spinous  part  of  the  tin  longer  than  the  soft;  vertebra'  lOi 
16;  eye  with  a  suborbital  shelf Cirrhitid^^ 

aa.  Dorsal  spines  15  or  more;  the  soft  dorsal  as  long  as  spinous;  anal  short  with 
acute  or  incisor-li ke  vertebrae  more  than  10+16;  nosuborbital  shelf. 


Family  riRRHITID.F. 

Bodj'  compressed,  oblong-,  covered  with  moderate  scales  which  are 
cycloid  or  ctenoid;  dorsal  and  ventral  outlines  not  similar;  lateral  line 
continuous,  concurrent  with  the  back,  not  extending  on  caitdal;  mouth 
low,  terminal,  with  lateral  cleft;  eye  lateral,  of  moderate  size;  pro- 
maxillaries  protractile;  maxillaiy  narrow,  not  sheathed  by  preorbital; 
teeth  small,  pointed,  sometimes  present  on  vomer  or  palatines;  cheeks 
without  bony  suborbital  stay;  branchiostegals,  usually  6;  gill  mem- 
branes separate,  free  from  the  isthmus;  preopercle  serrate  or  entire; 
opercle  unarmed;  nostrils  double;  forehead  flattened;  no  spines  or 
serrations  on  bones  of  cranium;  second  suborbital  with  an  internal 
lamina  supporting  the  globe  of  the  eye;  dorsal  fin  continuous,  long, 
the  spinous  part  longer  than  the  soft,  usually  of  10  spines,  the  spines 
not  depressible  in  a  groove;  soft  dorsal  low;  spines  rather  low  and 
strong;  pectoral  tin  short  and  broad  as  in  the  Cottidis;  lower  half  of 
fin  with  its  rays  simple  and  enlarged;  the  membranes  deeply  incised: 
ventral  fins  thoracic,  but  considerably  behind  root  of  pectorals,  the 
rays  1,  5;  air  bladder  large  and  complicated;  pyloric  cieca  few; 
skull  very  compact  and  solid.  Carnivorous  fishes  of  the  warm 
parts  of  the  Pacific;  apparently  really  allied  on  the  one  hand  to  the 

Proceedings  U.  S.  National  Museum,  Vol.  XXXIII— No.  1562. 

158  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL JIUSEVM.         vol.  xx.xih. 

Serranidas,  with  which  ^^roup  Houleiigcr  liiid.s  that  the  skeleton  has 
much  in  common;  on  the  other  hand,  they  show  atiinities  with  the 

Bouleng-er  separates  the  Cirrhitida'  fcom  the  Aplodactvlida'  and 
Latrididffi,  retyarding-  the  tirst  named  as  a  subfamily  of  Serranida^,. 

KEY   TO   (iENKKA. 

a.  Scales  ctenoid,  large  and  rough;  cheeks  with  large  scales;  palatine  teeth  2»resent; 

canines  small ;  j^reopercle  serrulate Inolmmi,  1 . 

(la.  Scales  cycloid  or  nearly  so;  preopercle  more  or  less  serrate. 
b.  l^rotile  decurved  or  convex,  scarcely  incurved  at  the  nape. 

c.  Palatine  teeth  present;  scales  on  cheeks  small Cirrh'dus,  2. 

hh.  Profile  more  or  less  incurved  or  concave,  above  the  pointed  snout;  teeth  on 
palatines;  preopercle  sharply  serrate Cirrhitichthys,  3. 

1.   ISOBTJNA  Jordan,  new  genus. 

Paraclrrhites  Steindachnek,  Fischc  Japans,  II,  1883,  p.  25  (japonicuti)  not  rttr- 
acirrJiites  Bleaker,  1875,^type /ors/en. ) 

Body  oblong,  compressed,  with  strongly  toothed  scales;  pointed 
teeth  in  jaws,  and  on  vomer  and  palatines;  upper  jaw  with  two  small 
canines  in  front;  preopercle  toothed.  Dorsal  raj's  X,  15;  anal  rays 
III,  T.  Scales  large;  6  or  7  lower  pectoral  ra3"s  simple,  not  thickened. 
One  species  known.  The  genus  is  well  distinguished  b}^  the  large 
rough  scales.  The  name  chosen  by  Steindachner  was  already  in  use 
for  a  large  genus  of  the  same  family. 

(i.sohnna,  the  Japanese  name;  /.w,  sea  shore;  fv,na^  huna  for  euphony, 

Type  of  gen  us.  —  Lwh una  japonica. 

I.  ISOBUNA  JAPONICA  (Steindachner). 

ISOBUNA.    jj^  I^'JUaXJIM^ 

ParacirrJiiies juponicuK  STEiNDACHNER,.Fisclu>  .lapans,  II,  1883,  p.  25  (Japan), 
Coll.  Cristoforo  Bellotti,  in  Mus.  Milan. — Jordan  and  Snyder,  Check  List, 
1901,  p.  84. 

Habitat. — Coast  of  southern  Japan. 

Head  2i  in  length;  depth  2|/eT(/,j5  in  head;  D.  X,  15;  A.  Ill,  7; 
scales  2-83  or  S-t-lO.  '_'  I 

Upper  profile  moderately  arched;  head  pointed  in  front;  ventral 
outline  to  anal  nearly  straight.  Mouth  large,  oblique,  the  maxillary 
extending  a  little  beyond  eye\  eye  5  in  head;  breadth  of  forehead  8; 
snout  with  chin,  nearly  4;  lower  jaw  slightly  projecting.  Teeth  slen- 
der, sharp,  those  of  the  outer  row  a  little  enlarged;  a  small  canine  on 
each  side  of  upper  jaw  in  front;  Preopercle  finely  serrate,  opercle  with 
three  short  spines,  the  middle  one  sharpest  and  largest.  Head  w^ell 
scaled,  except  lips  and  space  before  snout.  Large  scales  on  cheeks 
and  opercles;  scales  on  top  of  head  small.  Scales  all  very  rough. 
Lateral  line  concurrent  with  back.     Dorsal  deeply  notched,  5th  and 


0th  dorsal  ypines  3i  in  head,  the  last  spine  half  as  lon^  as  eye;  first 
soft  ra3^a8  high  as  highest  spine.  Caudal  weakly  concave,  li  in  head; 
second  anal  spine  strong,  longer  than  third  and  weakly  curved,  longer 
than  the  highest  dorsal  spine.  Ventrals  not  reaching  vent.  Pectoral 
with  6  or  7  lower  rays  simple  but  not  thickened,  the  fin  reaching  4th 
soft  ray  of  anal.     Bases  of  fin  rays  scaly. 

Color  golden  brown,  with  a  faint  spot  of  golden  yellow  in  the  center 
of  each  scale  along  the  sides  (Steindachner). 

This  species  is  known  from  a  single  specimen,  1.5  cm.  in  length,  in 
the  museum  at  Milan.     We  have  not  seen  it. 

2.  CIRRHITUS  Lacepede. 

Cirr/W/HS  Lacepede,  Hist.  Nat.  Poiss.,  V,  1803,  p.  3  [maculatus—marmoratus). 
arrJtites  Cuvier  and  V.vlenciennes,   Hist.   Nat.   Poiss.,  IIT,  p.  1829  (change  in 

spelliny;) . 
CirrhidchUnis  (;f.NTHEK,  Cat.,  II,  1860,  p.  73,  in  part. 

Scales  large,  cycloid;  head  obtuse,  rounded  in  profile;  snout  short; 
cheeks  with  small  scales,  teeth  on  vomer  and  palatines;  jaws  with  small 
canines;  preopercle  finely  serrate;  opercle  with  a  fiat  spine;  dorsal  rays 
about  X,  11,  anal  III,  6;  caudal  truncate,  anterior  nostrils  fringed; 
dorsal  spines  not  fringed.     Tropical  Pacific. 

{cirrus,  a  lock  of  hair. ) 

2.   CIRRHITUS   MARMORATUS    (Lacepede). 

Labrus  marmoratm  Lacepede,  Hist.  Nat.  Poiss.,  Ill,  1801,  p.  492,  pi.  v,  fig.  3 
(no  locality  given). 

CirrJdius  marmoratus  Gill,  Proc.  Ac.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  1862,  p.  107  (Hawaii  n 
Islands)  .—Jordan  and  Evermann,  Fishes  of  Hawaiian  Islands,  1905,  p.  452, 
pi.  Lxx  (Hawaii).— Jordan  and  Seale,  Fishes  of  Samoa,  p.  278  (Samoa).— 
Jordan  and  Starks,  Proc.  U.  S.  Nat.  IMus.,  1906,  p.  699  (Yaku  Island). 

Cirrhites  mnrmorntns  Bleeker,  Verh.  Koninkl.  Ak.  Wet.,  XV,  1875,  p.  3; 
(Sumatra;  Amboyna).— Jenkins,  Bull.  U.  S.  Fish  Comm.,  XXII,  1902 
(Sept.  23,  1903),  p.  491  (Honolulu).— Snyder,  Bull.  U.  S.  Fish  Comm., 
XXII,  1902  (Jan.  19,  1904),  p.  527  (Honolulu;  Puako  Bay,  Hawaii). 

Oirrhitus maculatus  Lacepede,  Hist.  Nat.  Poiss.,  V,  1803,  p.  3  ( no  locality  given ).— 
GtJNTHER,  Fische  der  Siidsee,  III,  1874,  p.  71,  pi.  Li,  fig.  A  (Hawaiian 
Islands,  Society  Islands,  Cook  Island). 

Cirrhitichthys  maculatus  GtJNTHER,  Cat.  II,  1860,  p.  74  (Polynesia,  India,  Hawaiian 
Islands,  He  de  France).— Klunzinger,  Fische  des  rothen  Meeres,  p.  131,  in 
Verh.  Zool.  Bot.  Ges.  Wien,  XX,  1870,  p.  798  (East  coast  of  Africa,  Polyne- 
sia).—GtJNTHER,  Shore  Fishes,  Chalk,  I,  1880,  p.  59  (Honolulu). 

Cirrhites  {Cirrhitichtliiis)  maculatus  Steindachner,  Denks.  Ak.  Wiss.  Wien,  LXX, 
1900,  p.  490  (Honolulu:  Laysan) . 

Cirrhites  maculosus  Bennett,  Zool.  Journ.,  IV,  1829,  p.  38  (Sandwich  Islands).— 
RtJpPELL,  Atlas,  Fische,  1828,  p.  13,  pi.  xv,  fig.  1  (Red  Sea) . 

arrhites  alternatus  Gill,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  1862,  p.  122  (Hawaiian 
Islands,  young). 

1<>()  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.  vol.  xxxiii 

Habitat. — Coral  islands  of  the  tropical  Pacific,  north  to  Yakushiina, 
southern  Japan. 

Head  2.75  in  length;  depth  2.75;  63^6  5.75  in  head;  snout  3;  maxil- 
Uuy  2.4;  mandible  2.1;  preorbital  4.8;  interorbital  5.75;  D.  X,  11; 
A.  Ill,  6;  scales  6-40-8;  Br.  5. 

Body  short  and  stout,  moderately  compressed;  head  heavy,  longer 
than  deep;  snout  bluntly  conic;  mouth  large,  slightly  oblique,  the 
jaws  subequal;  maxillary  rather  long,  reaching  middle  of  pupil; 
patches  of  villiform  teeth  on  vomer  and  palatines;  tongue  naked;  jaws 
with  bands  of  villiform  teeth,  2  or  more  enlarged  canines  in  front  of 
upper  jaw  and  about  4  somewhat  longer  canines  on  each  side  of  lower 
jaw;  dorsal  profile  moderately  arched,  the  curves  strongest  between 
nape  and  origin  of  dorsal;  eye  moderate,  high,  the  supraorbital  rim 
projecting  strongly  above  the  profile;  interorbital  concave;  nostrils 
moderate,  nearly  circular,  close  together,  the  anterior  with  a  bushj- 
filament  about  as  long  as  diameter  of  pupil;  origin  of  dorsal  over  base 
of  pectoral,  its  distance  from  snout  equaling  its  base;  dorsal  spines 
rather  strong,  fourth  or  fifth  longest,  about  equaling  snout;  dorsal 
rays  about  equal  to  length  of  spines  a  little  greater  than  longest  spine; 
caudal  truncate  or  slightly  rounded  when  expanded;  anal  spines  stout; 
second  and  third  about  equal  in  length,  a  little  shorter  than  snout; 
anal  rays  moderately  long,  longest  ray  2  in  head;  the  7  lowermost 
rays  of  pectoral  thick  and  free  at  the  posterior  ends,  the  sixth  from 
bottom  longest,  1.8  in  head  or,  measured  from  base  of  fin,  1.4  in 
head;  scales  large,  smooth,  arranged  somewhat  irregularly;  nape, 
opercle,  and  breast  with  large  scales;  cheeks  with  very  small  scales, 
rest  of  head  naked;  preopercle  finely  serrate;  opercle  ending  in  a  soft 
flap,  projecting  beyond  a  fiat  obscure  spine;  gill-membranes  broadly 
connected  across  the  isthmus. 

Color  in  life,  body  marbled  and  blotched  with  bluish  olivaceous, 
brownish  and  white,  with  numerous  red  spots  of  varying  sizes,  the 
white  appearing  as  5  ill-defined  vertical  bars;  head  bluish  white  with 
irregular  lines  of  j^ellowish  or  orange  brown,  these  palest  on  cheek; 
lower  jaw  pale  bl.ue  with  cross-markings  of  darker  blue;  base  of 
pectoral  pale  with  yellowish-brown  blotches;  posterior  portion  of  back 
with  4  large  reddish-brown  blotches,  the  first  under  the  last  2  dorsal 
spines,  the  second  under  sixth  and  seventh  dorsal  rays,  the  third  under 
last  dorsal  rays,  fourth  on  upper  edge  of  caudal  peduncle;  spinous 
dorsal  pale-yellowish  blue,  crossed  by  3  series  of  large  orange-red 
spots  on  the  membranes,  the  uppermost  series  least  complete;  tips  of 
membrane  of  spinous  dorsal  whitish,  above  black  blotches;  soft  dorsal 
pinkish  with  a  series  of  redder  spots  along  the  base;  caudal  pale 
pinkish,  crossed  by  about  4  series  of  bright  blood-red  blotches;  anal 
pale  rosy,  whitish  at  base,  with  3  series  blood-red  blotches;  an  olive 


blotch  near  middle  of  first  and  second  spines;  pectoral  and  ventral 
pale  rosy. 

This  well-known  species,  abundant  among  the  coral  islands  through- 
out the  PaciHc,  has  been  once  taken  in  Japan,  a  specimen  having  been 
sent  from  the  offshore  island  of  Yaku  in  southern  Japan.  A  beauti- 
ful colored  figure  by  Capt.  Charles  B.  Hudson  is  given  by  Jordan  and 
Evermann.  Of  the  closely  related  genus,  Parac'irHiittH  Bleeker,  dis- 
.  tinguished  by  absence  of  palatine  teeth,  no  species  has  been  recorded 
from  Japan.  Amhlycirrlutu^i  Gill"  is  probably  identical  with  Para- 

{marmorati()<^  marbled. ) 

3.   CIRRHITICHTHYS     Bleeker. 

Cirrhitichtliys  Bleeker,  Naturk.  Tydschr.  Nederl.  Ind.,  X,  1856,  p.  474  (graphi- 

Cirrhitop.^li^  GxhL,  Proc.  Al-.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  1862,  p.  109  (aureus). 

Body  oblong,  the  back  arched,  the  profile  somewhat  concave  at  the 
nape  on  account  of  the  more  or  less  projecting  snout;  preopercle  sharply 
serrate;  preorbital  serrulate  or  entire;  no  canines;  teeth  on  vomer  and 
palatines;  ])ranchiostega]s  0;  scales  large,  slightly  ctenoid  oi*  cycloid; 
dorsal  rays  X,  12;  anal  III,  6  or  7;  tirst  dorsal  ray  elongate:  dorsal 
spines  moderate;  second  spine  elongate;  pectoral  with  (5  simple  rays; 
first  soft  ray  of  dorsal  sometimes  elongate. 

Species  of  the  tropical  Pacific,  one  of  them  found  in  Japan.  It  dif- 
fers from  Oirrhitns  ma.m\y  in  the  more  produced  snout  and  notched  or 
incurved  profile. 

( C'irrh  ites;  ix  ^  ^ '  s  ti  s  li . ) 

3.   CIRRHITICHTHYS   AUREUS  (Schlegel). 

Cirrhites  aureus  Schlegel,   Fauna  Japonifa,    PoisH.,  1843,  p.  15,  pi.   vii,  tig.  2, 

(Nagasaki). — Rich.vrdson,  Ichth.   China,   1846,   p.  289  (Canton). — .Jordan 

and  Snvdek,  Check  List,  1901,  p.  85. 
CirrhUlchthys  aureus  GIinther,  Cat,  II,  1860,  p.  75  (Canton,  China). — Na.miye. 

Class.  Cat.,  1881,  p.  95  (Awa).— Ishikawa  and  Matsuura,  Prel.  Cat.,   1897, 

p.  52  (Boshu,  Kagoshima). 

Ildhiiaf. ^Southern  Japan  to  China  (and  to  India,  if  Cir/-h/f/'c/ttA//.'<'' 
hleekerl  Day,  from  Madras,  siiould  prove  to  be  the  same,  which  is  not 

Head  3  in  length  to  base  of  caudal;  depth  2i;  eye  -It  in  head;  D.  X, 
12,  A.  Ill,  6;  scales  1-12-9,  P.  11,  with  6  rays  simple. 

«Proc.  Ac.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  1862,  p.  106  (fasciatm). 

'' Cirrhites  fasciatus  Jerdon,  Madras  .Toiirnal,  1851,  p.  132  (Madras);  not  of  Cuvier 
and  Valenciennes. 

Cirrhitichtliys  hleekeri  Day,  Fishery  Rept.,  CXCI,  no.  207. 

Oirrhitichthi/s  aureus  Day,  Fishes  India,  1876,  p.  145,  pi.  xxxv,  tig.  5,  iladras. 
Proc.  N.  M.  vol.  xxxiii— 07 11 



VOL.  xxxin. 

Body  short,  compressed,  the  profiles  above  and  below  strongly  arched; 
the  outline  incurved  iit  the  nape;  snout  short,  scared}"  longer  than  eye; 
mouth  small,  the  jaws  equal;  outer  teeth  of  lower  jaw  enlarged;  villi- 
form  teeth  on  vomer  and  palatines.  Scales  large,  mostly  cycloid,  the 
smaller  slightly  ctenoid.  Preopercle  strongly  serrate;  cheeks  with  4 
rows  of  scales;  suborbital  rim  and  preorbital  apparently  scaleless,  but 
with  mucous  stria^;  opcrcle  scaled;  opercular  spine  obsolete;  supraor- 
bital rim  somewhat  elevated;  interorbital  area  very  narrow.  If  in  eye. 
Branchiostegals  5.     (lill -rakers  short  and  blunt,  about  »)+6. 

First  soft  ray  of  dorsal  filiform  (broken  in  specimen);  dorsal  tin  not 
notched;  fourth  spine  not  elevated,  2  in  head;  a  slight  fleshy  tag  behind 
tip  of  each  spine;  second  anal  spine  enlarged,  l^j  in  head;  anal  fin  trun- 
cate; pectoral  with  6  simple  rays,  the  longest  reaching  l)eyond  origin 
of  soft  ravs  of  anal,  a  little  longer  than  head;  caudal  lunate. 


Color  uniform  pale,  doubtless  orange  or  yellow  in  life,  with  no  traces 
of  markings  of  any  kind.  Of  this  rare  species  we  have  seen  but  one 
specimen,  4^  inches  in  length.  It  was  taken  at  Misaki,  and  was  pre- 
sented to  us  by  Professor  Mitsukuri.  It  probably  lives  in  rather  deep 
water.  It  is  the  type  of  the  subgenus  Cirr/iitojms  Gill,  said  to  be  dis- 
tinguished from  CirrJdtichtliyH  by  the  seal}"  suborbital.  The  subor- 
bital ring  is  said  to  be  naked  in  the  type  of  Cirrhitichthys  {grap.hidop- 
terus  =  aprinus).  We  are,  however,  unable  to  find  true  scales  on  the 
narrow  suborbital  of  C.  aureus.  The  preorbital  has  stri^  or  mucif erous 
ducts  resembling  scales.  The  species  is  very  close  to  Cirrhitichthys 
hleelceri  Da}^  of  India,  and  it  may  prove  to  be  the  same,  which  is  the 
latest  judgment  of  Doctor  Day.     The  two  have  the  same  numbers  of 


scales  and  fin  rays,  but  ('.  hleekeri  is  said  to  be  much  more  elongate, 
the  depth,  2|  in  length  (3^  in  total  length,  with  caudal);  the  eye  3i  in 
head;  the  color  rosy,  with  pale  streaks,  a  large  black  blotch  below  soft 
dorsal,  a  dark  blotch  behind  opercle;  caudal  with  red  spots;  dorsal  and 
caudal  banded.  The  Indian  species  is  probably  ditferent  from  the 

{aureus,  golden.) 


This  family  agrees  with  the  Cirrhitida?  in  having  the  lower  pectoral 
rays  simple,  elongate,  and  thickened,  and  in  having  the  ventrals 
inserted  well  behind  the  pectorals. 

It  differs  technically,  according  to  Boulenger,  in  the  a))sence  of  a 
suborbital  shelf,  and  also  in  the  much  larger  number  of  dorsal  spines, 
the  soft  dorsal  also  being  many  rayed.  Anal  fin  short,  vertebra  more 
than  10  +  16,  teeth  acute  or  incisor-like.  Shore  lishes  of  the  warm 
parts  of  the  Pacific. 

a.  Cheilodactylix.k.     Teeth  pointed  not  incisor-like,  dorsal  spines  about  18,  the 
spinous  part  of  the  fin  not  longer  than  the  soft;  preopercle  entire. 
h.  Anal  fin  short,  III  8,  or  III  9;  dorsal  fin  deeply  notched,  the  fourth  spine 
elevated;  soft  dorsal  of  about  30  rays (roniistiits,  4. 

4.  GONIISTIUS  Gill. 

Gonilsiius  Gill,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  ^ci.  Phila.,  1862,  p.  120  {zonatus) . 
Zeodrins  Castelnau,  Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.  W.,  Ill,  1878,  p.  377  (vestihis). 

Bod}^  highest  anteriorly,  the  anterior  profile  steep  and  compressed. 
Head  small;  cheeks  and  crown  scaly;  preopercle  entire;  opercle  end- 
ing in  a  flat  spine;  mouth  small,  the  lower  jaw  included;  teeth  small, 
in  several  series,  the  outer  enlarged;  vomer  and  palatines  toothless; 
branchiostegals  6;  adult  with  a  pair  of  tubercles  above  e3^e  and  one 
above  snout;  scales  moderate;  dorsal  fin  yerj  long,  the  spinous  and 
soft  parts  about  equal,  the  rays  about  XVII-30,  the  fin  deeply  notched, 
the  fourth  spine  much  elevated  and  curved  backward;  anal  with  three 
small  spines,  the  rays  about  III,  8,  the  last  rays  rapidly  shortened; 
pectorals  with  about  6  simple  rays,  of  moderate  length;  ventrals  well 
behind  pectorals;  caudal  forked;  body  with  oblique  black  bands. 
Species  about  6,  of  the  tropical  Pacific.  The  genus  is  closely  related 
to  Cheilodactylus,  from  which  it  differs  mainly  in  the  elevated,  notched 
dorsal,  the  soft  dorsal  being  longer  than  in  Cheilodactylvs.  From 
Dactylosparus  Gill  {D.  carponemus)  the  short  anal  distinguishes  Gonll- 
sthis.  Goniistins  vittatus  from  Hawaii  is  allied  to  G.  zebra^  and  still 
other  species  inhabit  Australian  waters. 

(^/G^y/o',  angle  :  zVt/ok,  sail:  for  dorsal  fin.) 

164  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxm. 


a.  Body  with  about  9  oblique  dark  brown  cross-band?,  two  on  the  head,  the  second 
across  opercle,  and  base  of  pectoral;  membrane  of  opercle  jet-black;  a 
lengthwise  band  along  dorsal  fin;  ventral  fin  pale;  caudal  with  several 
round  white  spots.  D.  XVIII,  32.  A.  Ill,  8.  Scales  60.  Fourth  dori-al 
spine  If  in  head zonattis,  4. 

aa.  Body  with  7  oblique  jet-black  bands;  3  of  these  on  the  head,  the  second  extend- 
ing across  eye  and  across  base  of  pectoral,  the  seventh  covering  most  of 
caudal  peduncle  and  lower  lobe  of  cautlal  fin,  ventral  fin  black;  fourth, 
fifth,  and  sixth  bands  extending  across  dorsal  fin.  Dorsal  rays  XVII,  34, 
Anal  III,  8.     Scales,  70;  fourth  dorsal  spine  1 J  in  head zebra,  5. 

4.   GONIISTIUS   ZONATUS   Cuvier  and  Valenciennes. 


Labre  dii  Japan  Krusenstern,  Reise,  Atlas,  1809,  p.  63,  pi.  xliii,  fig.  1  (Japan). 

Cheilodactylus  zonatus  Cuvier  and  Valenciennes,  Hist.  Nat.  Poiss.,  1830,  V. 
p.  365,  pi.  cxxix  (Japan). — Schlegel,  Fauna  Japonica,  Poiss.,  1843,  p.  64, 
pi.  XXIX  (Nagasaki). — Richardson,  Ich.  China.,  1846,  p.  239  (Canton);  Proc. 
Zool.  Soc,  London,  1850,  p.  66.— Richardson,  Ann.  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  (2),  1851, 
VII,  p.  282. — Bleeker,  Nieuwe  Nalez.,  Japan,  1857,  p.  83  (Nagasaki).— 
GtJNTHER,  Cat.  Fish.,  II,  1860,  p.  82  (Canton;  Japan). — Steindachner  and 
DoDERLEiN,  Fische  Japans,  II,  1881,  p.  27  (Tokyo). — Namiye,  Class.  Cat., 
1881,  p.  95  (Tokyo).— Nystrom,  Svensk.  Vet.  Ak.  Handl.,  XIII,  1887,  p. 
18  (Nagasaki). — Ishikawa  and  Matsuura,  Prel.  Cat.,  1897,  p.  52  (Tokyo, 
Riu  Kin  Islands). — Jordan  and  Snydek,  Proc.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus.,  XXIII, 
1900,  p.  358  (Tokyo);  Proc.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus.,  XXIII,  1900,  p.  752  (Yoko- 
hama); Check  List,  1901,  p.  84  (Yokohama). 

Habitat. — Coasts  of  Japan  and  southern  China,  north  to  Tokyo, 
g-enerall}"  common. 

Head  ?>J  in  length  to  base  of  caudal;  depth  2f ;  eye  -if  in  head; 
I).  XVII,  32;  A.   Ill,  8;  P.  13,  with  6  rays  simple;  scales  9-60-16. 

Body  oblong,  deep,  compressed,  the  lower  profile  nearly  straight, 
the  upper  compressed  and  highest  forward;  steep  and  nearly  straight 
from  tip  of  snout  to  front  of  dorsal.  Mouth  small,  the  lips  pro- 
duced, thick  and  fleshy;  small  teeth  in  jaws  only;  2  fringed  flaps  over 
the  anterior  nostril,  the  posterior  flap  double  the  size  of  the  anterior 
one;  posterior  nostril  without  flaps  or  processes;  interobital  space 
broad,  4  in  head;  snout  and  preorbital  scaleless;  top  of  head,  cheeks 
and  opercles  with  small  or  minute  scales;  preopercle  entire;  opercle 
entire,  rounded.  Branchiostegals  6;  gill-rakers  14+8,  short,  stout. 
Dorsal  deeply  notched,  second  spine  equal  to  diameter  of  e3^e,  high, 
about  2  in  head;  anal  spines  rather  small,  the  third  3y  in  head;  last 
soft  rays  much  shortened,  the  longest  a  trifle  more  than  2  in  head; 
pectoral  almost  as  long  as  head,  not  quite  reaching  vent;  ventrals 
moderate  inserted  opposite  end  of  lowest  simple  pectoral  ray  and 
reaching  beyond  vent;  caudal  deeply  and  evenly  forked.  Scales  mod- 
erate, cycloid;  base  of  pectoral  scaled;  a  scaly  sheath  about  base  of 
anal  and  dorsal;  caudal  largely  scaled. 


Color  of  body  olive  brown,  paler  on  belly,  about  nine  parallel 
oblique  crossbars  of  deep  brown,  bright  dark  olive-orange  in  life,  a 
little  narrower  than  the  interspaces;  the  first  extending  across  the  eye 
and  cheek,  the  second  from  nape  to  base  of  pectorals,  forming  a  jet- 
black  ])lotch  on  opercle,  and  a  dark  bar  across  base  of  pectoral;  the 
third,  fourth,  lifth,  and  sixth  extend  diagonally  backward  from  dorsal 
to  belly,  where  they  disappear;  the  seventh,  eighth,  and  ninth  bands 
encircle'the  body,  the  seventh  including  the  posterior  portion  of  the 
soft  dorsal;  these  three  bands  are  confluent  along  the  lateral  line; 
dorsal  tin  brown;  with  a  darker  basal  shade  and  one  or  two  pale  spots 
posteriorly.  Caudal  dark  bi-own,  with  large  round  white  spots  about 
twelve  in  number:  two  or  three  similar  white  blotches  on  caudal 
peduncle:    anal   and   ventrals   black:    pectorals  uniform,   pale  brown 


except  the  scaly  base  which  is  marked  by  a  dusky  crossbar;  lips 
blackish,  edged  with  rosy  biown;  two  dark  lengthwise  lines  across 
cheeks,  from  preorbital  backward. 

This  description  is  taken  from  a  specimen  s  inches  long  from 
Wakanoura.  Larger  examples  ore  similarly  colored,  but  the  dark 
bands,  always  paler  than  in  Goniistius  zebra,  grow  fainter  with  age, 
and  orange  specks  sometimes  appear  between  them.  The  spots  on 
the  caudal  tin  are  obsolete  in  some  old  examples. 

Of  this  common  species,  we  have  specimens  from  Tokyo,  Misaki, 
Wakanoura,  Hakata,  and  Nagasaki.  It  is  a  food-flsh  of  moderate 
importance  and  is  called  Takanohadai,  or  hawk-porgy,  Tai  l)eing  the 
common  name  applied  to  Pagrus  major  and  all  similar  lishes, 

{zonatm,  banded.) 

166  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

5.  GONIISTIUS  ZEBRA   (Doderlein) . 

CheilodacfyluK  gibboms  STEiXDACHNERand  Doderlein,  Fisehe  Japans,  II,  1888,  p. 
27,  pi.  VII,  fig.  2  (Tokyo;  not  of  Richardson;  the  sj-nonyniy  given  being  all 
incorrect).  —  Nystrom,  Svensk.  Vet.  Ak.,  Handl.,  XIII,  1887,  p.  18 
(Nagasaki). — Jordan  and  Snyder,  Check  List,  1901,  p.  84. 

Cheilodactylns  zebra  Doderlein,  Fisehe  Japans,  II,  1881,  p.  29  (Tokyo;  same 
specimen;  a  provisional  name.) 

Hahltat. — Coast  of  eTapan,  known  from  Tokyo,  Wakanoura,  and 

Head  2f  in  length;  depth  ?,\.  Eye  3^  in  head;  snout  about  8;  inter- 
orbital  width  4.     D.  XVII,  32.     a!  Ill,  8.     Scales  10-70-15. 

Body  oblong,  much  compressed,  the  lower  protile  relatively  straight, 
the  upper  much  compressed,  and  elevated  forward;  a  deep  notch  at 
the  nape  and  another  at  the  nostril;  mouth  small;  lips  thick;  teeth  in 
jaws  only,  the  outer  a  little  enlarged;  a  blunt  projection  over  each  eye 
growing  larger  with  age,  and  one  at  the  nostril;  snout  and  preoi'bital 
scaleless;  top  of  head,  cheeks,  and  opercles  with  small  scales;  preopercle 
entire;  opercle  ending  in  two  flat  points;  gill-rakers  12+5. 

Dorsal  deeply  notched,  the  fourth  spine  \^  in  head;  anal  spines  mod- 
erate, the  second  thickest;  last  soft  rays  rapidly  shortened,  the  longest 
14  in  head;  pectoral  longer  than  head,  reaching  vent;  ventrals  mod- 
erate, inserted  well  behind  pectorals;  caudal  deeply  and  evenly  forked. 

Body  rosy  brown,  with  oblique  cross  bands  of  deep  brown  or  rather 
orange  black;  three  of  these  on  the  head,  the  second  across  eye  and 
base  of  pectoral,  the  third  forming  a  large  blotch  on  the  opercle; 
fourth  including  first  three  dorsal  spines  and  extending  across  to  ven- 
trals fading  below,  the  ventral  fins  ])eing  jet  Ijlack;  fifth  and  sixth 
bands  extending  on  dorsal  and  ceasing  near  middle  of  side,  the  sixth 
confluent  below  with  seventh;  seventh  fully  confluent  with  eighth, 
leaving  only  three  spots  of  the  pale  ground  color  between  them; 
seventh  and  eighth  not  extending  on  dorsal,  but  covering  almost  all 
of  caudal  peduncle  and  the  lower  half  of  caudal  fin.  Anal  fin  a  little 
dusky;  fins  pale  except  where  crossed  by  the  extension  of  the  dark 
cross  bands. 

From  Steindachner's  excellent  figure  our  specimen  difl'ers  in  the 
greater  extension  downward  of  the  fourth  band,  and  in  the  partial 
separation  of  the  seventh  and  eighth  bands.  Of  this  species  we  have 
in  hand  a  single  specimen  10  inches  long.  It  was  found  in  the  market 
of  Yokohama  by  Pierre  L.  Jouy.  A  specimen  was  also  seen  at  Waka- 
noura. It  is  otherwise  known  only  from  the  specimen  of  Steindachner, 
and  that  recorded  by  Nystrom.  The  species  is  certainly  distinct  from 
Goniistius  gihho.sus  (Richardson)  of  the  coast  of  Australia,  with  which 
Steindachner  has  confounded  it,  and  probably  from  Goniistius  vestitus 
(Castelnau)  and  Goniistius  quadricornis  (Giinther),  both  Australian 
species.      Goniistius  vittatus  Garrett,  of  Hawaii,  which  Steindachner 


calls  a  ''  Farhenvaricfiifr  '^^  also  lu-ai-ly  related.  It  is,  however,  clearly 
distinct  from  Gouildin^  zchra^  as  will  appear  from  a  comparison  of 
Steindachner's  excellent  iig-ure  with  that  of  Cheilodartylux  clttatvs 
(properly  Goiiiistius  i'lft<ifus)  in  Jordan  and  Evermanirs  report  on 
the  Hawaiian  iislies. 
(.rt'/'/v/,  the  zebra.) 


Family  Cikrhitid.e. 

1.  Isolnnin  Jordan,  1907. 

1.  japoiilca  (Steindachner ),  ISSo. 

2.    Cirrliitiis  LacepC'de,  1803. 

2.  mariiionitKs  (Lacepede),  1801;  Yaku  Island. 

o.    Oirr](iliclitlii/s  Bleeker,  1856. 

3.  aiireuff  (Schle<rel),  1843;  Misaki. 

Family  A i'lodactylid.e. 

4.   aoiiiistiuii  Gill,  1862. 

4.  zonattis  C'uvier  and   Valenciennes,   1830;  Tokyo,   ]\Iisaki,  Wakanonra,   Hakata, 

5.  zebra  (Duderlein),  1883;  Yokohama,  Wakanuura. 


By  Andrew  Nelson  Caudell, 

Cvstodian  (if  CMliojAcra,   U.  <S'.  Nittioval  }hiseuiit. 

During  the  sprino-  of  190G  .several  weeks  were  spent  in  eastern 
Guatemala  by  Messrs.  PI  A.  Schwarz  and  H.  S.  Barber,  who  are  both 
skillful  collectors,  having-  special  aptitude  for  the  discovery  of  minute 
forms  of  insect  life.  Being  coleopterists,  their  particular  attention 
while  collecting  was  naturally  directed  toward  beetles,  but  that  other 
groups  were  not  neglected  is  well  proven  by  the  following  list  of  For- 
ficulidte  collected  by  them.  There  are  88  specimens  of  these  earwigs, 
representing  18  species,  distributed  in  18  genera,  of  which  6  species 
and  1  genus  are  undescribed.  All  of  this  material  is  in  the  United 
States  National  Museum. 

The  locality  most  frequently  mentioned— "Cacao"— is  situated  in 
the  Province  of  Alta  Vera  Paz,  between  Panzos  and  Senahii,  at  an 
altitude  of  about  900  feet,  near  the  foot  of  the  waterfalls,  above  which 
the  coti'ee  plantation  of  Trece  Aguas  is  situated. 

Notes  by  Mr.  Barber  are  appended  to  the  discussions  of  some  of  the 
species.     These  notes  are  inclosed  in  quotation  marks. 


Two  females.  Cacao,  Trece  Aguas,  Alta  Vera  Paz,  March  26,  31. 

"One  specimen  beaten  from  dead  banana  leaves,  the  other  from  dead  leaves  from 
a  recently  felled  tree.  This  species  so  closely  resembles  the  very  common  Stapylinid 
beetle,  Paederm  hrtus,  in  form,  coloration,  and  movements  that  it  was  by  accident 
we  discovered  that  it  was  a  Forticulid,  and  it  is  probable  that  many  more  specimens 
were  seen  without  being  recognized." 


Two  males,  0  females,  2  larva.  Cacao,  Trece  Aguas,  Alta  Vera  Paz, 
April  13-21. 

These  larvae  exhibit  the  slender,  many -segmented  anal  cerci,  as 
described  by  Westwood  some  years  ago  under  the  synonymous  genus 

Proceedings  U.  S.  National  Museum,  Vol.  XXXIII-No.  1563. 


170  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

DyscTitlna.  The  matter  provoked  much  discussion  at  the  time,  and 
the  rearing  of  the  adult  insects  hy  Green  detinitely  settled  the  ques- 
tion of  the  affinities  of  Westwood's  genus,  showing  it  to  be  Forhculid 
and  congeneric  with  Diplatys.  These  specimens  from  Guatemala  are, 
so  far  as  I  can  learn,  the  first  examples  of  this  ancestral  t3'pe  of  forfi- 
culid  larvi«  ever  reported  from  the  New  World.  The  adult  form, 
however,  is  not  at  all  rare  in  certain  places. 

D.  i<eve7\i^  which  was  described  from  a  single  female  specimen,  is  a 
good  species,  but  is  very  varial)le  in  coloration.  The  series  before 
me  comprises  one  with  the  color  almost  entirely  black,  some  with 
the  base  of  the  abdomen  and  the  forceps,  or  only  the  l)ase  of  the  abdo- 
men, reddish,  and  some  with  the  apical  part  of  the  abdomen  and  the 
forceps,  or  only  the  forceps,  red.  The  pr<^notum  is  usuall}^  unicol- 
orous,  sometimes  margined  with  lighter  color,  as  in  the  type,  and  the 
elytra  of  the  specimens  before  me  are  uniformly  black.  The  pro- 
jecting portion  of  the  wings  is  usually,  but  not  always,  darker  on  the 
apical  portion  than  basal ly.  The  legs  are  sometimes  wholly  black,  and 
sometimes  the  middle  and  posterior  femora  are  basally  j^ellowish. 

"Several  specimens,  including  long-taileil  larvre.  l)eaten  from  dead  banana  leaves 
that  hang  on  the  growing  plant." 


One  female.  Cacao,  Trece  Aguas,  Alta  Vera  Paz,  April  11. 

Description. — Head  slightly  broader  than  the  pronotum;  color  shiny 
black  above,  below  and  about  the  mouth  parts  brownish;  antenniB 
imperfect,  clear  reddish  yellow  in  color,  the  long  basal  and  very  short 
second  segments  darker.  Pronotum  shining  black  above,  lighter 
below,  longitudinally  broadly  sulcate  above,  the  disk  anteriorly  con- 
vex, posteriorly  flattened;  the  whole  pronotum  is  distinct!}"  narrowed 
and  neck-like  in  nearly  the  anterior  half,  the  posterior  portion  parallel 
sided,  truncate  behind,  the  entire  disk  less  than  twice  as  long  as  the 
mesiam  width.  El}' tra  piceous,  not  quite  twice  as  long  as  the  prono- 
tum and  together  almost  twice  as  broad  as  the  pronotum,  posteriorly 
subtruncate.  Scutellum  showing  between  the  bases  of  the  elytra, 
small  but  distinct;  projecting  portions  of  the  wings  a  little  less  than 
one-half  the  length  of  the  elytra  and  of  the  same  color  and  texture, 
but  narrower.  Abdomen  narrowing  basallj-,  reddish  3"ellow  above 
and  below,  somewhat  infuscated  laterally  above  on  the  basal  third; 
there  are  inconspicuous  lateral  folds  near  the  base  of  the  abdomen,  and 
the  last  segment  is  very  large  and  subquadrate.  Legs  clear  reddish 
3"ellow,  without  distinct  infuscation.  Forceps  somewhat  longer  than 
the  pronotum,  moderately  stout,  and  separated  basally  by  a  space 
nearly  as  great  as  the  width  of  one  of  them  at  that  point,  parallel 
sided  in  the  basal  half,  then  narrowing  in  two  terraces  to  a  point; 
unarmed,  the  tip  considerably  incurved. 


Length. — Body,  without  forceps,  7.5  mui. ;  forceps  2  mm. 

Type-specimen. —Cfit.  No.  10365,  U.S.N.M. 

The  posteriorly  broader  pronotiim  and  the  obscurely  laterally  folded 
abdomen  is  not  in  full  accord  with  characters  given  for  the  genus 
Cylindi'()gasfei\  inclining  rather  to  Dqdatyx..  Other  characters,  how- 
eyer,  haye  led  me  to  place  it  here. 

"In  company  with  ImVui  cdrnoeimii." 


"One  male,  one  immature  female,  taken  onto  steamer  wit! i  firewood.  Polochic 
Kiver,  below  mouth  of  C'ahabon  River,  3Iareh  22." 

ARTHRCEDETUS,   new  genus. 

Description. — Female,  unknown.  Male,  head  convex  aboye;  anten- 
nae of  more  than  19  segments,"  the  basal  segment  moderatel}-  large 
and  somewhat  enlarged  aj^icall}',  scarcely  longer  than  the  greatest 
width;  secoiid  segment  smaller  than  the  basal  one  and  about  one- 
third  as  long;  third  segment  yer}^  long,  being  almost  twice  as  long  as 
the  basal  one  and  mesially  about  as  thick;  fourth  segment  about  the 
same  length  as  the  second,  scarcely  as  long  as  broad ;  the  next  four  or 
tiye  segments  are  about  as  long  as  broad,  l)eyond  them  the  segments 
gradually  grow  more  elongate,  the  nineteenth  being  about  four  times 
as  long  as  broad.  Pronotum  no  longer  than  broad,  no  broader  than 
the  head.  P^lytra  and  wings  absent.  Abdomen  elongate,  scarcely 
broadened  mesially  and  moderately,  conyex,  without  lateral  folds,  the 
last  dorsal  segment  slightly'  transverse.  Legs  moderateh^  stout,  the 
second  tarsal  segment  small  and  simple,  the  first  and  third  subequal  in 
length,  no  arolium  visible  between  the  claws.  Forceps  of  moderate 
length  and  simple,  sulicontiguous  basally. 

This  genus  is  allied  to  Echinopsalis.,  l)ut  the  antennal  segments  are 
somewhat  different  from  those  of  the  ty^^  of  that  genus,  more  like 
those  of  Rehn's  E.  hrev/hractea.     Arthrcpdetns^  morever,  is  apterous. 

Type  of  the  genus. — ArthriPcIetus  Jxirheri. 

ARTHRCEDETUS   BARBERI,   new  species. 

One  male,  Polochi:;  River,  May  2. 

Description. — Of  moderate  large  size;  general  color  almost  uni- 
formly light  ])rown  above,  somewhat  lighter  l)elovy.  Head  slightlj^ 
darker  al)Ove  than  the  rest  of  the  body  and  with  a  distinct  transverse 
occipital  line,  and  from  the  center  of  this  line  a  longitudinal  depressed 
line  extends  to  the  hind  margin  where  it  meets  the  anterior  end  of  a 
deep  and  distinct  median  sulcus  which  extends  the  entire  length  of  the 
pronotum  and  obsoletely  on  over  the  meso-  and  metanotum.     Pronotum 

"The  antenna'  of  the  only  specimen  known  are  imperfect. 

172  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxm. 

quadrate  with  the  anterior  inarg'iii  well  rounded,  the  sides  and  pos- 
terior margin  more  broadly  so;  metanotum  as  broad  as  long  and 
posteriori}'  roundl}^  and  deeply  concave.  Abdomen  long  and  some- 
what flattened.  Legs  light  brown  with  a  scarcely  perceptible  infus- 
,  -  cated  tint   mediall}"  on    the   femora.     For- 

j      |T"  nZDZl        ^*P^  straight,  moderately  swollen,  and  trian- 

gular basall}',  curved  slightlv  inwards  and 
DIAGRAMMATICAL  FIGURE  OF  THE    eyliudrical  lu   the  apical  fourth,  the   inner 

BASAL   SEVEN   SEGMENTS  OF   THE  -^  ^  •■ 

ANTENN.E  or  ARTHRCEDETus    marglu    amicd   on   the  basal    three-fourths 
BARBERi.  with  a  number  of  very  minute  denticules. 

Pygidium  small,  about  as  broad  as  long,  rapidly  tapered  and  apically 

Length. — Body,  without  the  forceps,  12  mm.;  forceps,  2. .5  mm. 
Type-spedme7i.—OA.i.  No.  10366,  U.S.N.M. 

The  accompanying  figure  represents  diagrammatically  the  first  seven 
segments  of  the  antennf©  ArtJir<t'detui<  harheri. 

"This  insect  was  beaten  from  a  tangle  of  spiny  plants  and  vines  at  a  landing 
made  to  take  on  firewood,  on  the  left  bank  of  Polochic  River  l)elow  the  month  of  the 
Cahabon  River." 

PSALIS,  species. 

One  immature  male.  Cacao,  Trece  Aguas,  Alta  Vera  Paz,  April  23. 
BRACHYLABIS  NIGRA  Scudder.      ' 

One  male.  Cacao,  Trece  Aguas,  Alta  Vera  Paz,  April  19. 

This  is  the  first  reference,  so  far  as  I  know,  of  this  species  being 
found  north  of  South  America. 

The  tarsus  of  the  left  middle  leg  of  this  specimen  is  deformed,  having 
the  second  joint  aborted  and  the  others  somewhat  swollen,  the  whole 
tarsus  a  little  shorter  and  stouter  than  normal.  The  golden  luster  is 
but  little  noticeable  in  this  specimen.  The  measurements  are:  Length, 
body,  without  the  forceps,  8  mm.;  forceps,  1.75  mm. 

SPARATTA    MINUTA,  new  species. 

One  female,  Polochic  River,  March  22. 

Description. — Male,  unknown.  Female,  smaller  than  usual  in  the 
genus.  Head  black;  antenna?  imperfect,  the  segments  present,  eleven 
in  number,  unicolorously  brown.  Pronotum  black,  somewhat  longer 
than  broad,  rapidly  and  much  constricted  anteriorly,  being  necked, 
and  posteriorly  gradually  and  slightly  narrowing,  the  posterior  margin 
rounded;  the  disk  is  mesially  carinate  longitudinally,  but  inconspicu- 
ously so,  and  is  more  flattened  on  the  posterior  portion.  Abdomen 
much  flattened,  broadest  in  the  middle,  the  lateral  folds  scarcely  visible, 
the  last  segment  very  slightly  transverse;  subgenital  plate  projecting 
backward  between  the  lower  part  of  the  forceps  as  a  quadrate  apically 

SOME  EA R  Wins  FROM  a  UA  TEMA  LA—CA  UDELL.  ]  7 3 

notched  plate,  the  outer  apical  angles  of  which  are  acute.  The  color 
of  the  abdomen  is  black  above  except  the  anal  segment,  which  is  red- 
dish yellow,  beneath  paler.  Elytra  black,  twice  as  long  as  broad, 
together  much  l)roader  than  the  pronotum,  posteriori}"  obliquely 
roundly  truncate.  Projecting  portion  of  the  wings  similar  to  the 
elytra  in  texture  and  color  and  nearly  as  long  but  somewhat  narrower, 
being  noticeably  more  than  twice  as  long  as  broad,  posteriorly  rounded. 
Legs  reddish  brown,  the  femora  stout  and  somewhat  infuscated  basally. 
Forceps  blackish  with  a  reddish  tinge  at  the  extreme  base  inwardly, 
long  and  stout,  straight,  the  tips  incurving,  armed  inwardly  about  the 
middle  with  a  minute  sharp  tooth  and  at  the  base  on  the  inner  inferior 
margin  with  a  larger  triangular  tooth.  Pygidium  nearly  quadrate, 
the  posterior  margin  slightly  projecting  mesially  and  the  lateral 
margins  very  little  rounded. 

Length. — Body,  without  the  forceps,  5  mm.;  forceps,  I.. 5  mm. 

Type-specimen.— Q,^i.  No.  103(37,  U.S.N.M. 

This  small  species  seems  distinct  from  any  of  the  described  members 
of  the  genus.  It  does  not  appear  to  be  found  among  the  species 
recently  described  by  Rehn  and  Borelli,  nor  does  it  appear  to  be  any 
of  the  older  established  species.  In  color  it  is  something  like  the  8. 
dentifera  of  Rehn,  but  is  much  smaller. 

"Under  bark  of  Cecropia  wood  taken  onto  the  steamer  from  the  left  l)ank  of  the 
Polochic  River  below  the  mouth  of  the  Cahabon." 


Four  innnature  specimens.  Cacao.  Trece  Aguas.  Alta  Vera  Paz, 
April  2.  21,  and  2(5. 

LABIA   ARCUATA    Fabricius. 

Twelve  males,  1(5  females,  o  immature  specimens,  Cacao,  Trece 
Aguas,  Alta  Vera  Paz,  March  24  to  April  26. 

"A  few  individuals  found  singly  under  various  circumstances,  but  the  species  was 
found  in  abundance  in  and  under  a  pile  of  old  corn  husks  lying  on  the  ground  beside 
the  trail  and  also  on  the  ground  under  and  in  a  rotting  banana  plant." 


One  male.  Cacao.  Trece  Aguas.  Alta  Vera  Paz.  April  20. 

LABIA  SCHWARZI,  new  species. 

Two  males,  2  females,  Cacao,  Trece  Aguas,  Alta  Vera  Paz,  April  11. 

Descrij)tton. — Head  broader  than  the  pronotum,  shining  black;  eyes 
prominent;  antennae  14  jointed,  light  brown  in  color,  the  basal  three  seg- 
ments paler.  Pronotum  noticeably  longer  than  broad,  a  little  narrower 
anteriorly,  the  posterior  margin  rounded,  the  disk  posteriorly  trans- 
versely depressed.     Elytra  dark  brown  with  a  lateral  yellowish  line, 


broadening  at  the  humeral  angle;  in  length  the  elytra  are  fully  twice 
that  of  the  pronotum  and  together  are  considerably  broader  than  it, 
posteriorly  truncate.  Wings  brown  on  the  inner  half,  yellowish  on 
the  outer,  projecting  beyond  the  tips  of  the  elytra  a  distance  equal  to 
about  two-thirds  the  length  of  the  latter,  rounded  posteriorly.  Legs 
brownish  or  black,  the  femora  \&vy  stout.  Abdomen  convex,  short, 
distinctly  broader  mesially,  lateral  folds  scarcely  in  evidence,  the 
terminal  segment  broadl}'  transverse;  forceps  of  the  male  about  as 
long  as  the  abdomen,  triangular  basally,  apically  cylindrical,  curved 
moderately  inward  basally  widely  separated  and  armed  on  the  inner 
margin  with  some  minute  teeth;  of  the  female  slender,  somewhat 
shorter  and  straighter,  the  denticles  in  the  inner  margin  a  little  larger, 
basally  less  widely  separated.  Pygidium  of  the  male  very  broad, 
somewhat  longer  than  broad  and  apically  rounded,  entire. 

Lengtlc. — Body,  without  forceps,  male,  3.5— i  mm.,  female,  8.5  mm.; 
forceps,  male,  1.25-1.5  mm.,  female,  1  mm. 

Type-specimen.— OdX,.  No.  10368,  U.S.N.M. 

Except  for  size  this  species  bears  a  superficial  resemblance  to 
Spongophora  pygmaea  as  figured  by  Bormans.''  The  p3'gidium  of  the 
male  will  serve  to  separate  it  from  Lahia  hilhieata  Scudder,  to  which 
it  bears  a  somewhat  close  resemblance. 

"Found  running  on  and  under  the  bark  of  a  tree  resembling  Xantlioxcylon." 
I.A'BIK   BREVIFORCEPS,  new  species. 

One  female,  Livingston,  Guatemala,  May  5. 

Description. — General  color  yellowish  brown,  the  basal  two  seg- 
ments of  the  antennoe  lighter,  beyond  infuscated,  the  lateral  margins 
of  the  pronotum  and  elj'tra  and  the  legs  yellow.  The  elytra  show  the 
yellow  color  mostl}"  at  the  humeral  angles,  from  where  it  shades  ofi'  to 
brownish  posteriorly.  The  inner  margins  of  the  projecting  portions 
of  the  wings  show  a  trace  of  lighter  yellow.     Eyes  black. 

Head  convex,  broader  than  the  pronotum;  antennae  with  eighteen 
segments;  ma}^  be  more  as  some  of  the  terminal  ones  may  be  missing; 
the  third  segment  is  about  as  long  as  the  first,  three  times  as  long  as 
the  second,  being  about  three  times  as  long  as  it  is  wide.  Pronotum 
about  as  long  as  wide,  posteriorly  semicircularl}^  rounded,  mesially 
transversally  depressed  on  the  disk.  Elytra  three  times  as  long  as 
broad,  together  considerably  broader  than  the  pronotum,  pos.teriorl}^ 
truncate;  wings  projecting  a  distance  equal  to  about  one-third  the 
length  of  the  elytra,  posteriorly  narrowl}'  rounded.  Legs  short  and 
stout,  the  femora  thick,  second  tarsal  joint  small  and  simple,  the  third 
liut  little  hairy  beneath,  and  the  claws  have  a  small  pad  between  them. 
Abdomen  without  lateral  folds,  convex,  broad,  mesially  somewhat 
broadened,  the  last   dorsal   segment   somewhat  transverse,  dorsally 

"Biol.  Cent.-Amer.,  Orthoptera,  I,  pi.  ii,  figs.  4,  5. 


broadly  concave,  truncate,  the  apex  obscurely  bituberculate;  last  ven- 
tral segment  transverse,  rounded.  Forceps  very  short  and  stout,  tri- 
angular basally,  nearly  contiguous  and  curved  decidedly  upwards,  but 
onl}"  slightly  inwards  and  that  only  at  the  tip. 

Length. — Body,  without  forceps,  5  nun.;  forceps,  0.5  mm. 

Type-specimen.— C&t  No.  10369  U.8.N.M. 

This  insect  presents  characters,  such  as  the  many  jointed  antenna^, 
smooth  abdomen,  etc.,  not  in  accord  with  those  of  the  genus  LoI/ku 
but  for  the  present  I  have  preferred  to  place  it  questionably  in  that 

"This  was  beaten  from  leaves  of  recently  felled  trees  in  a  new  clearing  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Rio  Dulce,  about  two  miles  from  Livingston." 


Four  males,  3  females,  C'acao,  Trece  iVguas,  Alta  Vera  Paz,  April 
2,  5,  20,  and  21. 

One  of  these  specimens,  a  male  taken  April  2,  represents  a  variety 
ditiering  from  the  typical  form  in  the  shape  of  the  forceps,  which  are 
uniforml}'  bowed  instead  of  nearly  straight,  and  are  almost  unarmed 
on  the  inner  margin.  One  of  the  females  has  the  elytra  and  wings 
unicolorousl}'  black. 


Four  males,  2  females,  3  immature  specimens,  Cacao,  Trece  Aguas, 
Alta  Vera  Paz,  April  11  to  27. 

The  females  sometimes  have  the  wings  conspicuously  marked  bv  a 
3'ellow  spot,  and  sometimes  the  spot  is  almost  entirel}^  absent.  The 
forceps  of  the  male  are  sometimes  shaped  as  shown  in  Bornmns's 
original  figure,  but  in  three  of  the  four  representatives  of  that  sex 
now  before  me  the  forceps  are  tubercled  about  as  prominently  as 
in  Bormans's  figure  but  are  nearly  straight,  not  so  sinuate,  in  this 
respect  approaching  the  O.  anomaJa  of  Kehn. 

"Running  on  brush.     Not  uncommon." 


Two  immature  females.  Cacao,  Trece  Aguas,  Alta  Vera  Paz,  April  5. 


Six  males,  2  females.  Cacao,  Trece  Aguas,  Alta  Vera  Paz,  April  9 
to  27. 

FORFICULA   CACAOENSIS.  new  species. 

One  male,  1  female,  Cacao,  Trece  Aguas,  Alta  Vera  Paz,  March  29 
and  April  19. 

176  PROCEEDINOS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

Description — Male:  Head  moderate;  eyes  prominent;  antennje  13 
jointed,  of  the  usual  structure.  Pronotum  equaling  the  head  in 
width,  8ubquadrate,  posteriorly  broadly  rounded,  anteriorly  very 
slightly  excavate,  the  sides  straight,  thin  and  inclined  a  very  little 
upwards;  disk  a  little  convex  with  a  persistent  slender  median  sulcus, 
broader  in  the  anterior  half.  Abdomen  moderate,  broadest  mesially, 
the  surface  punctured,  the  segments  apicalh^  rounded,  the  second  and 
third  with  distinct  lateral  tubercles,  those  on  the  third  segment  the 
larger.  Elytra  nearly  twice  as  long  as  broad,  together  slightly  broader 
than  the  pronotum,  posteriorly  truncate,  the  sides  deflexed,  the  pos- 
terior lateral  angles  rounded;  the  elytra  meet  in  a  slightly  curved 
line  and  the  left  one  has  a  slight  curved  depression  in  the  middle 
near  the  inner  margin.  Wings  projecting  a  very  little  beyond  the 
tips  of  the  elytra,  scarcely  extending  over  the  basal  segment  of  the 
abdomen,  but  when  more  specimens  are  examined  this  will  probably 
be  found  to  vary  somewhat.  Legs  moderately  stout,  the  second 
joint  of  the  tarsi  distinctly  cordiform.  Forceps  contiguous  on  the 
basal  eighth,  or  slightly  less,  by  a  ))asal  expansion  which  extends 
almost  horizontall}^  inwards  from  the  arm  of  the  forceps  and  is  den- 
tate on  the  inner  margin;  from  the  ampliate  contiguous  base  the 
forceps  are  rounded,  unarmed  and  uniformly  curved.  Pygidium  not 
visible.  Color  of  the  head,  pronotum,  elytra,  wings,  abdomen  and 
most  of  the  forceps  black,  antennae  dark  brown,  uniform,  legs  light 
brownish  j^ellow,  the  femora  slightly  darkened  above,  forceps  at  the 
extreme  base  above  yellowish. 

Female:  Similar  to  the  male,  the  abdomen  more  uniformly  heav}', 
not  noticeal)ly  widened  mesially;  the  wings  project  more  than  in  the 
male  type,  the  projecting  portion  of  each  being  longer  than  wide:  the 
forceps  are  nearly  straight,  the  tips  a  little  incurved  apically  and  the 
basal  two-thirds  are  triquetreous,  inw^ardly  slight!}^  depressed  and 
minutely  serrate,  the  apical  third  cylindrical  and  unarmed. 

Length. — Body,  without  the  forceps,  male,  7  mm.,  female,  10  nun.; 
forceps,  male,  2  mm.,  female,  2  mm. 

Type-specime7i.—C^i.  No.  10370,  U.S.N.M. 

This  black  earwig  is  superficially  somewhat  allied  to  F.  liu/uhris, 
but  is  amply  distinct  from  that  species.  It  resembles  somewhat  the 
J^.  metrica  of  Rehn,  l)ut  the  forceps  of  the  male  will  at  once  separate 
it  from  that  species. 



By  Paul  Bartsch, 

AssiMant  Curator,  Division  of  MoUusks,  U.  S.  National  Museum. 

The  present  paper  embraces  diagnoses''  of  new  niollusks  from  the 
Oreo-onian  faunal  area,  belonging-  to  the  genera  Seila^  Bittimn., 
Ceritldopsk^  and  Metaxia.  Figures  of  these  will  appear  when  the 
monograph  of  these  forms  in  course  of  preparation  is  published. 

SEILA   MONTEREYENSIS,  new  species. 

Shell  large,  robust,  brown.  (Extreme  apex  lost  in  all  our  speci- 
mens.) One  of  the  cot^-pes  has  two  and  a  half  nuclear  whorls  remain- 
ing. These  are  rather  inflated,  evenly  rounded,  marked  by  many 
slender  obliquely  reti'active  axial  riblets.  The  transition  of  the  nuclear 
sculpture  to  the  post-nuclear  is  very  al>rupt.  The  sculpture  of  the 
post-nuclear  turn  consists  of  three  very  strong,  equal,  and  equall}^ 
spaced  lamellar  spiral  keels  between  the  sutures.  Channels  separating 
the  spiral  keels  well  rounded,  a  little  widei'  than  the  keels,  crossed  by 
many  subequal  and  subequally  spaced  slender  ri])lets,  of  which  about 
40-50  appear  on  the  whorls.  Peripher}^  of  tlie  last  whorl  marked  by  a 
fourth  spiral  keel  not  quite  as  strong  as  the  keels  of  the  spire  and  a  little 
more  closely  placed  to  the  keel  posterior  to  it  than  that  is  to  its  neighbor 
above  it.  Base  marked  by  a  spiral  keel  which  equals  the  peripheral 
keel  in  strength,  sepai'ated  from  it  by  a  channel  a  little  narrower  than 
the  supraperipheral  groove.  Both  of  these  channels  are  crossed  by 
the  axial  riblets.  The  remaining  portion  of  the  base  slopes  somewhat 
concavel}"  towaid   the  stout  columella.     Under  the  microscope  the 

«In  the  preparation  of  the  present  diagnoses  the  following  terminology  is  used: 
Spiral  sculpture,  the  markings  following  the  direction  of  the  coils  of  the  whorls. 
Axial  sculpture,  the  markings  which  extend  from  the  summit  of  the  whorls  toward 
the  umbilicus. 

The  axial  sculpture  may  be^ 

Vertical,  when  the  markings  are  in  general  parallelism  with  the  axis  of  the  shell. 
Protractive,  when  the  markings  slant  forward  from  the  preceding  suture. 
Retractive,  when  the  markings  slant  backward  from  the  suture. 

Proceedings  U.  S.  National  Museum,  Vol.  XXXIII— No.  1564. 
Proc.  N.  M.  vol.  xxxiii— 07 12  177 




entire  surface  of  the  spire  and  base  appears  marked  b}^  fine  lines  of 
growth  and  spiral  striations.  Aperture  subquadrate,  decidedly  chan- 
neled anteriorl}^;  outer  lip  rendered  sinuous  by  the  spiral  keels, 
parietal  wall  and  edge  of  columella  covered  by  a  moderately  strong 
callus.  The  nuclear  structures  were  described  from  a  young  specimen, 
Cat.  No.  19520(),  U.S.N.M.,  which  has  10  whorls  (the  first  two  nuclear 
whorls  probably  being  lost),  and  measures:  Length  3.6  mm.-,  diameter 
1.1  mm.  The  other  cotype  (Cat.  No.  32290,  U.S.N.M.)  is  an  adult 
shell  in  which  the  last  11  whorls  remain,  and  measures:  Length 
12.4  mm.;  diameter  1.1  mm. 

This  species  has  been  known  from  the  west  coast  under  the  name  of 
Cerithiopsis  assimilata  C.  B.  Adams,  a  Panamic  species,  which  is  a 
pygmy  in  size  compared  with  the  present  form. 

Specimens  e.nuii  ined. 




Museum  number. 

Cat  No. 
32290  (1  cotvpe). 


Monterey!  California,  "(off  Del  Monte. 
12  fathoms).  _ 

S.S.  Berry 

W.H.  Dall 

19.5206  (cotype). 







W.H.  Dall 



Mrs  Oldrovd 







do , 









San  Pedro  (Terminal  Island) 

San  Diego,  California 

San  Diego  (Ocean  Beach) 

Stearns  collection 

F.  W.  Kelsev 


Mrs.  Oldroyd 

U.  S.  F.  C.  Station  4310 

H .  Hemphill 


Off  Point  Loma  light  (71  to  75  fath- 
Todos  Santos,  Lower  California 

BITTIUM    (STYLIDIUM  ")    ESCHRICHTI   ICELUM,  new  subspecies. 

In  B.  eschric/itl  only  the  early  whorls  show  axial  ribs.  In  the  pres- 
ent form  they  are  well  developed  on  all  the  turns,  weakening  only  on 
the  last.  The  type,  Cat.  No.  15209a,  U.S.N.M.,  was  collected  by  J.  G. 
Swan  at  Neah  Bay,  Washington.  It  has  9  whorls  (the  nucleus  being 
lost),  and  measures:  Length  1.5  mm.;  diameter  5.5  mm.  Another 
specimen,  Cat.  No.  32209,  U.S.N.M.,  belongs  to  the  Stearns  collection 
and  comes  from  Monterey,  California. 



This  form  is  the  southern  race  of  B.  eschrichti.  It  differs  from  the 
typical  form  in  being  less  strongly  spirally  keeled,  much  more  smooth, 
more  slender,  and  in  every  way  more  elegant  than  eschrichti.  The 
typical  form  varies  in  color  from  brown  to  white,  and  is  very  rarely 

oThe  name  Stijlidhun  is  i)roposed  by  W.  H.  Dall,  with  B.  eschrichti  Middendorff, 
as  type,  in  a  publication  now  in  press. 



spotted.  In  montereyensis  the  variegated  forms  predominate;  that  is, 
the  shells  are  whitish  mottled  with  rust  brown.  The  t^^pe,  Cat. 
No.  32221,  U.S.N.M.,  has  10  whorls,  and  measures:  Length  13.8  nun.; 
diameter  5  mm. 

BITTIUM    ESURIENS   MULTIFILOSUM,  new   subspecies. 

Shell  similar  to  B.  esurUms,  l)ut  hti-ving  7  spiral  keels  l)etween  the 
sutures  on  the  whorls  of  the  spire  instead  of  4. 

The  type,  Cat.  No.  127051,  U.S.N.M.,  was  collected  by  Mrs.  Old- 
royd  at  Whites  Point,  San  Pedro,  California.  It  has  10  whorls,  and 
measures:  Length  9.2  mm.;  diameter  3  mm. 

Specimens  examined. 




Museum  number. 

Monterey,  California 

Cat.  i\o. 

W.  H.  Dall 56002. 

Stearns  collection 32235. 

Whites  Point,  San  Pedro 


Mrs.  Oldrovd 


127051  (type). 

W.H.  Dall 





San  Pedro  (50  fathoms) 

Mrs.  Oldrovd 


BITTIUM   TUMIDUM,  new  species. 

Shell  of  medium  size,  light  yellowish-})rown,  shining.  Nuclear 
whorls  decollated.  Post-nuclear  whorls  somewhat  inflated,  well 
rounded,  separated  by  constricted  sutures  and  ornamented  with  strong 
tuberculate  axial  ribs,  of  which  there  are  18  upon  the  second  of  the 
remaining  whorls  and  22  upon  the  penultimate  turn.  In  addition  to 
the  axial  ribs  there  are  four  unequally  broad,  low,  spiral  ridges 
between  the  sutures,  which  are  much  wider  than  the  spaces  which 
separate  them,  the  latter  appearing  as  strongly  incised  lines.  The 
intersection  of  these  ridges  and  the  ribs  form  the  tubercles.  The 
whorls  slope  gently  from  the  second  spiral  ridge  toward  the  summit, 
and  the  first  row  of  tubercles  which  is  only  feebly  developed  is  located 
on  the  sloping  shoulder.  The  second  set  of  tubercles  are  rounded 
while  the  third  and  fourth  rows  are  decidedly  elongated.  Periphery 
of  the  last  turn  marked  by  a  strong  smooth  spiral  keel,  which  is  sepa- 
rated from  the  supraperipheral  keel  by  a  mere  constriction.  Base 
rather  .short  without  keel,  marked  only  by  lines  of  growth.  Aperture 
suboval,  decidedly  channeled  anteriorly;  outer  lip  rendered  sinuous 
by  the  external  sculpture;  columella  short,  very  broad,  and  slightly 
expanded  at  the  insertion,  a  little  lighter  in  color  than  the  rest  of  the 
shell;  provided  with  a  strong  callus  on  its  inner  edge  which  is  reflected 
over  the  parietal  wall. 

The  type,  Cat.  No.  74001,  U.S.N.M.,  was  collected  by  Canfield  at 
Monterey,  California.      It  has  8  postnuclear  whorls   and  measures: 

180  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

Length  4. 2  mm. ,  diameter  1 . 7  mm.  A  second  immature  specimen,  Cat. 
No.  23261,  U.S.N.M.,  is  in  the  Stearns  collection,  also  from  Monterey, 

BITTIUM    QUADRIFILATUM    INGENS,  new  subspecies. 

Shell  similar  to  B.  (piadrlfilatuin  but  in  every  way  stronger  and 
larger  and  of  white  color.  The  spiral  bands  in  B.  (piadTijilatum  do 
not  form  strong  cusps  at  their  intersections  with  the  axial  ribs,  but 
simple  nodes,  while  in  the  present  form  these  intersections  are  decid- 
edly cusped. 

The  type.  Cat.  No.  32213,  U.S.N.M.,  from  Monterey,  California, 
has  lost  its  nucleus;  the  ten  remaining  turns  measure:  Length  12.2  mm. ; 
diameter  4.5  mm.  Another  specimen,  Cat.  No.  195159,  U.S.N.M., 
was  dredged  by  the  U.  S.  Fisheries  steamer  AJlxitross  at  station  4475, 
10  miles  off  Point  Pinos  Light.  California,  in  142  to  158  fathoms. 

CERITHIOPSIS  COSMIA,  new  species. 

Shell  elongate-conic,  variegated  with  various  shades  of  brown,  white, 
and  wax  yellow.  Nuclear  whorls  3i,  slender,  lending  the  apex  a 
mucronate  appearance.  First  nuclear  whorl  smooth,  second  crossed 
by  feeble  axial  riblets.  The  riblets  increase  considerably  in  size  in 
the  remaining  turns,  where  they  are  very  regularly  developed  and 
evenly  spaced.  They  are  strongl}^  protractive  as  they  pass  from  suture 
to  suture,  the  extremity  at  the  lower  suture  being  considerably  in 
advance  of  the  extremit}'  at  the  summit.  In  addition  to  the  vertical 
riblets  microscopic  crinkly  lines  appear  on  the  intercostal  spaces 
which  intersect  the  riblets  in  oblique  even  curves  at  right  angles. 
The  transition  from  the  nuclear  to  the  post-nuclear  sculpture  is 
abrupt,  the  three  chief  tuberculate  spiral  keels  being  present  from 
the  very  beginning  of  the  postnuclear  turn.  On  the  first  four  post- 
nuclear  turns  the  posterior  spiral  keel  is  less  developed  than  the  rest, 
but  it  increases  with  each  succeeding  turn  and  finally  becomes  the 
strongest  of  the  three.  The  tubercles  are  the  earl}-  whorls,  are  almost 
round  and  slope  abruptl}^,  concavely  posteriorly  and  gently  well 
rounded  anteriorl3\  On  the  later  whorls  they  are  oblong,  with  their 
long  axis  vertical.  Channels  separating  the  spiral  keels  about  as 
wide  as  the  keels  on  the  early  whorls,  less  so  in  the  later  turns,  curved 
by  the  low,  broad,  strong,  backward  slanting  axial  riblets.  The 
spaces  between  these  ribs  and  the  spiral  keels  appear  as  rounded  pits. 
Sutures  well  impressed.  Periphery  of  the  last  whorl  marked  by  a 
strong  spiral  keel.  Base  well  rounded,  marked  by  three  equal  and 
equally  spaced  spiral  keels  separated  by  equally  wide  and  strong  chan- 
nels. The  entire  surface  of  the  spire  and  base  keels,  tubercles,  and 
channels  are  marked  by  microscopic  lines  of  growth  and  spiral  stria- 
tions.     Aperture  subquadrate,  posterior  angle  obtuse,  decidedly  chan- 



neled  at  the  junction  of  the  short,  thick,  somewhat  twisted  columella 
and  outer  lip. 

This  description  is  based  upon  two  specimens,  cotj'pes,  Cat.  No. 
1951!**;,  U.S.N.M.  One  has  the  nucleus  and  11  postnuclear  whorls, 
and  has  furnished  the  description  of  the  nucleus.  This  measures: 
Length  7.8  mm. ;  diameter  2.8  nun.  The  other  has  lost  its  nucleus 
and  probably  the  first  two  postnuclear  turns,  and  measures:  Length 
9  nun.:  diameter  2.9  nnn. 

Speciiiinis  in  the  U.  S.  National  Museum. 




Museum  number. 


Monterey,  California 

W.  H.Diill 

Cat.  No. 











Mrs.  Okiroyd 

....  do  . .     ■ 

19519(3  (2  eotvpes) . 

San  Pedro  Bay  .   ..          


Goyerninent  jetty.  Sun  Diego 

F.  W.Kelsev 

H  Hemphill  . 



Stearn.s : 


CERITHIOPSIS    PEDROANA,  new   species. 

Shell  small,  slender,  dark  brown.  Nuclear  whorls  three,  3'ellowish- 
white,  smooth.  Post-nuclear  whorls  strongh'  differentiated  from  the 
nuclear  ones,  showing  the  sculpture  characteristic  of  the  adult  shell 
from  the  very  beginning.  This  sculpture  consists  of  three  equally 
spaced  tuberculate  spiral  keels  between  the  sutures,  the  posterior  one 
of  which  is  slightly  smaller  than  the  other  two.  These  keels  are 
separated  by  deep  rounded  channels  almost  as  wide  as  the  keel.  In 
addition  tliere  are  many  low,  rather  broad  axial  ribs,  the  intersec- 
tions of  which  with  the  keel  form  the  tubercles.  About  20  of  them 
occur  upon  the;  tirst,  22  upon  the  fifth,  and  30  upon  the  penultimate 
post-nuclear  turn.  The  connection  lietween  the  tubercles,  both  spiral 
and  axial,  are  about  equal,  inclosing  deep,  squarish  pits.  In  addition 
to  the  above  sculy^ture  the  entire  surface  is  marked  by  fine  spiral  lines 
and  lines  of  growth.  Sutures  strong!}'  marked,  constricted,  showing 
the  peripheral  keel  in  the  later  whorl.  Periphery  marked  by  a  broad, 
low.  rounded  keel.  Another  of  equal  width  is  located  upon  the  middle 
of  the  base.  The  sulcus  which  separates  these  keels  and  the  supra- 
peripheral  sulcus  are  of  equal  width  ;  both  are  crossed  by  the  weak 
continuations  of  the  axial  ribs,  which  graduallv  weaken  as  they  pass 
toward  the  columella.  The  basal  keel  is  separated  from  the  columella 
by  broad,  shallow  grooves.  Aperture  irregularly  oval,  decidedly 
channeled  anteriorly,  outer  lip  thin,  rendered  sinuous  by  the  external 
keel;  columella  stout  and  somewhat  twisted,  with  a  strong  callus  on  its 
inner  edge  that  extends  over  the  parietal  wall. 




The  two  cotypes,  Cat.  No.  109512,  U.S.N.M.,  were  collected  by 
Mrs.  W.  H.  Eshnaur  at  TerniiDal  Island,  San  Pedro,  California.  The 
one  has  the  nucleus  and  3  post-nuclear  whorls;  the  other  has  lost  the 
nucleus  and  has  *.)  ])ost-nuclear  turns  and  measures:  Leng'th  5.2  mm., 
diameter  l.S  mm. 

yprcimens  in  the  U.  S.  National  Museum. 






Terminal  Island,  California 

Catalina  Island,  California 

Sa:i  Pedro,  California 


San  Pedro  (Whites  Point),  California 

San  Diego,  California 



San  Diego  (Government  jetty),  Cali- 

Point  Abreojos,  Lower  California 

Todos  Santos  Bay,  Lower  California  . 


Museum  number. 

Cat.  No. 

Mrs.  W.  H.  Eshnaur 109512  (cotypes). 

W.  H.  Dall 56751. 

T.  Oldroyd 195179. 

.T.  G.  Cooper 14825. 

T.  S.  Oldroyd 19.5180. 

Brannan 73725a. 

.1.  M.Cooke 130584. 

Stearns  collection "1  o2287a. 

do i  322206. 

W.  H.  Dall I  56006a. 

T.  S.  Oldrovd )  123401. 

H.  Hemphill 109364. 

F.  W.  Kelsey 1530.58. 

H.  Hemphill 106504. 

Stearns  collecti(  m 32292. 

METAXIA  DIADEMA,  new  species. 

Shell  slender,  decidedly  turrited,  brown.  Nuclear  whorls  four,  the 
first  smooth,  the  others  marked  by  two  spiral  threads,  the  posterior 
one  of  which  falls  on  the  middle  of  the  whorls  between  the  sutures, 
while  the  anterior  one  is  about  halfway  between  it  and  the  basal  suture. 
In  addition  to  this  sculpture  there  are  slender  equal  and  equally  spaced 
axial  riblets,  of  which  about  28  occur  upon  the  third  and  30  upon  the 
fourth  whorl.  The  nuclear  whorls  are  slopingly  shouldered  from 
the  posterior  keel  to  the  summit  and  well  rounded  anterior  to  it.  The 
demarcation  between  the  sculpture  of  the  nuclear  turns  and  the  post- 
nuclear  turns  is  abrupt.  Post-nuclear  turns  inflated,  marked  by  four 
strong"  spiral  tuberculate  keels  and  axial  ribs.  These  four  keels  are 
equall}'^  spaced,  but  not  equall}^  strong.  The  third  excels  all  the  others 
in  development,  the  fourth  or  basal  one  comes  next,  the  second  next, 
while  the  one  at  the  summit  is  the  weakest  of  the  four.  The  axial 
ribs  are  broad  and  strong' and  rather  distantly  spaced,  forming  decided 
nodes  at  their  intersection  with  the  spiral  keels.  There  are  about  11 
of  these  ribs  upon  the  first,  15  upon  the  fifth,  and  22  upon  the  penul- 
timate turn.  The  spiral  keels  connecting  the  tubercles  are  onh^  about 
one-fourth  as  strong  as  the  axial  rib.s;  the  areas  inclosed  by  the  two 
are  quadrangular,  the  vertical  diameter  being  the  shorter.  On  the 
last  wdiorl,  where  the  ribs  are  a  little  more  crowded,  these  areas  become 
squarish.  Sutures  strongly  constricted.  Peripher}^  of  the  last  whorl 
marked  by  a  strong  keel,  separated  from  the  supra-peripheral  keel  by 
a  strong  channel,  which  is  crossed   by  the  continuations  of  its  axial 



ribs.  Base  rather  short,  sloping  somewluit  concav^ely  from  the  periph- 
eral keel  to  the  insertion  of  the  broad  cohmiella,  marked  by  a  weak 
spiral  thread  at  the  base  of  tiie  columella  and  the  continuation  of  the 
axial  ribs  which  extend  well  up  on  the  columella.  Aperture  suboval, 
decidedly  chanmdc^d  at  the  iunction  of  the  lip  and  cohnnella  with  the 
posterior  angle  obtuse. 

The  smaller  of  the  two  cotypes.  Cat.  No.  U>5;^03,  ILS.N.M.,  has  the 
nucleus  complete  and  S  post-nuclear  whorls  and  measures:  Length  3.8 
mm.;  diameter  1.3  mm.  The  other,  Cat.  No.  1.53045,  LJ.S.N.M.,  has 
8  post-nuclear  whorls,  having  lost  the  nuclear  and  probably  two  of  the 
post-nuclear  turns;  it  measures:  Length -!.<'>  nun.;  diameter  1.5  mm. 

This  species  has  heen  confounded  with  the  European  Metaxia 
inetaxae,  under  which  name  it  lias  appeared  in  many  lists. 

Speciniati<  exdinuifl. 


Locality.                            1                       Collector. 

Museum  number. 

R.  E.  C. Stearns 

Cat.  i\'o. 



S.S.  Berry 



Monterey  (Del  xMonte),  12  fathoms 

Monterey  ( Del  Monte) ,  28  fathoms 

1101    Berry    colk-c- 
/    tion. 

195223  (leotype). 



San  Pedro 


Mrs.  Oldrovd.                      





Ocean  Beach  

Off  Point  Loma,  10  fathoms 

West  coast 


S.  S.  Berrv                            

39Berrv  collection 

F.  W.  Kelsey 

153045  (cotvpe). 


Stearns  collection 



By  Willia:m  Healp:y  Dall, 

Curator,  Dirisian  of  }follii>ikK,    I'.  S.  Xdlioiidl  Miitteniit. 

The  publication  of  an  account"  of  Martini  and  his  famous  worlv  on 
the  shells  of  the  South  Seas  by  me  in  1905,  had  the  hoped-for  effect,  in 
that  it  was  the  means  of  brinsj'ing  out  supplementary  information 
which  enal)les  me  to  supply  data  missing  at  the  date  of  the  first  paper 
and  to  confirm  conclusions  which  in  it  were  arrived  at  by  circumstan- 
tial evidence.  Next  to  the  positive  determination  that  the  first  SO 
plates  were  published  in  ITS-t,  the  most  important  data  relate  to  the 
correction  of  the  so-called  reprint  issued  b}-  Chenu  of  the  tal)les  for 
the  second  80  j)lates,  which  turns  out  to  be  entirely  unreliable.  The 
new  information  comes  from  widely  scattered  sources. 

The  copy  containing  the  first  80  plates,  belonging  to  the  Academy 
of  Natural  Sciences  at  Philadelphia,  is  about  the  same  size  as  the 
National  Museum  copy  (12i  by  10-^  inches)  and  is  of  the  same  date. 
It  contains  a  publisher's  circular  offering  the  work  separately  printed 
on  an  octavo  sheet  dated  1787,  and  a  manuscript  note''^  stating  that  the 
Duke  of  York's  copy  sold  for  10  guineas.  The  plates  and  ta))les 
agree  with  those  of  the  Museum  copy. 

The  second  copy  examined  was  sent  from  South  Dakota  b}^  a  collector 
who  sold  it  to  Mr.  John  B.  Henderson,  jr.,  of  Washington,  and  like- 
wise consisted  of  80  plates  elegantly  bound.  This  was  evidently  one 
of  the  "select  copies'"  of  the  tirst  issue,  as  it  is  on  folio  sheets  (1(1^  by 
16^  inches),  and  is  dated  after  the  first  engraved  title,  "1784."  and 
after  the  second  engraved  title  has  "MDCCLXXXIV  |  Tomkins 
scripsit  !  Ellis  sc."  |  in  small  letters.  This  plate  and  the  dedication 
are  larger  than  those  in  the  quarto  edition  and  printed  from  a  different 
engraved  plate,  although  the  wording  is  the  same  as  in  the  quarto 
copies.     There  are  no  plates  of  medals.     The  text  is  worded  the  same 

«Proc.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus.,  XXIX,  1905,  No.  1425,  pp.  415-432. 

&Taken  from  an  account  of  the  sale  in  the  London  Times,  May  24,  1827. 

Proceedings  U.  S.  National  Museum,  Vol.  XXXIII— No.  1565. 


186  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

as  in  the  later  issues,  for  the  most  part,  but  slightl}'  differently  dis- 
tributed. On  page  ,S,  paragraph  2,  after  ''South  Seas,'^  is  added 
"comprising  in  all  a])out  170  different  species.  The  whole  of  which 
will  be  contained  in  four  volumes,  each  volume  exhibiting  lo  shells  or 
80  figures.^'  The  later  issues  have  only  "The  whole  of  wliich  will  be 
comprised  in  two  volumes." 

The  Henderson  copy,  p.  8,  footnote,  asks  that  ""  correct  copies  of 
these"  (i.  e.,  drawings  of  unique  shells  for  use  in  the  work)  ma}^  be 
sent  to  the  author  b}'  "Christmas,  1785,"  in  order  to  enricli  the  suite 
of  these  particular  shells  in  this  repository.  This  n  'te,  or  a  part  of  it, 
appears  on  page  6  of  the  quarto.  Page  '■li^  in  the  Henderson  copy  ends 
the  text.  Then  follows  the  "Explanatory  Table,"' worded  as  in  the 
quarto,  but  engraved  on  a  somewhat  larger  plate.  The  tigures  of  shells 
follow,  but,  while  they  are  the  same  species  as  in  the  quarto,  they  are 
in  a  few  cases  differently  placed  on  the  sheet,  and  the  space  inclosed  by 
the  neat-lines  is  larger. 

Under  the  sheet  of  the  Explanatory  Table  is  inserted  an  octavo 
sheet  of  two  pages,  one  English  and  one  French,  headed  "Observa- 
tions on  the  Explanatory  Table."  This  sheet  has  not  been  seen  in  any 
other  copy,  but  contains  nothing  of  importance.  It  is  chieffy  devoted 
to  remarks  on  the  shells  ffgured  on  plates  2,  11,  20,  and  21. 

The  second  forty  plates  forming  "Volume  II"  have  a  copy  of  the 
1787  circular  inserted  after  the  fly  leaf,  together  with  a  note  (with  no 
headline),  as  follows:  "As  the  four  first  volumes  of  this  undertaking  | 
form  of  themselves  a  distinct  work  and  as  such  |  may  be  preferred  by 
some  Persons:  an  additional  |  Title  page  is  therefore  added  for  such 
Purpose,  leaving  the  other  title  page  to  be  removed  at  \  the  Discretion 
of  the  Purchasers." 

There  is  the  same  engraved  title  as  for  Volume  I  (first  forty  plates), 
no  text,  explanatory  table  the  same  as  in  the  quarto. 

The  following  differences  are  noted  between  the  Henderson  copy  of 
the  plates  and  the  plates  of  the  quarto: 

Plate  13  has  two  views  of  shell.     There  is  only  one  view  in  the  quarto. 

Plates  57  and  59;  same  remark. 

Plates  61  and  68,  the  figures  are  side  by  side.  In  the  quarto  (owdng 
to  the  smaller  pageO  they  are  placed  diagonally. 

All  the  other  plates,  except  in  regard  to  the  neat-line,  agree  exactly 
with  those  of  the  quarto. 

Mr.  Chai'les  Hedley,  of  the  Australian  Museum,  informed  me  that 
they  possess  a  complete  copy  with  all  the  plates  and  also  copies  of  the 
publisher's  circular  in  octavo  form,  with  French  and  English  text  for 
the  issues  of  1781  and  1786.  These  circulars  are  now  known  for  1784, 
1786,  and  1787.  Mr.  Hedley,  with  the  concurrence  of  the  Museum 
authorities,  was  kind  enough  to  send  me  photographs  of  the  circulars 
and  also  of  the  "  Explanatory  Tables"  belonging  to  Volumes  III  and 


IV,  otherwise  the  third  and  fourth  batches  of  -iO  plates  each.  1  have 
already  called  attention  to  the  confusion  caused  by  the  publisher  some- 
times referring-  to  40  and  at  other  times  to  SO  plates  as  a  volume. 
The  explanatory  tables  are  marked  Vol.  I,  II,  III,  and  IV,  respec- 
tivelv.  I  reproduce  the  Eng-lish  page  of  the  earliest  prospectus  known 
to  me,  that  dated  ITl-i'l. 

The  words  "This  day  is  published"  should  not  l)e  taken  literally, 
since  they  occur  on  each  of  the  circulars.  They  simply  mean  that  the 
books  are  on  sale  at  the  time  of  distribution  of  the  circular,  even  when 
first  issued  earlier.  The  subsequent  circulars  diti'er  ])ut  little  in  word- 
ing-. They  have  the  heading  "Academy  for  Painting  of  Natural 
History,"  which  is  wanting  on  the  circular  of  1784. 

For  condition  V  of  the  1784  circular  that  of  1786  has  "That  the  sub- 
sequent volume,  which  is  alread}"  in  great  part  finished,  shall  be  pub- 
lished some  time  in  the  spring,  1787." 

In  the  circular  of  1787,  after  the  line  "This  day  is  published,"  is 
inserted  "(in  two  volumes  compleat);"  the  paragraph  numbered  V  in 
1786  is  omitted,  and  paragraph  VI  becomes  V,  while  there  is  no  para- 
graph VI. 

The  prices  cited  also  vary.  In  1786  the  price  is  raised  to  "nine 
guineas  each  volume,  in  a  rich  extra  binding;  and  ten  guineas  and  a 
half  in  morocco.  Unbound,  seven  guineas  and  a  half.  An  edition 
of  the  above  Work,  elegantly  bound  in  small  Folio,  may  be  had  at 
tive  guineas  and  a  half  each  volume."  The  same  prices  were  asked  in 

In  1784  the  author  was  situated  at  "26  King-Street,  Covent-Garden," 
but  in  1786  and  1787  the  circulars  place  him  at  "  16  Great  Marlborough- 

The  data  above  given  prove  conclusively  that  the  first  eighty  plates 
appeared  in  1784,  the  third  forty  in  1TS6,  and  the  work  was  completed 
probably  in  the  spring  of  1787.  Also  that  the  date  on  the  title-pages 
was  changed  at  least  twice,  copies  existing-  dated  1784,  1787,  and  1789; 
and  that  a  separate  title-page  was  prepared  for  the  first  four  volumes 
of  South  Sea  shells  Avhen  it  became  impossible  to  carry  out  the  author's 
plan  of  issuing  a  general  iconography. 

The  photographs  of  the  "  Explanator}^  Tables  "  of  Volumes  III  and 
IV  show  such  discrepancies  between  Chenu's  "reprint"  and  the  text 
it  purports  to  represent  that  the  suspicion  arises  that  the  original 
ta1)le  ma}"  have  been  submitted  to  some  revision  and  additions  in  a 
later  issue;  otherwise  it  seems  impossible  to  account  forChenu  giving 
in  each  case  for  these  two  volumes  the  generic  name  Cardiuni^  when 
the  original  reads  Cochlea^  and  specific  names  to  species  for  which  no 
specific  name  had  been  engraved  in  the  compartment  of  the  table 
intended  to  hold  one. 




Volume  tk^:  First;  of  FIGURES  ot  Non-d:::cki?t  Shells, 


Several  Vovage?  to  tlie  South  Seas,  lince  rliL:  Year  1764. 
DEDICATED  (by  Termijjlon)  to  HIS  MAJESri': 

Tl'ibitint;  ri 
■'. -Jcfcript 

Shells  flwil 

Cox  niT  IONS. 

I.  '-B-^HAT  thr  •••■•'•■ 

_3_  complo..: 
S'-.cils.  irom  r. 
p:iR'd  in  tou:  -^i-'ine 

II.  'I'll, It   lirr.HTY    FiGV'i 

be  t;ivtii  ill  e^ch  vuiuni.;. 
in.  'J  h;u  ihe  more  ]•.,: 

cCLitcci  Bi-  the  Aiithor  o.ily  ; 

Bviii^Puir.if.underhisiiimi . 
IV.   Th-.U  ine;'.ch  vo!u:ne  '.h.ii!  b:    i;uc.n  .ui  l 

graved  titie  p-i^e,  .iik!  jc  c-.;v    i.koi  y  t-l-.; 

(in  French  .-.nd  Englift;  U:i.v,  in;;  in  di'K-: 

cut  coi'.imns,-   ilt.    The   nu:nber  rcterrm 

to  e.ichfigjr!:  in  the  order  or  iti  luccelEci 

^  A  fmal!   number  of  SELECT  COl'IKS 
hah'  oil  t 

2^1^.  The  En'_;:'{h  nnme  r.:id  fainilv.  \v;:ii 
an  iettvr  denoting  the  genus,  or 
diviiion  0:'  tii.;r  rnniiv,  to  n-hich  the  i>.;-ll 
belont;!.  .':■:■:■-■■  m  the  S_v!:cm  ot  xh? 
Author.  -  '.  .  1  :  ■  '..irin  name,  nnd  ;t'  ,.■:- 
tjrec  ut    i.^r:  .  '::i','.  V\'bere  the  *>''  ;    - 

adcady  in  4;rc;ic  p..r:  iui.lhi  J. 
lilhodnt  re^^  intervals  ot 
VI.  That  the  }3uce  Ihall  he  fix  ,,   ,..-.:. 
vokiinc,  elegantly  bound,  or  five  gt. 

I  ill  be  fold  at  nn  advance  ot    two  guineas 
jh  \'okiiTit-. 

in  a 

The  iubiett  of  the  Work  above  propofed,  fcems  to  cnritle  \i 
ciilar  marmcr  to  the  attention  ot"  the  Bcitifh  Naturalill,  a-;  a 
the  feveral  vovagcs  to  the  Pacific  Ocean,  and  of  thofe  iinport;rr  riiic'-  • 
which  will  do  fuch  iaitine  honour  to  the  Philolbphical  Ipirit  o'  li'.i-  n 
under  the  prefent  reign,  :o  i:ui'picious  both  to  the  liberal  arts  and  uicfid  Se'- 
ences.  Nor  is  it  dellitute  of  a  more  general  merit,  which  m,;v  as  povVL-;-- 
fuUr  recommend  it  to  the  Naturalill  of  every  con;-  ■,  . —  i  Ik-  ]^\■:•:\^  '  : 
Novelt\' :  No  publication  on  thel'e  particular  Ihells  h.:  ■  ::;  _  ::j;j,i\.. 
This  alone  might  be  fufficient  to  infure  It  fucccfs,  as  a  fupplement  to  ■, i'.  : 
treatifes  of  Liiter  and  Others.  The  Author,  however,  takes  this  oppor;..;- 
nitv  of  intimating,  that  he  wifhes  this  effay  rather  to  be  confulercd  as  th  ■ 
firil  part  of  an  undertaking  much  more  cxteniive  ;  that  of  iiluUrating  the 
whole  Syfcem  of  Conchology,  in  the  fame  fuperior  ilvle  ct  accuracy  aivj. 
eleo-ance.  This  fuperiority  will  bcfl  appear  by  comparing  this  Publication 
with  all  others  extant,  in  this  or -any  other  branch  ot  Natural  HilV-r-.. 
The  drawings  will  be  minutely  corre<9:,  and  adapted  to  a  fc.le,  fc; 
on  an  attentive  obfcrvation  of  the  more  perfeift  fpecimens  in  tiie  princ:.  '. 
cabinets  of  this  kingdom  :  the  engraving  will  conliu  merely  ot  a  delicate 
outline,  as  a  certain  guide  tor  the  relative  proportions  of  the  parts  ;  to  this 
the  utmoif  ikill  and  labour  of  the  Painter  will  be  added,  in  order  to  produce 
from  the  whole  the  full  eiTect  of  that  beautiful  contour,  rich  coiounng,  and 


bold  relief,  which  the  fulijeci  fo  peculiarly  demanrls,  and  wntcli  :.-•..■  art  oi 
painting  alone  can  proper!";  lupply  ;  whi-le  the  exact  and  liveh'.rv-prctcnta- 
tion  of  Nature  in  the  fize,  Ihape,  mouth,  extrem.itles,  convolution^^,  and 
various  colours  of  the  different  fhells  thus  exhibited,  will  at  the  fa'-ne. 
time  anfwer  every  purpoie  of  fcience,  and  in  Ibme  fort  render  the  prefent 
Work  truly  worthy  the  appellation  Of  a  ScbQol,  for  this  plcafing  branch  of 
Natural  Hiftory. 

■*»*  &/<-."?  C'p-a  of  the  ahoi'c  -x.-'l:, 



may  he  hji!,    at   Tei  C:.:-..cai  a:.l  i 

Pkospectus  of  Maetyn's  universal  conchologist. 


The  following  list  gives  Martjni's  names  for  his  Vohunes  ]1I  and 
IV.  A  comparison  with  the  list  in  my  tirst  paper  transcribed  from 
Chenu's  "  reprint""  will  show  the  discrepancies.  vSeveral  species  have 
no  specific  name  given  to  them.  When  the  genei'ic  name  is  not 
engraved  against  the  specific  name  but  is  indicated  by  the  context  it 
is  placed  in  parentheses.  In  this  and  other  respects  the  list  agrees 
with  the  construction  of  my  previous  list.  Specific  names  added  b}' 
Chenu,  but  not  in  the  original,  are  starred: 


Plate    8L  Buccinuui  ticuH. 

82.  Buccinum  vexilluiu  croceuin. 

83.  Buccinum  coronatuni. 

84.  Buccinum  lineatum. 

85.  Buccinum  tes.«ellatum. 

86.  Buccinum  nux-odorata. 

87.  Buccinum  incisum. 

88.  Buccinum  costatum. 

89.  Buccinum  scabrum. 
(Buccinum  turris  picta. 

■[Buccinum  turris  clavata. 

fBuccinum  galea  variata. 

■  I  Buccinum  galea  ferrea. 

(Buccinum  ornaUnn. 
99  \ 
'"■  IBuccinum  luteolum. 

.„  [Buccinum  vittatum. 

[Buccuium  vanum. 

[Buccinum  coelatuni. 

'|Buccinum  .sinuatum  (omitted  l)y  Chenu). 

(Bulla  circulata. 

'  [Bulla  villosa. 

96.  Cyprea  subfuscula. 

97.  Clava  te^sellata. 
,jg  (Clava  nigra. 

'  '^'l  Clava  fusca. 
99. (Patella)  scapula. 
100.  Patella  testudineata. 
101. (Patella)  morioni.s-inleus. 
102.  (Patella)  umhclla. 
(INIitra  rugata. 
' '|Mitra  denticulata. 
j^Iitra  staminea. 
'  [Mitra  fasciata. 
[Mitra  limosa. 
']Mitra  vermiculata. 

106.  (Nerita)  nux-castanea. 

107.  Nerita  acupictus. 

108.  Nerita  diversicolor. 
(Nerita  pellis-arminiana. 

'  ■  [Nerita  litteris  Hebraicis  notatus  (hebrtea*) .     See  note  a,  page  196. 



vol..  XXXIII. 

■r,  -. ,  ^    Nerita  atellatus. 

Plate  nO.-,'_    .^    , 

llSerita  lasciatus. 

fOliva  corticata. 

"|01iva  striata. 

-119  jOliva  interpuncta. 

""jOliva  fenentrata. 

,  j Purpura  scabra. 

|Pur]:)ura  senticosa. 

(Purpura  tubulata. 
114  1 

■  I  Purpura  ramosa. 

115.  Umax  aureus. 

116.  (Limax)  tiara. 

117.  (Limax)  lampas. 

118.  Limax  vittatus. 

119.  Limax  scaber. 

120.  Limax  viperinus  (serpens*  Chenu). 

Plate  121. 
















Limax  si)icatus. 

Limax)  fusca  spicatus. 

Limax,  nigra  spicatus  (omitted  by  Chenu). 

Limax)  flammeus. 

Limax)  scutulatus. 
Trochus  petrosus. 

Voluta)  fagina. 

Voluta)  cosmographicus. 

Voluta)  reticulata. 

Voluta)  undata. 

Voluta)  interpuncta. 

Voluta)  (ducis-navalis*). 

oluta  scutulata. 

Voluta)  zonaria. 
Cochlea  bicolor. 

Cochlea)  nexilis. 

Cochlea)  tigrina. 

Cochlea)  aquosa. 

Cochlea)  crista-galli. 

Cochlea)  histrix. 
Cochlea  iraplexa. 

Cochlea)  purpurea. 

Cochlea)  triangularis. 

Cochlea)  coocinea. 

Cochlea)  dentrachates. 
Cochlea  ninibata. 

Cochlea)  marmorata. 

Cochlea)  cretata.« 

Cochlea)  arborescens. 

Cochlea)  russa.  ^ 

Cochlea)  palatam. 
Cochlea  undata. 

(Cochlea)  fumosa. 

«  Marked  with  chalk. 
b  Red  or  rosy. 

Martyn'.s  English  is  "Figured  cockle. 


Plate  140.   (Cochlea)  iiebulosa. 
141.   (Cochlea)  castrensis. 
:  (Cochlea)  virgulata. 

142  { 

(Cochlea)  inscripta. 

143.  (Cochlea)  (albida*). 

144.  (Cochlea)  viininea. 
(Cochlea)  acupicta. 


■  I  (Cochlea)  maculosa 

146.  (Cochlea)  coluiiibina. 

147.  (Cochlea)  striata. 

148.  (Cochlea)  gilva. 

149.  (Cochlea)  violacea. 

150.  (Cochlea)  persoiiata. 

JMusc(nlus)  fuscus. 

[(Musculus)  viridis. 

I  ( JMusculus)  viridis  nndatus. 

■[(Musculus)  fuscus  undatus. 

IPecten  rubidus. 

153  i 

'  [(Pecten)  bonibycinus. 

154.  Ostria  echinata. 

155.  (Ostria)  spinosa. 
(Tellina  cinnamar. 

■{(Tellina)  subrubicunda. 
„  I  (Tellina)  alba, 
^^"'l (Tellina)  rosea. 
158.    (Tellina)  barbata. 

J  (Tellina)  subrubicunda  radiata. 
'  '■[  (Tellina)  purpurea  radiata. 
f  (Tellina)  adumbrata. 

■  I  (Tellina)  rubescens. 

The  discrepancies  between  the  tallies  as  reprinted  exactly  above  and 
Chenu's  list  are  so  great  that  it  does  not  seem  reasonable  to  refer 
theui  merely  to  carelessness.  In  the  absence  of  Chenu's  original  or  a 
copy  of  it,  and  from  the  fact  that  the  tables  as  reproduced  b}'  me 
from  tiie  Sydney  co])y  are  marred  by  engravers'  errors — have  two  spe- 
cies without  any  specific  name  at  all,  and  have  thirty-six  species  with 
different  generic  names  from  those  cited  by  Chenu— I  conclude  that 
the  Sydney  tables  are  an  early  issue  of  engravings  which  were  later 
corrected  and  completed,  and  that  it  was  from  one  of  the  altered  copies 
that  Chenu's  badly  printed  list  was  taken,  adding  a  numi)er  of  errors 
of  its  own. 

As  illustrating  engraver's  errors  in  the  Sj'dney  tables,  1  need  only 
mention  as  misspellings  such  words  as  coocinea  for  coccinea^  palatarn 
for  pal((t}nn^  and  ostrhi  for  ostrea. 

Other  errors  of  the  engraver  consist  in  reversi-ng  the  order  of  words 
as  indicated  ))v  the  English  trivial  names,  putting  the  varietal  name 
before  the  specific  name,  as  fusca  spicatus  and  n'xp'a  splcatus  for 
spicaiiis  xnr.  fi'sc((  and  .sy;/Vv//^/,y  var.  nigra.  In  one  instance  the  name 
intended  for  the  specific  name  and  the  descriptive  phrase  have  changed 

192  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.  vol.  xxxiii. 

places  in  the  columns,  an  error  which  seems  to  have  been  corrected  in 
Chenu's  original." 

One  species  and  one  variety  are  altogether  omitted  from  Chenu's 
list,  and  the  thirty-two  l)ivalves  placed  in  a  genus  CocJdea  by  Martj^n, 
in  his  Volume  IV,  are  listed  by  Chenu  as  Card'non^  though  the  two 
Cochlea  of  Volume  11  remain.  The  four  shells  listed  by  Martyn  as 
Musculi/x  (i.  e.,  JL>di()hi>t  Lamarck)  have  the  name  21ytllns  in  Chenu's 
list.  These  facts  point  strongly  toward  a  revision  by  Martyn  himself 
of  the  original  engravings  of  the  tables  for  Vohimes  111  and  IV. 

The  importance  of  Volumes  III  and  IV  is  fortunately  confined  to  the 
specific  nomenclature  of  the  forms  figured.  Of  these  but  a  few  are 
American.  One  comes  from  Newfoundland,  one  from  the  Straits  of 
Magellan,  and  the  rest  of  the  American  forms  are  from  the  West 
Indies.  Nearly  all  of  them  had  been  given  specific  names  before  Mar- 
tyn's  time,  and  there  are  no  Pacific  coast  species  among  them.  Only 
Volumes  1  and  II,  or  the  first  80  plates  (dating  from  1784),  are  impor- 
tant for  any  generic  synon3'm3^  These  are  also  the  portions  most 
frequently  quoted  b}"  Bruguiere,  Gmelin,  Lamarck,  Deshayes,  and 
other  contemporary  or  nearly  contemporaneous  authors. 

The  present  summary  will  enable  those  interested  to  form  a  correct 
idea  of  the  earliest  issue  of  Volumes  III  and  IV  (178(1-87),  not  seen  by 
me  wdien  1  prepared  my  former  paper  on  Martyn  and  the  Lniversal 
Conchologist,  and  to  positively  confirm  the  priorit}"  of  Martyn's  names 
over  those  of  Gmelin,  Bruguiere,  and  Lamarck,  as  indicated  b}^  that 

"  Neritd  liebrHa,  Plate  109,  second  ligiire. 


By  Otis  T.  Mason, 

Head  Curator,  Depdrtment  of  Anthropology,  U.  S.  National,  Ma»eam. 

In  the  department  of  anthropology  in  the  United  States  National 
Museum  is  a  basketry  toilet  or  bolo  case  of  the  Jacanes  (Yacanes),  an 
aborio-inal  tribe  living  in  the  interior  of  Basilan  Island,  southwest  of 

Fig.  I.—Jacanese  bolo  case.  Front  view,  showing  footing,  .stained,  carved,  am>  p.erced  for 
the  inner  body  technic ;  outer  body  technic,  with  horizontal,  vertical,  dextral,  and 
sinistral  weaving  :  and  border.  showing  hoop  work,  knot  work,  and  braid  work. 

Mindanao  (Cat.  No.  23908B,  LT.S.N.'M.).  Owing  to  the  slight  cloth- 
ing there  needed,  it  is  the  cu.^tom  to  suspend  the  receptacle  for  odds 
and  ends  from  the  belt  univer.sallv  worn.     It  has  the  functions  of  a 

Proceedings  U.  S.  National  Museum,  Vol,  XXXIII— No.  1566. 

Proc.  N.  M.  vol.  xx.Kiii— 07 13 


194  PROCEEDIN-GS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.  vol.  xxxiii. 

pocket,  a  scabbard,  and  a  woman'j^  reticule.  The  Basilaii  Moros  call 
it  see-bah'-kan;  the  Jacanes,  tahni-pee'-pee.  When  the  bolo  is  in  it, 
the  basket  is  called  doo'-hoong.  Dimensions:  Height,  13f  inches; 
diameter  at  the  top,  5  inches.  Gift  of  Dr.  E.  A.  Mearns,  U.  S.  Army. 
Structural  parts. — Bottom;  body,  in  shape  of  a  cavalry  legging 
pinched  together  at  the  bottom;  border;  carrying  parts,  only  a  por- 
tion of  which  are  present;  and  ornamentation.  The  structural  parts 
at  once  awaken  interest  through  the  economics  displayed  in  uniting 
the  greatest  capacit}^  and  strength  with  the  least  weight  of  the  vehicle. 
(See  ligs.  1  and  2,  showing  front  and  l)ack  views  of  specimen.) 

Fig.  '2.— Jacanese  boi.o  case.    Back  view,  showing  the  strengthening  strips  for  carrying 


TecJiuic. — Its  technical  processes  are  as  follows:  The  bottom  is  worked 
from  soft  wood  and  is  divided  into  quite  distinct  portions,  the  outer 
and  the  inner.  The  former  is  the  footing — keel-shaped,  parallel-sided, 
and  rudeh'  carved  in  front.  The  inside  portion,  acting  as  a  lining  to 
the  bottom,  is  in  shape  of  a  long,  elliptical  dish,  to  serve  as  a  rest  for 
the  weapons  and  other  belongings  (fig.  8).  The  furrow  between  these 
parts  receives  the  textile  elements  of  the  inner  basket. 

The  technic  of  the  bod}^  is  in  uniform,  rigid  splits  of  bamboo,  in 
two  series — the  inner,  one-quarter  of  an  inch;  the  outer,  one-half  an 
inch  wide.  These  are  woven  in  four  directions — horizontal,  dextral, 
sinistral,  and  vertical.     The  inner  series  are  the  foundation,  and  are  in 

NO.  1666. 



hexagonal  weaving  (tig.  3).  The  dextral  and  the  sinistral  elements  are 
drawn  through  holes  in  the  upper  border  of  the  footing,  and  the 
meshes  are  each  large 
enough  to  allow  the  pas- 
sage of  six  elements  of 
the  outer  basket,  two  from 
each  of  the  three  direc- 
tions— vertical,  right,  and 
left  (tig.  4).  Just  above 
these  holes  in  the  footing 
the  first  horizontal  split 
of  the  inner  basket,  or 
foundation,  serves  as  a 
starting  point  of  the  outer 
basket  (tig.  3).  The  bam- 
boo splits  of  the  outer 
series  are  doubled  about 
this  one,  half  of  each  split 
passing  up  verticalh'  and 
the  other  half  either  to 
the  right  or  to  the  left, 
and  all  woven  in  and  out 
through  the  hexagonal 
meshes  (tig.  4).  The  ef- 
fect of  this  double  weaving  is  to  produce  an  almost  compact  technic, 
with  the  splits  of  the  inner  basket  nearly  concealed. 

The  technic  of  the  bor- 
der is  the  most  interesting 
of  all,  owing  to  its  com- 
plexity (iigs.  1,  2,  and  5). 
It  is  founded  on  hoops 
and  is  in  two  sections,  the 
upper  and  the  lower.  The 
former  is  of  flat  hoops 
surmounted  by  a  smaller 
round  hoop,  the  inner 
ones  being  covered  in  lace 
work  of  rattan  splits  (fig. 
5,  'I  and  h).  These  laced 
hoops  are  fitted  on  the 
top  of  the  body  and  fas- 
tened, as  follows,  by  what 
constitutes  the  second  por- 
tion of  the  border:  Stout  hoops  form  the  inwale  and  the  outwale  of 
this  portion,  and  three  series  of  Malay  knots  unite  them  with  the 

Fk;.  3.— Inside  op  .Tacanese  bolo  case,  showing  hexagon 
weave.  the  method  of  its  attachment,  and  the  double 
function  (if  the  footing. 

Fig.  4.— Outer  technic  of  Jacanese  bolo  case,  showing 
HOW  the  elements  are  bent,  inclined,  and  attached  to 

right  and  left,  as  in  an  anchor,  then  CROSSING  EACH 



VOL.  XXXIil. 

lower  hoop  of  the  laced  work  and  with  the  upper  edge  of  the  body 
Avork,  at  the  same  time  fonnint>-  a  band  of  .simple  sennit  braid  work  on 
the  outside  (fig-.  5,  e-<).  This  i>>  a  remarkable  example  of  joining 
Malay  knot  work  and  weaving-,  for  the  purpose  of  hiding-  the  unsig-htlv 
turning-  down  of  ends  at  the  top  of  the  body. 

The  carrying  parts  present  are  two  strong  half  stems  of  rattan  laid 
on  the  back  of  the  body  outside,  a  little  farther  apart  at  the  bottom, 
and  held  fast  by  a  series  of  Mala}'  knots  about  2  inches  apart.  The 
ends  of  the  carrying  parts  are  tucked  in  at  top  and  bottom.  (See 
Hg.  2.) 

For  want  of  a  better  name  the  term  "Malay  knot"  is  used  here  for 
the  universal  appliance  to  bind  several  parts  together.  It  is  a  com- 
bination of  two  round  turns  and   two  half  hitches  in  splits  or  tough 

and  pliable  stems.  To 
tie  the  knot,  (1)  pass  the 
free  end  of  the  material 
to  the  right  as  far  as  the 
place  where  the  knot  is 
to  be  tied:  (2)  under  and 
;vr()und  the  parts  and  back 
of  the  standing  part;  (3) 

XE  WORK  (a  AND  ?)),  KNOT  WORK  AND  BRAID  WORK  (r).        \  ,.  . 

in  the  same  direction  and 
to  the  left  of  the  tirst  round  turn,  bringing  it  in  front  of  the  standing- 
part  and  then  under  all  and  forward,  moving  toward  the  right;  (4) 
take  a  half  hitch  around  the  standing  part  f  i-om  down  upward  and 
make  all  tight.     Repeat  at  will,  always  working  toward  the  right. 

The  ornamentation  of  the  basket  is  in  the  technic,  in  carving  and 
staining,  and  in  smoking  or  charring — the  last  two  processes  on  the 
front  only.  The  footing  is  stained  black  in  front  and  carved  with  veiy 
simple  geometric  patterns.  The  weaving  of  the  body  is  smoked  so  as 
to  present  an  X-shaped  design  in  natural  color,  effected  by  laying  two 
palm  leaflets  crossed  on  the  surface  while  the  coloring  was  going  on. 
The  upper  outer  edge  of  the  braid  work  on  the  border  has  a  decora- 
tion added  in  the  shape  of  a  little  hoop  joined  on  by  overw hipping  in 
tine  split. 

Kj<;.  5 



By  Lord  Walsingham, 

Merton  Hall,   Thelford.  EiKjland. 


Several  papers  were  published  under  the  title  "Steps  Toward  a 
Revision  of  Chambers  Index;  With  Notes  and  Descriptions  of  New 
Species"  in  Insect  Life,"  a  journal  published  by  the  U.  S.  Depart- 
ment of  Agriculture  from  1888  to  1895.  The  object  was  the  gradual 
improvement  of  the  catalogue  of  North  American  Tineid  moths  by 
the  publication  of  descriptions  of  new  species  and  corrections  of 
the  generic  locations  of  old  ones.  The  standard  catalogue  of  North 
American  Tineida?  at  the  time  these  papers  were  begun  was  pub- 
lished by  V.  T.  Chambers  under  the  title  ''Index  to  the  Described 
Tineina  of  the  United  States  and  Canada"  in  the  Bulletin  of  V.  S. 
Geological  and  Geographical  Survey,  IV,  No.  1,  1878.  During  the 
sixteen  years  that  have  elapsed  since  the  last  installment  of  these 
papers  was  printed,  the  journal  Insect  Life  has  been  suspended, 
but  the  series  is  herewith  continued  under  a  more  explanatory  title. 

The  material  on  which  these  descriptions  are  based  was  in  part 
received  by  the  U.  S.  National  Museum  from  the  U.  S.  Department 
of  Agriculture  through  the  late  Dr.  C.  V.  Riley,  and  in  part  is  con- 
tained in  the  author's  collection.  Types  of  the  new  species  are  in 
the  collection  of  the  U.  S.  National  Museum  in  most  cases,  as  indi- 
cated by  the  type  numbers,  some  from  the  museum  material  and 
some  donated  by  the  author. 

Family  GELECHIAD^. 

GELECHIA  LAUDATELLA,  new  species. 

Antennse  white,  annulated  with  brownish  fuscous,  the  basal  joint 
having  a  wider  white  ring  than  those  beyond  it. 

Palpi  white,  both  joints  brownish  fuscous  at  the  base,  terminal 
joint  tipped  with  brownish  fuscous. 

"The  last  paper  of  this  series  appeared  in  Insect  Life,  III,  1891,  p.  389. 

Proceedings  U.  S.  National  Museum,  Vol.  XXXIII— No.  1567. 

198  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxm. 

Head  and  thorax  white,  the  latter  dusted  with  brownish  fuscous 
scales . 

Forewings  white,  the  base  of  the  costa  and  the  extreme  base  of  the 
dorsum  brownish  fuscous;  an  elongate  brownish  fuscous  spot  lies 
above  the  middle  of  the  wing  between  and  projecting  farther  than 
the  brown  above  and  below  it;  a  large  brownish  fuscous  patch 
begins  at  the  basal  fourth  of  the  costa,  its  inner  edge  sloping  obliquely 
toward,  but  not  attaining,  the  middle  of  the  dorsum;  beyond  its 
lower  point  it  is  indented  upward  to  the  middle  of  the  wing  and 
thence  continued  to  the  apical  fourth,  where  its  straight  outer  edge 
is  margined  by  a  narrow  band  of  white;  the  apical  portion  of  the 
wing,  together  with  the  grayish  white  cilia,  is  dusted  and  clouded 
with  brown,  and  at  the  base  of  the  cilia,  beyond  the  middle  of  the 
dorsum,  are  a  few  brownish  fuscous  scales. 

Alwr  expanse. — 10.5  mm. 

Hindwings  pale  gray;    cilia  faintly  tinged  witli  ochreous. 

Abdomen  grayish  ochreous. 

Legs,  hind  tibiae  whitish  ochreous,  the  tarsal  joints  smeared  above. 

2Vi>^^— Female,  Cat.  No.  10677,  U.S.N.M.;  No.  142,  Riley,  1886; 
No.  842,  Walsingham,  1886. 

Habitat. — Folsom,  California,  July  1,  1885  (A.  Koebele,  collector). 

This  species  appears  to  be  allied  to  the  group  oi  fraternella  Douglass. 


Gelechia  subtractella  Walker,  Cat.  Lep.  Brit.  Mus.,  Pt.  39,  p.  592,  No.  229, 
1864.— Riley  in  Smith's  List  Lep.  Bor.  Am.,  1891,  p.  102,  No.  5487. 

Blastobasis  subtractella  Dyar,  Bull.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus.,  No.  52.  1902,  p.  528,  No. 

Type. — Female  in  the  British  Museum. 

Habitat. — Nova  Scotia. 

An  old  note  of  mine,  made  many  years  ago,  '^Blastobasis  ?  Wlsm- 
MS.  190:  1892,"  is  probably  responsible  for  the  removal  of  this 
species  from  Gelecliia  to  Blastobasis  in  Dyar's  Catalogue,  but  a  sub- 
sequent note  reads  as  follows:  "This  is  a  Gelechiad;  a  wretched 
object,  unset  and  much  worn.  Palpi  rather  rough  beneath,  terminal 
joint  a  little  shorter  than  median.  Neuration  and  width  of  wing 
impossible  to  arrive  at.  I  should  call  it  an  obscurely  marked  Lita, 
much  mottled  with  subferruginous  spots  on  middle  of  fold,  at  end 
of  cell  and  near  apex,  also  perhaps  at  end  of  fold;  but  these  are 
scarcel}^  distinguishable  from  the  fuscous  sprinkling  and  shading  which 
covers  the  apparently  paler  wing-surface  (much  worn)."  Until 
further  evidence  is  forthcoming  this  must  remain  as  an  unrecog- 
nized Gelechia. 


Family  (ECOPHORID.E. 

Genus  ETHMIA   Hubner. 
liTHMIA   ALBITOGATA,   new  species. 

Antennse  fuscous. 

Palpi  blackish,  with  a  few  white  scales  beneath,  at  the  base  and 
about  the  apex  of  the  median  joint;  terminal  joint  erect,  slightly 
recurved,  somewhat  shorter  than  is  usual  in  the  genus. 

Head  and  thorax  dull  fuscous,  the  ends  of  the  tegul*  whitish. 

Forewings  elongate,  narrow,  rounded  at  the  apex,  termen  oblique, 
slightly  convex;  wdiite,  densely  suifused  with  brownish  fuscous 
which  forms  an  obtuse  angle  on  the  outer  half  of  the  fold,  receding 
very  obliquely  tow^ard  the  basal  and  apical  portions  of  the  costa; 
a  spot  of  the  same  color  is  conspicuous  immediately  above  the  tornus, 
running  obliquel}'  inward,  and  a  smaller  spot  lies  immediately  below 
and  adjacent  to  the  fold  near  the  base;  the  extreme  costa  is  whitish 
and  the  darker  markings  here  mentioned  are  rendered  more  con- 
spicuous in  the  paler  or  less-suifused  varieties,  while  in  others  they 
become  less  noticeable  through  the  more  complete  shading  of  the 
general  surface  of  the  wing;  cilia  whitish,  more  or  less  suffused  with 
brownish  fuscous,  but  usually  with  a  small  white  spot  on  the  upper 
half  of  the  termen  below  the  apex;  underside  pale  brownish  fuscous, 
the  costa  and  dorsum  and  the  subapical  spot  in  the  cilia  showing 
some  white  scaling. 

Alar  expanse. — 16  mm. 

Hindwings  white,  slightly  shining,  the  ajiical  fourth  brownish 
fuscous;  cilia  white,  with  a  narrow  basal  band  of  brownish  fuscous 
coinciding  with  the  darkened  portion  of  the  wing;  underside  white, 
with  a  small  fuscous  shade  at  the  apex. 

Abdomen  brownish  fuscous. 

Legs  whitish,  much  shaded  with  brownish  fuscous;  some  pro- 
jecting white  hairs  from  the  end  of  the  posterior  tibiae. 

Tyj>e.^Msi[e,  No.  101552,  collection  Walsingham;  paratype  male. 
Cat.  No.  10346,  U.S.N.M.  (Walsingham  determined,  No.  823,  1906). 

Habitat. — California  (Zellei-  coll.,  Mus.  Walsingham;  Beutenmiiller 
coll.,  U.S.N.M.).     Two  specimens. 


Blast ohnsi'Iiv  MnvRicK,  Trans.  Ent.  Soc  Loud.,  1894,  p.  22. 


,    ( Hindwings  with  vein  4  absent 2 

\  Hindwings  with  vein  4  present ' 11 

r,  / Antennte  with  pecten 4 

"  \Antenn8e  without  pecten  (male  without  notch) 3 

200  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.  vol.  xxxiii. 

o  JForewings:  vein  7  to  termen.  Arctoscelisyieyxick.  (Type,  cpmydiaMeyrick.) 

\Forewings:  7  to  costa Endrosis  Hubner.  (TjTpe,  lactclla  Scliiffermuller.) 

[  Hindwings:  vein  5  remote  from  (3+4) Agnoea  Walsingham.    (Type, 

4  evanesrens  Walsingham.) 
I  Hindwings:  5  and  (3+4)  connate  or  stalked 5 

r  I Antennte  notched   in   male Blastobasis  Zeller.  (Type,  phycidcUa  Zeller.) 

\  Antennae  not  notched (i 

f Antennae  of  male  bifasciculate  3,  attenuate  at  joint  4. . .  .Epistetus  Walsing- 

G  ham.  (Type,  divisiis  Walsingham.) 

I  Antennte  simple 7 

j  Fore'wings:  4  and  5  stalked 8 

7  JForewings:  4  and  5  not  stalked ....  D/i/opf  Chambers.  (Type,  ochwcomdla 
I  ClSmens.) 
iForewings:  9  out  of  stalk  of  7  and  8 Pseudopigritia  Dietz.  (Type,  dorso- 

8  I  'maculella  Dietz.) 

I  Forewings:  9  separate 9 

I  Labial  palpi,  minute 10 

9  Labial  palpi  of  moderate  length;  sexuallv  dimorphic. ..  .P^OfO])/iora  Dietz. 
1  '"  ■  {Type,  fidella  Dietz.) 
I  Laliial  palpi  very  small  and  indistinct  in  both  sexes. . .  .Epigritia  Dietz.  (Type, 

,j^  )  pailidotinctella  Dietz.) 

j  Labial  palpi  very  short  and  rudimentary  in  male;  distinct  with  terminal 
I     joint  pointed  in  female Pigritia  Clemens.  (Type,  laticapitella  Clemens.) 

1 ,    /Hindwings:  4  and  5  stalked 12 

( Hindwings:  4  and  5  connate,  or  stalked 14 

(Hindwings:  4  and  5  stalked  out   of  3 Au.rimobasis  Walsingham.  (Type, 

12  ]  persimilella  Walsingham.) 

I  Hindwings:  3  separate 13 

("Antennae  notched   in    male. ...  Valentinia   Walsingham.    (Type,  glandulella 

\  .  ^  '        ■      Riley.) 

lAntennie  not  notched .... /o/usma,  Walsingham.  (Tvpe,  viaa'ocera  Walsing- 
[  ^  ■  ham.) 

1  .  jHindwings:  5  out  of  stalk  of  3  and  4 15 

\ Hindwings:  5  separate  (from  3  and  4  connate,  or  stalked) •.     17 

(Antennae   notched    in    male .... /foZrocera    Clemens.    (Type,    rhalvofrontella 

15  Clemens.) 

(Antennae  not  notched 16 

[Antennae  of   male  bifasciculate . . . . Prosof/ico  AValsingham.   (Type,  nephalia 

,,.  )  Walsingham.) 

M  Antennae    not    bifasciculate,    slightly   dentsite . . . .  Catamj psis  Walsingham. 

[  (Type,  nuccZZa  Walsingham.) 

-.J   r Antennae  notched  in  male Q/no^cs Walsingham.  (Type,  iceryaella  Riley.) 

\Antennae  not  notched Hypatopa  Walsingham.  (Type,  inunctella  Zeller.  j 

The  stigma"  is  absent  from  Endrosis  and  perhaps,  also,  from 
Arctoscelis,  with  wliich  I  am  imacqiiainted. 

Genus  VALENTINIA,  new  genus. 

Type  of  the  genus. — Gelechia  glandvlella  Riley. 

Ante  rinse  of  male  notched  immediately  beyond  the  basal  joint, 
which  is  flattened  and  slightly  concave  beneath;  with  a  pecten. 

Maxillary  imlpi  short,  dej^endent. 

Labial  palpi  smooth,  recurved;  the  terminal  joint  shorter  than  the 
median  and  scarcely  more  slender. 

Haustellam  moderate. 

aZeller,  Hor.  Soc.  Ent.  Ross.,  XIII,  1877,  pp.  429-430. 

NO  1.567. .         NEW  AMERICAN  TINEID  MOTHS— WALSINGHAM.  201 

Head  and  thorax  smooth. 

Forewings  elongate-lanceolate,  with  straightened  costa  and  de- 
pressed apex. 

Neuration  12  veins;  7  and  8  stalked,  7  to  costa;  rest  separate. 

Hindwings  with  flexus  well  developed,  cilia  1^. 

Neuration  8  veins;  3  separate,  4  and  5  stalked;  6  and  7  se])arate. 

Abdomen  somewhat  flattened. 

Legs,  hind  tibiae  hairy  above. 

I  have  named  this  genus. in  honor  of  my  late  friend  Charles  Valen- 
tine Riley,  who  described  the  type. 


Gtiechia  glamluldlu  Riley,  ('an.  Ent.,  Ill,  1871,  pp.  118-119. 

Holcocera  glandulella  Riley,   Rept.   Inj.  Ins.  Mo.,  IV,  1872,  pp.  144-145,   figs. 

6G  a-^f.— Dyar,  Bull.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mas.,  No.  52,  1902,  p.  529,  No.  5979. 
Blastobasis  nubilella  Zeller,  Verh.  zool.-bot.  Ges.  Wien.,  XXIII,  1873,  p.  297, 

pi.  IV,  fig.  36. 
Holcocera  nubilella  Dyar,  Bull.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus.,  No.  52,  1902,  p.  529,  No.  5980. 
Holcocera  triangularisella  Chambers,  Cinn.  Quart.  Journ.  Sci.,  II,  1875,  p.  25G; 

Can.  Ent.,  IX,  1877,  p.  72.— Dyar,  Bull.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus.,  No.  52,  1902,  p.  529, 

No.  5981. 

Habitat. — Atlantic  States;  Texas;  Kentucky;  Massachusetts,  Cam- 
bridge (Zeller  Coll.,  Frey  Coll.);  North  Carolina  (Morrison,  collector, 
1883) ;  (California,  LakeCounty,  Blue  Lake,  June  15. 1871  (Walsingham). 

Chambers  "■  regarded  nuhilella  Zeller,  triangidarisella  Chambers,  and 
sciapJiilella  Zeller  as  varieties  of  gladnlella  Riley  and  quotes  Riley  as 
having  the  same  opinion.  We  may  therefore  accept  their  opinion 
that  glandulella  Jiilej  =  triangularisella  Chambers.  Mr.  Busck  in- 
forms me  that  "the  unique  type  9  of  nuhilella  Z.  in  C^ambridge  is  = 
glandulella,^^  but  that  "the  unique  type  $  of  sciapltilella ,  Z.  in  Cam- 
bridge is  a  true  Blastobasis,  Z.  wath  seven  veins  in  hindwing  only." 
Chambers's  figure  of  the  neuration  of  glandulella  ^  is  incorrect. 


Blastobasis  retectella  Zeller,  Verh.  zool.-bot.  Ges.  Wien,  XXIII,  1873,  p.  297.— 
Chambers,  Bull.  U.  S.  Geol.  Surv.,  IV,  1878,  p.  132.— Riley,  Smith's  list 
Lep.  Bor.  Am.,  1891,  p.  104,  No.  5575. 

Holcocera  rectectella  Dyar,  Bull.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus.,  No.  52,  1902,  p.  529,  No.  5978. 

Tyye. — Female,  No.  101611,  Mus.  Walsingham. 
Habitat. — Bosque  County,  Texas,  August  29  (Belfrage,  collector) . 
I  have  a  second  specimen  (female.  No.  33097,  Mus.  Walsingham), 
also  collected  by  Belfrage,  dated  September  2,  1876. 

a  Can.  Ent.,  IX,  1877,  p.  72. 

6 Trans.  Cin.  Soc.  Nat,.  His.,  II,  1880,  p.  203,  fig.  24. 

202  PRO f'FEDINaS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.  vol.  xxxm. 


Blaslobasis  Jmciilincu  Z?:ller,  Verli.  zool.-bot.  Ges.  Wien,  XXIII,  1873,  p.  298, 

pi.  IV,  figs.  37  a-h. 
Holcocera fractilinea  Dyar,  Bull.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mas.,  No.  52,  1902,  p.  529,  No.  5984. 

Type. — Male,  No.  101612,  Mus.  Walsingham;  paratype,  male,  No. 
101613,  Mus.  Walsingham. 

Habitat. — Bosque  County,  Texas,  August  1-19  (Belfrage,  collector). 

VALENTINIA   NOTHROTES,  new  species. 

Antennse  pale  slaty  brownish. 

Palpi  grayish  brown,  with  whitish  sprinkling. 

Head  and  thorax  whitish,  with  grayish  fuscous  speckling,  especially 
in  a  band  across  the  front  of  the  thorax  and  another  across  the  pos- 
terior half  of  the  tegulae. 

Forewings  dirty  white,  profusely  sprinkled  with  grayish  fuscous,  of 
which  a  transverse  fascia  crosses  the  wing  at  one-third ;  this  is  slightly 
angulated  outward  in  the  middle,  and  partially  diffused  outward  at 
the  middle  and  about  the  costa;  at  the  end  of  the  cell  a  somewhat 
less  defined,  straight,  transverse  fascia  occurs,  absorbing  the  two 
spots  which  would  otherwise  appear  at  the  end  of  the  cell,  corre- 
sponding to  a  small  discal  spot  at  about  the  middle  of  the  wing;  the 
apical  area  is  thickly  bestrewn  and  mottled  with  gTayish  fuscous; 
cilia  brownish  gray,  sprinkled  with  whitish  and  grayish  fuscous 

Alar  expanse. — 12  mm. 

Hindwings  brownish  gra}^;  cilia  slightly  paler. 

Abdomen  slaty  gray,  anal  tuft  paler. 

Legs  pale  brownish  gray. 

Type. — Male,  No.  35536,  Mus.  Walsingham. 

Habitat. — Arizona,  1883  (Morrison,  collector).     Unique. 

A  small  and  narrow-winged  species,  somewhat  similar  in  markings 
to  retectella  Zeller,  with  which  it  agrees  in  having  a  strong  notch  and 
pecten  on  the  antennse,  and  4  and  5  of  the  hindwings  stalked,  but  is 
quite  distinct  in  size  and  shape. 

Genus   BLASTOBASIS    Zeller. 

Blastobasis  citricolella  Chambers,  Rept.  U.  S.  Dept.  Agric,  for  1879, 1880,  p.  207.— 
CoMSTOCK,  Rept.  U.  S.  Dept.  Agr.,  for  1879,  1880,  pp.  206-7.— Hy.  Edwards, 
Bull.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus.,  No.  35,  1889,  p.  125.— Riley,  Smith's  List  Lep.  Bor. 
Am.,  1891,  p.  104,  No.  5561. 

Blastobasis  citriella  Chambers,  Rept.  U.  S.  Dept.  Agr.,  for  1879,  1880,  p.  245. 


Antennse  with  strong  flattened  tuft  beneath  basal  joint  (not  a 
bristly  pecten,  but  closely  packed  curved  scales  as  in  Auxirnohasis) ; 
whitish  cinereous. 

Palpi  slightly  recurved,  divergent,  reaching  well  beyond  the  head; 
terminal  joint  more  than  two-thirds  the  length  of  median;  whitisli, 
speclded  with  fawn  brown. 

Head  smooth;  white,  slightly  sprinlded  with  brownish  gray. 

Thorax  brownish  gray  above,  tegul?p  whitish,  sprinkled  with 
brownish  gray. 

Forewings  with  12  veins,  7  and  8  stalked;  white,  suffused  and 
sprinkled  with  brownish  fuscous  intermixed  with  pale  fawn  brown; 
the  markings,  so  far  as  the  darker  shading  of  these  colors  indicates 
them,  tend  to  be  longitudinal  and  consist  of  a  strong  line  along  the 
fold  from  near  the  base,  almost  joining  a  spot  in  the  fold  above  the 
middle  of  the  dorsum,  below  the  fold  the  base  is  suffused;  a  shorter 
line  on  the  disc,  above  the  fold,  runs  parallel  to  the  upper  half  of 
the  plical  line,  and  above  it,  below  the  costa,  as  well  as  beyond  it  on 
the  outer  half  of  the  disc  are  sundry  mottlings  of  the  same  mixed 
color;  two  spots,  obscurely  indicated  at  the  upper  and  lower  angles 
of  the  cell,  the  lower  one  a  little  beyond  the  upper;  an  ill-defined 
obilque  streak  at  four-fifths  precedes  a  broken  antemarginal  shade, 
which,  leaving  the  costa  at  the  commencement  of  the  cilia,  strikes 
outward  to  the  apex  and  reverts  at  an  angle  along  the  termen,  the 
dorsal  space  behind  its  lower  extremity  being  much  shaded;  cilia 
whitish,  much  speckled  and  shaded  with  pale  brownish  fuscous, 
which  has  a  tendency  to  form  slender  parallel  lines  through  them, 
but  fading  out  towards  the  tornus. 

Alar  expanse. — 19  mm. 

Hindwings  (detached)  7  veins,  .3  and  4  coincident;  5  closely  approx- 
imated to  (3+4)  at  origin,  6  and  7  parallel;  shining,  pale-brownish 
gray ;  cilia  dull-brownish  gray. 

Legs  (missing). 

r?/2JP.— Female,  Cat.  No.  3774  U.S.N.M.;  Walsingham  determined, 
No.  3688,  1898. 

Habitat. — Jacksonville,  Florida.  Larva  in  dry  orange  infested  by 
beetle  {Arseocerus  fasciculatus) ;  issued,  March  17,  1880.     Uniciue. 

The  type,  a  female,  consists  of  thorax  and  head,  left  forewing 
(torn),  right  hindwing  (broken),  and  left  antenna.  The  palpi  are 
broken  and  the  abdomen  is  missing  as  also  the  right  forewing  and 
left  hindwing.  It  is  probably  a  Blastobasis  Zeller,  but  this  can  not 
be  decided  from  a  female. 

This  species  is  omitted  from  Dyar's  List  of  North  American  Lepi- 


BLASTOBASIS?,  new  species. 

Blasiobasis,  new  species  [Riley  and  Howard],  U.  S.  Dept.  Agr.  Ent.  Bull..  Ins. 
Life,  IV  (1892),  p.  290. 

Habitat. — Australia.  Larva  on  CJiionasjns  on  oranoe  (sent  to 
Washington  by  Koebele). 


Blasiobasis  coccivorella  Chambers,  Rept.  U.  S.  Dept.  Agr.,  fur  1879,  1880,  pp.  207, 
245.— CoMSTOCK,  Rept.  U.  S.  Dept.  Agr.,  for  1879,  1880,  p.  244.— Packard, 
U.  S.  Dept.  Agr.,  Intr.  Ent.  Comin.  Bull.,  No.  7,  1881,  p.  54.— Douglass, 
Ent.  Mo.  Mag.,  XXIV,  1888,  p.  228.— Hy.  Edwards,  Bull.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus., 
No.  35,  1889,  p.  125.— Packard,  U.  S.  Dept.  Agr.,  Rept.  Ent.  Comm.,  V, 
1890,  p.  219.— Riley,  Smith's  List  Lep.  Bor.  Am.,  1891,  p.  104,  No.  5562. 

Type. — A  female. 

Habitat. — Cedar  Keys,  Florida.  Larva  in  Coccid-scales  on  oak 
{Kermes,  species,  near  pallidus  Reaumur).  Collected  in  March ;  issued 
between  April  1-10.  This  species  is  omitted  from  Dyar's  List.  If  the 
type  is  still  extant '^  there  should  be  no  difficulty  in  placing  it  in 
its  proper  genus.  Chambers's  reference  to  the  neuration  is  doubtless 

Genus  HOLCOCERA  Clemens. 

Antennse  yellowish;  basal  joint  considerably  widened,  with  strong 
pecten,  dirty  whitish. 

Palpi  white,  sprinkled  with  blackish  scales,  very  densely  on  the 
outer  sides. 

Head  and  thorax  white,  sprinkled  with  blackish  scales. 

Forewings  white,  much  sprinkled  and  striated  with  blackish  scales; 
an  elongate  patch  of  these  scales  extends  from  the  base  along  the 
fold  to  about  one-sixth,  and  is  diffused  downward  to  the  flexus;  a 
narrower  streak  from  the  base  near  the  costa  extends  to  a  little 
beyond  one-third,  running  parallel  with  the  costa,  but  not  touching 
it ;  beyond  this,  and  a  little  further  removed  from  the  costa,  a  shorter 
but  darker  streak  follows  the  upper  edge  of  the  cell  to  its  outer  extrem- 
ity; two  other  streaks,  commencing  rather  nearer  to  the  base,  are 
situated  on  the  cell  and  on  the  fold,  respectively,  while  there  is  an 
indication  of  two  dark  dots  at  the  end  of  the  cell,  scarcely  more 
conspicuous  than  the  blackish  dusting  which  is  generally  distributed 
around  them,  and  especially  along  the  margins  to  the  apex;  cilia 
pale  yellowish  brown,  speckled  with  white  and  fuscous. 

Alar  expanse. — 13  mm. 

a  The  type  is  lost. — Harrison  G.  Dyar. 


Hindvnngs  shining,  pale  brownish  gray;  ciHa  yellowish. 

Ahdomen  whitish,  with  transverse  fuscous  lines. 

Legs  whitish. 

Tyjje. — Female,  No.  35531  Mus.  Walsingham;  paratype  female 
Cat.  No.  10672,  U.S.N.M. 

Habitat. — Arizona,  1883  (Morrison,  collector).     Two  specimens. 

This  species  can  only  be  compared  with  gigaiitella  Chambers,  from 
which  its  much  smaller  size  at  once  distinguishes  it;  it  also  lacks  the 
radiating  lines  towards  the  apex  of  the  wing.  The  male  is  unknown, 
but  nigrostriata  is  doubtless  more  correctly  referred  to  Holcocera 
than  to  Catacrijpsis. 

HOLCOCERA  APHIDIELLA,  new  species. 

Blastobasis  aphidiella  Riley,  Ann.  Rept.  U.  S.  Dept.  Agr.  for  1886,  1887,  p.  485. 

Riley's  merely  logonymic  reference  to  this  species  is  as  follows: 

"Blastobasis  aphidiella,  Riley  MS.,  we  have  reared  from  larvae 
feeding  on  the  contents  of  Phylloxera  hickory  galls."** 

Antennx  strongly  notched  beyond  the  basal  joint,  the  basal  extrem- 
ity of  the  notch  very  plainl}^  indicated  by  a  truncate  patch  of  scales 
from  the  lower  margin  of  which  the  slender  bent  stem  continues; 
beyond  this  they  are  biciliate  j ;  basal  joint  with  a  strong  scale-pecten ; 
tawny  gray. 

Palpi  slender,  pointed,  slightly  recurved,  reaching  beyond  the 
basal  joint  of  the  antennae,  the  terminal  joint  nearly  as  long  as  the 
median ;  brownish  cinereous,  the  median  joint  darkened  externally. 

Head  and  thorax  with  an  iridescent  greenish  luster;  tegiila^  tipped 
with  cupreous. 

Forewings  with  12  veins,  7  and  8  stalked,  7  to  costa;  tawny  reddish 
gray;  a  darker  discal  spot,  a  little  beyond  one-third,  is  succeeded  by 
a  larger  spot  (or  confluent  pair  of  spots)  at  the  end  of  the  cell,  below 
which  the  outer  extremity  of  the  fold  is  also  dark-shaded;  cilia 
brownish  cinereous;  underside  not  iridescent. 

Alar  expanse. — 17  mm. 

Hindwings  with  8  veins,  5  out  of  the  stalk  of  (3  +  4) ;  rather  shining, 
brownish  gray  with  greenish  and  cupreous  iridescence  toward  the 
base;  cilia  brownish  cinereous,  with  a  slight  ocherous  tinge;  under- 
side decidedly  iridescent. 

Abdomen  brownish  cinereous. 

Legs  brownish  cinereous. 

ri/2>e.— Male,  Cat.  No.  10676,  U.S.N.M.,  Walsingham  determined. 
No.  3689,  1899  ("31.  Unique;  not  named  in  Europe,  1884,  1886."— 

a  Ann.  Rept.  U.  S.  Dept.  Agr.  for  1886,  1887,  p.  485. 

206  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

Habitat. — United  States  (probably  Washington  City) .  Pupa  in  gall 
of  Phylloxera  on  Carya  alba,  October,  1882,  issued  May  12,  1883. 
Unique.     This  species  is  most  nearly  allied  to  quisquiliella  Zeller. 

CAT-ACRYPSIS,"  new    genus. 

Type  of  the  genus. — Oatacrypsis  nucella  Walsingham. 

Antennse  without  a  notch  in  the  male;  basal  joint  with  pecten, 
slightly  dilated  and  curved;  not  ciliate,  slightly  dentate  on  the 
outer  half. 

Maxillary  palpi  moderate. 

Labial  palpi  somewhat  recurved,  reaching  above  the  vertex. 

Haustellum  clothed. 

Head  and  thorax  smooth. 

Forewings  narrow  at  the  base,  widening  outward. 

Neuration  12  veins;  7  and  8  stalked,  7  to  costa;  3  and  4  connate, 
or  closely  approximate. 

Hindwings  rather  broadly  ovate,  at  least  as  broad  as  the  fore- 
wings  ;  flexus  somewhat  angular. 

Neuration  8  veins;  3  and  4  stalked,  5  connate,  with  or  out  of 
(3+4);  6  and  7  separate,  nearly  parallel. 

Abdomen  somewhat  flattened. 

Legs,  hind  tibiae  hairy,  tarsi  smooth. 

Closely  allied  to  Holcocera  Clemens,  but  without  the  notch  in  the 
antennse  of  the  male. 

CATACRYPSIS  NUCELLA,  new  species. 

Antennse   brownish   fuscous;  basal  joint  yellowish  brown. 

Palpi  yellowish  brown,  shaded  with  brownish  fuscous  externally. 

Head,  and  thorax  yellowish  brown. 

Forewings,  male,  yellowish  brown,  more  or  less  suffused  with 
purplish  fuscous,  especially  along  the  costa  and  on  the  outer  portion 
of  the  wing,  an  outwardly -bowed  transverse  shade  of  the  same  indi- 
cated at  one-third  from  the  base ;  at  the  end  of  the  cell  is  a  redupli- 
cated fuscous  spot;  cilia  pale  j^ellowish  brown;  female  with  the 
fuscous  shading  having  a  purplish  tinge,  and  being  very  much  thicker 
and  more  generalh^  distributed  than  in  the  male  (in  some  male 
specimens  the  suffusion  is  almost  entirely  absent),  the  basal  third  of 
the  wing  and  a  patch  at  the  lower  extremity  of  the  cell  alone  exhibit- 
ing the  paler  ground  color. 

Alar  expanse. — 16-18  mm. 

Hindwings  pale  brownish  gray;  cilia  yellowish  brown. 

Abdomen  and  legs  pale  brownish  ochreous. 

Type.— Msile,  No.  30646;  female.  No.  30647,  Mus.  Walsingham; 
paratypes,  male  and  female.  Cat.  No.  10670,  U.S.N.M. 

a  From  the  Greek  word  KaraKpvipis,  signifying  occultation. 


Habitat. — Colorado,  Loveland,  5,000  feet,  July,  1891;  September, 
1891  (W.  G.  Smith,  collector).     Thirty  specimens. 

This  species  could  only  be  compared  with  Holcocera  pwrpuroco- 
mella  Clemens,  of  which  I  have  only  a  single  female,  and  if  Clemens 
rightly  referred  his  species  to  the  genus  Holcocera  they  are  of  course 
structurally  distinct,  but  apart  from  this  I  can  not  regard  them  as 

CATACRYPSIS  STYGNA,  new  species. 

Antennse  pectinate,  but  not  notched ;  purplish  gray. 

Palpi  purplish  gray. 

Head  and  thorax  purplish  gray,  the  tegulse  with  a  distinct  coppery 

For  swings  tawny  vinous  gray,  a  purplish  sheen  strongly  exjDressed 
at  the  base  of  the  costa,  the  middle  and  outer  lialf  of  the  costa  slightly 
darker  than  the  remainder  of  the  wing;  the  commencement  of  this 
dark  shading  extends  across  the  wing  to  the  dorsum,  leaving  the 
preceding  space  outwardly  angulate  at  the  middle  and  of  a  paler  or 
more  grayish  shade;  a  reduplicated  shade-spot  at  the  outer  end  of 
the  cell  is  very  obscurely  indicated;  cilia  brownish  gray,  with  a 
slight  tawny  suffusion. 

Alar  expanse. — 18  mm. 

Hindwings  brownish  gray;  cilia  pale  buff -brownish. 

Ahdomen  (missing). 

Legs  brownish  gray,  with  broad  tawny  tarsal  bands. 

Type. — Male,  No.  90425,  Mus.  Walsingham. 

Habitat. — Mendocino  County,  north  of  Mendocino  City,  California 
(close  to  the  town),  June  3-5,  1871  (Walsingham,  collector).     Unique. 

Very  similar  in  appearance  to  Holcocera  purpurocomella  Clemens, 
but  differing  in  the  absence  of  the  notch  in  the  antennae. 

CATACRYPSIS  URSELLA,  new  species. 

Antennx  with  pecten,  but  without  notch;  pale  brownish  ochreous. 

Palpi  brownish  gra}"  externally,  dirty  whitish  on  their  inner  sides. 

Head  and  thorax  bone-whitish,  the  latter  tinged  with  brownish 
gray  anteriorly. 

Forewings  bone-white,  much  suffused  and  sprinkled  with  brownish 
gray,  overclouding  the  costa  as  well  as  the  apical  area  beyond  the 
cell,  but  less  profusely  along  the  dorsum  and  scarcely  at  all  along  the 
disc;  a  faintly  indicated  narrow  brownish  gray  fascia  seems  to  leave 
the  costa  at  one-third  from  the  base,  and,  after  interruption  on  the 
cell,  is  bent  inward  from  the  fold  to  the  dorsum  at  one-fourth;  this  is 
somewhat  accentuated  in  the  fold,  where  it  probably  absorbs  a  small 
darker  spot,  corresponding  to,  but  preceding,  a  larger  brownish  fus- 
cous discal  spot  about  the  middle  of  the  wing;  two  smaller  darker 
spots  are  indicated  at  the  end  of  the  cell,  and  one  at  the  lower  edge  of 

208  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxm. 

the  cell  equidistant  between  the  inner  and  outer  discal  spots;  the 
apex  is  slightly  mottled,  the  cilia  pale  brownish  gray. 

Alar  expanse. — 18  mm. 

Hindwings  pale  gray,  with  a  slight  brownish  tinge;  cilia  pale 
brownish  ochreous. 

A hdomen  grayish . 

Legs  pale  brownish  ochreous. 

r?/pe.— Male,  No.  90438,  Mus.  Walsingham. 

Habitat. — Shasta  County,  Bear  Creek,  California,  July  27-28. 
1871  (Walsingham,  collector).     Unique. 

The  species  is  larger  than  inconspicua  and  more  marked ;  the  gen- 
eral pattern  much  as  usual  in  this  group,  but  the  difference  of  struc- 
ture renders  it  easily  distinguishable  from  Valentinia  glandulella 
Riley,  Holcocera  chalcofrontella  Clemens,  or  Eypatopa  texanella 

CATACRYPSIS    IRENICA,  new  species. 

Antennse,iema\e,  hTowiiish  gray;  basal  joint  with  strong  pecten, 

Palpi  grayish  white,  median  joint  grayish  brown  externally  nearly 
to  its  apex;  terminal  joint  also  sprinkled  with  grayish  brown. 
'    Head  and  thorax  whitish,  slightly  sprinkled  with  brownish  gray. 

F'orewings  grayish  white,  with  brown-gray  sprinkling,  especially  on 
the  outer  two-thirds  of  the  costa  and  on  the  dorsal  and  apical  portions 
of  the  wing;  a  patch  of  this  at  the  base  of  the  costa,  mixed  with  some 
ferruginous  scales;  a  similar  patch  before  the  middle  of  the  costa 
exhibiting  more  of  the  ferruginous  coloring,  which  is  diffused  down- 
ward to  the  fold,  touching  the  inner  extremity  of  an  elongate-ovate 
blackish-brown  discal  spot,  beyond  which,  at  the  end  of  the  cell,  are 
two  smaller  spots  of  the  same  color,  which  is  also  faintly  reproduced 
in  a  diffused  patch  or  cloud  on  the  dorsum  beneath  them  and  on  the 
costa  beyond  them;  cilia  hoary  grayish. 

Alar  expanse.— 20  mm. 

Hindwings  shining,  yellowish  gray,  with  pale  brownish  ochert)US 

Abdomen  whitish  gray. 

Legs  whitish,  shaded  with  brownish  gray  on  their  outer  sides. 

Type.— Femsih,  No.  90429,  Mus.  Walsingham. 

Habitat.— ^Mendocino  County,  mouth  of  Albion  River,  California, 
May  30-31,  1871  (Walsingham,  collector);  British  Columbia,  New 
Westminster,  June  13,  1900  (C.  W.  Durrant,  collector).  Two 


Antennse  pale  grayish  brown. 

Palpi  grayish  brown,  darkened  externally. 

Head  and  thorax  grayish  brown. 


Forewings  grayish  brown  through  a  profuse  (histmg,  amounting  to 
an  ahnost  entire  suffusion  of  this  color  upon  a  pale  cinereous  ground; 
the  only  marking  indicated  is  a  slight  and  obscure  transverse  shade  at 
two-fifths  from  the  base  and  a  reduplicated  brownish  fuscous  spot 
at  the  end  of  the  cell ;  cilia  pale  grayish  brown. 

Alar  expanse. — 13-14  mm. 

Hindwing,s  sliming,  purplish  gray;  cilia  yellowish  brown. 

Ahdomen  shining,  brownish  gray. 

Legs  pale  yellowish  brown. 

Type. — Male,  No.  90433,  Mus.  Walsingham;  paratype  male,  Cat. 
No.  10669  U.S.N.M. 

Habitat. — Shasta  County  (Hatchet  Creek),  California,  July  14-17. 
1871  (Walsingham,  collector.)     Five  s])ecimens. 


Blastohasis  (?)  fluxella  Zeller,  Verh.  zool.-bot.  Ges.  Wicn,  XXIII,  1873,  pp. 

301-302.— Chambers,  Bull.  U.  S.  Geol.  Surv.,  IV,  1878,  p.  131.— Riley,  Smith 

List  Lep.  Bor.  Am.,  1891,  p.  104,  No.  5565. 
Holcocera  fluxella  Dyar,  Bull.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus.,  No.  52,  1902,  p.  529,  No.  5971. 

Tyj)e. — Male,  Museum  of  Comparative  Zoology,  Cambridge,  Massa- 

Hahitaf. — Bosque  County,  Texas,  October  11,  1876  (Belfrage,  col- 
lector) . 

Zeller  described  this  species  from  a  single  male  without  notched 
antennse,  and  with  broader  hindwings  and  palpi  three  or  four  times 
as  long  as  those  of  aiifugella  Zeller. 

B.  ( ?)  fluxella  can  not  therefore  be  referred  to  either  Holcocera  or 
Pigritia.  I  have  a  single  male  (33096),  collected  by  Belfrage  in 
Texas,  which  exactly  agrees  with  Zeller's  description,  and  having 
vein  5  of  the  hindwings  out  of  the  stalk  of  3  and  4  proves  the  s])e- 
cies  to  belong  to  Cafacrypsis. 

CATACRYPSIS    MORRISONI,  new  species. 

Antennae  with  moderate  pecten;  pale  brownish  ocherous. 

Palpi  brownish  ocherous. 

Head  and  thorax  grayish  brown,  with  paler  speckling. 

Forewings  rather  narrow,  elongate,  not  widening  outwardly;  bone- 
white,  with  grayish  brown  suffusion,  especiall}^  around  the  margins; 
a  brownish  shade  at  the  base  of  the  costa,  a  darker  streak  in  the  basal 
third  of  the  fold,  difl"used  and  diluted  to  the  flexus;  beneath  it  a  tri- 
angular brownish  fuscous  dorsal  patch,  arising  a  little  before  the  mid- 
dle, directed  obliquely  outward  and  ending  obtusely  on  the  cell  at 
about  half  the  wing  length;  beyond  it  a, pair  of  brownish  fuscous  spots 
at  the  end  of  the  cell  and  a  few  ill-defined  similar  spots  around  the 
apex  and  termen;  cilia  grayish  brown. 
Proc.  N.  M.  vol.  xxxiii— 07 14 

210  PROCEED INOS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol  xxxm. 

Alar  expanse. — 17  mm. 

Hindivings  shining,  pale  brownish  gray;  cilia  pale  brownish 

Abdomen  and  legs  pale  brownish  ocherous. 

Type. — Male,  No.  35527,  Mus.  Walsingham. 

Habitat. — Arizona,  1882  (Morrison,  collector).     Unique. 

A  narrow- winged  species,  differing  much  in  appearance  from  any 
already  described,  and  quite  unlike  such  exponents  of  allied  genera  as 
I  have  before  me. 

CYNOTES,    new  genus. 

Type  of  genus. — Blasfobasis  iceryaeeUa  Riley. 

Antennse  not  more  than  §;  basal  joint  slightly  dilated,  curved,  hol- 
lowed beneath,  with  a  strong  pecten  consisting  of  thick  scale  clothing; 
a  distinct  deeply  excised  notch  beyond  it;  beyond  this  the  antennae 
are  biciliate,  the  ciliations  diminishing  in  length  outwardly. 

Maxillary  palpi  meeting  above  the  base  of  the  haustellum. 

Labial  palpi  recurved,  reaching  above  the  base  of  the  antennae. 

Haustellum  moderate,  clothed. 

Head  thickly  clothed,  moderately  broad,  a  fringe  of  long  diverging 
hair  scales  beneath  the  eye. 

Thorax  smooth. 

Forewings  elongate,   widening  outwardly. 

Neuration,  12  veins;  7  and  8  stalked,  7  to  costa;  rest  separate. 

Hindwings  at  least  as  wide  toward  their  base  as  the  outer  half  of 
the  forewing;  flexus  angulate;  apex  obtusely  rounded. 

Neuration,  8  veins;  3  and  4  connate;  5  separate;  6  and  7  separate. 

Abdomen  rather  short,  flattened. 

Legs  stout,  hind  tibiae  and  tarsi  clothed  with  hair-scales,  the  tarsi 
less  cons])icuously. 

Allied  to  Hypatopa,  from  which  it  differs  in  the  notched  antennae 
of  the  male. 


Blastobasis  iceryaeeUa  Riley,  Ann.  Rept.   U.  S.   Dept.  Agr.  for  1886,  1887,  pp. 

484-485,485-486;  same  for  1888,  1889,  p.  86;  Ins.  Life.  1, 1888,  p.  130;  Smith's 

List  Lep.  Bor.  Am.,  1891,  p.  104,  No.  5569. 
Holcocera  icenjaeella  Dyar,  Bull.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus.,  No.  52,  1902,  p.  529,  No.  5974. 

Type. — A  male  and  a  female.  Cat.  No.  473,  U.S.N.M. 

Doctor  Dyar  evidently  regards  this  species  as  an  importation  from 
Australia,  but  we  still  lack  exact  information,  for  Doctor  Riley  omitted 
to  furnish  any  data  when  describmg  the  species.  Through  the  kind- 
ness of  Doctor  Howard  I  received  some  of  Coquillett's  specimens 
labeled  "Pupa  on  orange."  These  may  have  been  imported,  but 
they  can  not  affect  the  fact  that  my  collector,  the  late  Thomas  Eedle, 

NO.  1507.  NE  W  AMERICA N  TINEID  MO THS—  ]VA  LSISGHA M.  211 

while  waiting  for  me  to  start  on  my  collecting  trip  in  California  and 
Oregon,  took  a  single  specimen  (No.  90428)  at  Sacramento  between 
April  24  and  May  16,  1871. 

Genus  HYPATOPA,  new  name. 

i/i/patima  Herrich-Scuaeffeh,  Syst.  Besciii.  Schmett.  Eur.,V,  1853,  pp.  47,  217, 
pi.  XIII,  figs.  15-16  (not  Hiibner). — Staudinger  and  Rebel,  Cat.  Lep.  Eur., 
Pt.  2,  1901,  p.  164,  No.  353.— Dyar,  Bull.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus.,  No.  52,  1902, 
p.  528. 

Type  of  genus. — Oecophora  inunctella  Zeller. 


HYPATOPA  TEXANELLA,  new  species. 

Antennx,  male,  with  conspicuous  pecten,  but  without  notch;  pale 
brownish  gray. 

Palpi  brownish  gray,  slightly  darker  on  their  outer  side. 

Head  brownish  cinereous. 

Thorax  cinereous,  shaded  with  brownish  gray. 

Forewings  hoary  whitish  cinereous,  shaded  and  speckled  with 
brownish  gray,  especially  at  the  base,  along  the  costa,  more  widely 
on  the  outer  half,  as  well  as  on  the  apical  and  dorsal  portions  of  the 
wing;  with  an  outwardly  curved,  ill-defined,  brownish  gray  fascia, 
at  about  one-third  from  the  base,  followed  by  a  discal  spot  of  the 
same  color  slightly  above  the  middle;  at  the  end  of  the  cell  are  two 
spots,  one  above  the  other,  corresponding  to  the  angles  of  the  cell,  and 
below  and  beyond  these  is  a  less  clearly  definetl  spot  touching  the 
dorsum  about  the  tornus;  cilia  brownish  gray. 

Alar  expanse. — 14-16  mm. 

Hindwings  and  cilia  pale  3'ellowish  brown,  the  former  with  a  rather 
shining  gloss. 

Abdomen  pale  yellowish  brown. 

Legs  pale  yellowish  brown,  the  tarsi  faintly  mottled. 

Type.— Male,  No.  33087;  female.  No.  33089,  Mus.  Walsingham; 
paratypes  male  and  famale,  Cat.  No.  10671,  U.S.N.M. 

Hahitat.—Bosque  County,  Texas.  April  28-May  20,  October  6-10, 
1876  (Belfrage,  collector).     Nine  specimens. 

HYPATOPA  EPISCIA,  new  species. 

Antennse,  paljn,  head,  and  thorax  uniformly  grayish  cinereous. 

Forewings  grayish  cinereous,  somewhat  mottled  with  slightly 
darker  shades;  the  first  of  these  at  the  basal  third  takes  the  form  of  a 
rather  wide  band  from  the  costa,  but  does  not  reach  the  dorsum; 
beyond  this  lies  a  small  darkened  spot,  and  about  the  tornus  is  a 
small  patch  of  the  same  color  preceded  and  followed  by  others  smaller 
and  less  conspicuous;  cilia  concolorous  with  the  wing. 

212  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.  vol.  xxxiii. 

Alar  expanse. — 14-15  mm. 

Hindwings  and  cilia  pale  grayish,  with  a  slight  brownish  ochreous 

Abdomen  pale  grayish,  inclining  to  ochreous  posteriorly. 

Legs  conforming  in  color  to  the  hindwings,  tarsal  joints  not  shaded. 

Type.—Ms\e,  No.  90420;  female,  No.  90421,  Mns.Walsingham;  para- 
type  male,  Cat.  No.  10675,  U.S.N.M. 

Habitat. — Sonoma  County,  Russian  River,  California,  May  19,  1871 ; 
Dry  Creek,  May  20-21,  1871 ;  Mendocino  County,  head  of  Noyo  River 
June  8-11,  1871;  past  Little  Lake,  June  12,  1871  (Walsingham, 
collector).     Five  specimens. 

In  some  specimens  there  are  two  elongate  spots  on  the  fold,  but 
such  markings  are  so  little  differentiated  from  the  ground-color  as  to 
be  scarcely  worthy  of  description.  The  whole  insect  has  a  plain 
unornamented  appearance,  it  is  somewhat  darker  and  grayer  than 
conia,  from  which  it  differs  in  having  veins  3  and  4  of  the  hindwings 
stalked  instead  of  connate. 

HYPATOPA   CONIA,  new  species. 

Antennse  cinereous. 

Palpi  whitish  cinereous,  sprinkled  with  brownish  fuscous;  median 
joint  browmish  fuscous  externally,  except  its  apex,  which  is  whitish. 

Head  and  thorax  whitish  cinereous,  dusted  with  brownish  fuscous. 

Forewings  whitish  cinereous,  dusted  with  brownish  fuscous,  espe- 
cially on  the  costal  and  dorsal  portions;  an  elongate  brownish  fuscous 
spot  before  the  middle,  sometimes  reduplicated  above  toward  the 
base;  there  is  sometimes  an  elongate  spot  of  the  same  color  in  the  fold 
below  them,  a  slight  shade  at  the  end  of  the  cell,  and  a  few  ill-defined 
groups  of  brownish  fuscous  scales  around  the  apex;  cilia  whitish 
cinereous,  inclining  to  grayish  at  the  tornus,  dusted  with  brownish 
throughout;  underside  scarcely  darker  than  the  pale,  shining  hind- 

Alar  expanse. — 14-16  mm. 

Hindwings  cinereous,  with  a  slight  brownish  tinge;  cilia  })aler, 
inclining  to  ochreous. 

Abdomen  pale  grayish,  inclining  to  ochreous  posteriorly. 

Legs  of  the  same  color  as  the  cilia  of  the  hindwings,  tarsal  joints 
somewhat  griseous. 

Type.— Msde,  No.  90405;  female,  No.  90408;  Mus.  Walsingham; 
paratypes  male  and  female,  Cat.  No.  10674,  U.S.N.M. 

Habitat. — Lake  County,  Blue  Lake,  California,  June  15-16,  1871; 
Siskiyou  County,  Mount  Shasta,  October,  1871  (Walsingham,  col- 
lector).    Fifteen  specimens. 


This  species  differs  iromfasciata  in  the  absence  of  the  wide  curved 
band  before  the  middle  of  the  forewing,  and  in  its  paler  coloring,  but 
in  other  respects  it  bears  great  resemblance  to  it,  although  in  many 
specimens  the  markings  are  wholly  or  partly  obliterated. 

HYPATOPA  FASCIATA,  new  species. 

Antennse-  with  a  pecten,  but  not  notched;  brownish  fuscous. 

Palpi  l^rownish  fuscous,  both  joints  tippeil  with  hoary  fuscous. 

Head  and  thorax  hoary,  dusted  with  brownish  fuscous. 

Forewings  hoary,  profusely  sprinkled  with  brownish  fuscous;  a 
somewhat  outwardly  curved  brownish  fuscous  fascia,  at  one-third 
from  the  base,  is  preceded  by  a  distinct  line  of  the  pale  ground-color 
and  followed  about  its  middle  by  a  thickened  ])atch  of  brownish 
fuscous,  sometimes  divided  into  two  spots  on  the  pale  discal  surface; 
there  is  a  longitudinal  streak  of  the  same  color  lying  in  the  fold 
beyond  its  middle,  and  at  the  end  of  the  fold,  opposite  the  tornus,  is 
a  somewhat  triangular  patch  of  brownish  fuscous,  its  apex  pointing 
toward  the  costa;  a  series  of  indistinct  mottlings  or  groups  of  scales 
are  noticeable  in  good  specimens  around  the  termen;  cilia  hoary, 
inclining  to  grayish,  with  two  slender  lines  running  throughout  from 
tornus  to  apex;  underside  unicolorous  pale  brownish  gray,  with  a 
slight  iridescence. 

Alar  expanse. — 14-17  mm. 

Hindwings  shining,  pale  brownish,  with  an  iridescent  luster  in  a 
strong  light;  cilia  the  same,  slightly  paler  along  their  base;  underside 
unicolorous  pale  brownish  gray,  slightly  iridescent. 

Ahclomen  shining,  pale  brownish  gray;  anal  tuft  corresponding  in 
color  with  the  hindwings. 

Legs  pale  brownish,  the  tarsal  joints  somewhat  shaded  with 
brownish  fuscous. 

Type. — Male,  No.  90388,  Mus.  Walsingham;  paratypes  male.  Cat. 
No.  "l0673,  U.S.N.M. 

Habitat. — Head  of  Noyo  River,  Mendocino  County,  California, 
June  8-11,  1871 ;  past  Little  Lake,  June  12,  1871;  Lake  County,  Blue 
Lake,  June  15-16,  1871;  Colusa  County,  North  Fork  Cache  Creek, 
June  24-26,  1871  (Walsingham,  collector).     Sixteen  specimens. 

HYPATOPA  ORITES,  new  species. 

Antennse  brownish  gray;  basal  joint  pectinate. 

Palpi  strongly  recurved  to  the  back  of  the  head  above;  grayish 
white,  much  dusted  with  brownish  fuscous,  especially  on  the  outer 
side  of  the  median  joint. 

Head  gTa3dsh  white,  sprinkled  with  fuscous. 

Thorax  grayish  white,  suffused  and  sprinkled  with  brownish 

214  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

Forewings  grayish  white,  suffused  and  sprinkled  with  brownish 
fuscous;  the  central  portion  of  the  wing,  on  which  is  exhibited  a  dark 
discal  shade-spot  and  another  at  the  end  of  the  cell  is  less  overclouded 
with  fuscous  sprinkling  than  the  margins  or  apex  of  the  wing;  a  little 
beyond  the  discal  spot  is  an  elongate  dark  streak  in  the  fold,  and  a 
dark  shade  at  the  end  of  the  fold  is  a  little  less  obliquely  placed  in 
relation  to  a  spot  at  the  end  of  the  cell;  the  apex  and  termen  show 
slight  pale  interruptions  in  the  dark  shading,  which  gives  the  appear- 
ance of  a  series  of  ill-defined  marginal  shade-spots  extending  through 
the  whitish  gray  cilia;  the  whole  wing  has  thus  a  mottled  and  speckled 
appearance,  the  white  ground-color  showing  chiefly  before  and 
beyond  the  discal  spot,  and  in  two  rather  oblique  marks  pointing  to 
the  fiexus  beneath  the  basal  half  of  the  fold. 

Alar  expanse. — 16  mm. 

Hindwings  shining,  grayish  brown;  cilia  brownish  ochreous. 

Abdomen  pale  brownish  ochreous. 

Legs  pale  brownish  ochreous. 

Ty2)e.— Female,  No.  90427,  Mus.  Walsingham. 

Habitat. — Mount  Shasta,  Siskiyou  County,  California,  August, 
1871  (Walsingham,  collector).     Unique. 


=Xyloryctidie  Dyar,  Bull.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus.,  No.  52,  1902,  pp.  518-9. 

Allied  to  Xyloryctidse  Meyrick,  but  differing  in  having  veins  7  and 
8  pi  the  forewings  separate. 

This  family  is  characteristic  of  tropical  America,  but  would  include 
Agriophara  Rosenstock'^  (the  only  Australian  genus  with  veins  7  and 
8  of  the  forewings  separate  referred  by  Meyrick  to  the  Xyloryctidse) 
and  a  few  Indian  forms. 

The  species  belonging  to  various  genera  of  the  Stenomatidse  have 
been  generally  erroneously  described  as  "  CryptolecMa"  (OecophoridaO 
which  genus  differs  in  having  7  and  8  of  the  forewings  stalked,  and  6 
and  7  of  the  hindwings  separate  and  parallel. 

MENESTOMORPHA&,    new   genus. 

Type  of  the  genus. — Male  of  Menestomorpha  oblongata  Walsingham. 

Antennse  biciliate  (2^). 

Maxillary  palpi  rudimentary. 

Labial  palpi  recurved,  median  joint  of  even  width  throughout, 
closely  clothed;  terminal  joint  rather  more  than  half  the  length  of 
the  median,  reaching  above  the  vertex,  acuminate. 

a  Ann.  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  (5),  XVI,  1885,  p.  439. 
b  From  Menesta  and  juopcpr},  signifying  form. 

NO.  1567.  NE  W  A  M ERICA  N  TIN  EI D  MO  THS—  WA  LSINGHA  M.  215 

Ha iistdlurn  mod erate . 

Head  roii2;h  above. 

Thorax  smooth. 

Forewings  elongate,  oblong,  ef  approximately  eqnal  width  through- 
out, costa  very  slightly  depressed  along  mitldle,  termen  oblique. 

Neuration  11  veins;  2  and  3  coincident,  stalked  with  4;  7  and  8 
separate,  7  to  apex;  rest  separate. 

Hindwings  (2),  evenly  rounded  to  the  somewhat  prolonged  apex, 
not  sinuate  below  apex. 

Neuration  7  veins;  3  and  4  coincident,  connate  with  5;  6  and  7 

Ahdomen  somewhat  stout. 

Legs,  hind  tibiae  hairy. 

Allied  to  Ide  Chambers,  ])ut  differing  in  the  loss  by  coincidence  of 
a  vein  in  both  wings. 


Antennx  cinereous. 

Palpi,  head,  and  thorax  whitish  cinereous,  mixed  with  grayish 
fuscous  scales. 

Forewings  whitish  cinereous,  streaked  and  speckled  with  grayish 
fuscous,  a  slight  indication  of  a  grayish  fuscous  transverse  band  form- 
ing a  ver}^  indistinct  basal  patch,  a  slender  grayish  fuscous  line  beyond 
it  in  the  fold,  and  above  this  toward  the  costa,  some  grayish  fuscous 
shading,  blending  with  a  series  of  ill-defined  grayish  fuscous  streaks, 
following  the  lines  of  the  veins,  beyond  the  cell  to  the  costa  and 
termen ;  along  the  termen,  reaching  to  the  apex,  is  a  series  of  five  or 
six  obscure  grayish  fuscous  spots;  cilia  grayish  fuscous,  with  a  darker 
line  along  their  base  above  the  middle;  underside  pale  brownish 

Alar  expanse  15  mm. 

Hindwings  brownish  gray ;  cilia  somew^hat  paler,  a  slender  grayish 
fuscous  line  along  the  margin  at  the  base  and  two  parallel  shades  of 
grayish  fuscous  running  through  them;  underside  pale  brownish 

Ahdomen  brownish  gray,  with  some  grayish  fuscous  scaling. 

Legs  wdiitish  cinereous. 

Type. — Male,  No.  32542,  Mus.  Walsingham;  paratype.  Cat.  No. 
10347,  U.S.N. M.     (Walsingham  determined,  No.  4778,  1906.) 

Hahitat. — Fort  Grant,  Arizona,  from  Cynipid  gall  on  oak,  issued 
April  22,  1882  (Morrison,  collector). 

216  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 


Genus  COLEOPHORA  Hubner. 

COLEOPHORA  PRUNIELLA  Clemens  and  Walsingham. 

Coleophora  pruniella  Clemens,  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  Phil.,  I,  1861,  pp.  78,  79. — Clem- 
ens in  Stainton,  Tin.  No.  Am.,  1872,  pp.  165-167. — Zeller,  Verh.  zool.- 
bot.  Gesell.  Wien.,  XXIII,  1873,  pp.  309,  310.— Chambers,  Bull.  U.  S. 
Geol.  Surv.,  IV,  1878,  pp.  Ill,  136.— Packard,  U.  S.  Dept.  Agr.,  Int.  Ent. 
Comm.  Bull.,  VII,  1881,  p.  134.— Hy.  Edwards,  Bull.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus., 
No.  35,  1889,  p.  128.— Packard,  Rept.  U.  S.  Dept.  Agr.,  Ent.  Comm.,  V, 
1890,  p.  528,  No.  17.— Riley,  Smith's  List  Lep.  Bor.  Am.,  1891,  p.  106,  No. 
5699.— Dyar,  Bull.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus.,  No.  52,  1902,  p.  533,  No.  6034. 

Larva  on  Primus  serotinus,  imago  unknown. 

Antennx  grayish  fuscous,  without  a  basal  tuft,  basal  joint  enlarged. 

Palpi  with  a  very  small  tuft  from  the  median  joint;  hoary. 

Head  and  thorax  hoary. 

Forewings  hoary  whitish  gray,  sprinkled  with  fuscous  scales,  the 
apex  irrorated  with  fuscous.;  a  distinct,  but  not  clearly  defined,  spot 
above  the  tornub  at  one-third  from  the  dorsum;  costal  cilia  greyish, 
terminal  cilia  hoary  gray,  dorsal  cilia  pale  grayish. 

Alar  expanse  13.5  mm. 

Hindwings  shining  gray;  cilia  pale  grayish. 

Abdomen  and  legs  grayish,  the  tarsal  joints  with  faintly  paler  bands. 

Case. — This  agrees  with  Clemens'  description,  but  he  omits  to  say 
that  it  is  pale  ochreous,  with  a  slight  ridge  along  the  top  from  mouth 
to  apex. 

Type.—Ferasde  (Walsingham  determined  No.  4943,  1906),  U.S.N.M. 

Habitat. — Placer  County,  California.  Larva  on  Prunus  demissa, 
issued  August.     Unique. 

This  species  is  distinct  from  occidentis  Zeller.  The  imago  was 
unknown  to  Clemens. 


Coleophora   occidentis    Zeller,   Verh.   zool.-bot.   Ges.  Wien.,   XXIII,   1873,   pp. 

Coleophora  occidentalis  Chambers,  Bull.  U.  S.  Geol.  Surv.,  IV,  1878,  p.  136. — ■ 

Riley,  Smith's  List.  Lep.  Bor.  Am.,  1891,  p.  106,  No.  5695. 
Coleophora  prvniella  Dyar,  Bull.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus.,  No.  52,  1902,  p.  533,  No.  6034. 

Type. — In  Mus.  Walsingham. 
Habitat. — Massachusetts. 


Antennx  without  a  basal  tuft,  but  the  basal  joint  is  thickened; 
pale  stone-color,  inclining  to  whitish  ochreous,  faintly  annulate 
toward  the  tips. 


Palpi  with  a  slight  brush  from  the  median  joint;  stone-gray. 

Head  and  thorax  stone-gray. 

Forewings  stone-color,  with  a  slight  brownish  tinge,  with  numerous 
lines  of  blackish  scales  intermixed  with  some  whitish  ones,  especially 
on  the  outer  half  of  the  wings;  the  lines  are  not  clearly  defined,  but 
one  subcostal,  one  along  the  fold,  one  along  the  dorsum,  and  about 
three  from  the  apical  portion,  pointing  inward,  are  faintly  distin- 
guishable ;  cilia  gray. 

Alar  expanse. — 1.1.5  mm. 

Hindwings  and  cilia  gray. 

Abdomen  and  legs  brownish  gray. 

Type.—Mah  (Walsingham  determined,  No.  4927,  1006),  Cat.  No. 
10348,  U.S.N.M. 

Habitat. — Akron,  Ohio;  Larva  on  Pru?M/.§  .  .  .  issued  Oct()l)or  14, 
1890  (E.  M.  Claypole,  collector).     Unique. 

COLEOPHORA   VAGANS,   new  species. 

Antennse  faintly  annulate,  lirownish  gray. 

Palpi  simple,  without  a  basal  tuft ;  l^rownish  gray. 

Head  and  thorax  dull  brownish  gray. 

Forewings  dull  brownish  gra}^,  with  very  faintl}^  indicated  lines  of 
mixed  fuscous  and  pale  scales;  one  running  from  the  base  about  the 
middle,  slightly  bent  downward  toward  the  tornus;  another  on  the 
fold;  a  few  indications  of  oblique  pale  lines  between  the  middle  of 
the  costa  and  the  apex,  pointing  inward,  and  a  slight  sprinkling  of 
blackish  scales  about  the  apex;  costal  cilia  slightly  paler  than  the 

Alar  expanse. — 12  mm. 

Hindwings  grayish;  cilia  brownish  gray. 

Abdomen  (greasy). 

Legs  (broken). 

Tyjje.— Female  (Walsingham  determined.  No.  4928,  1906).  Cat. 
No.  10349,  U.S.N.M. 

Case. — Triangular  at  the  apex,  cylindrical,  slightly  bulged,  the 
mouth  l)ent  over;  general  color  stone-grayish,  a  brownish  patch 
above,  extending  from  the  mouth,  which  is  slightly  lipped,  to  about 
one-third  of  its  length. 

Habitat. — New  York  city,  larva  on  grass,  issued  August,  1888. 

Genus  CCELOPCETA",  new  genus. 

Type  of  the  genus. — Male  and  female,  Co'lopata  glutinosi  Walsing- 

Antennse. — Male,  simple,  § ;  basal  joint  with  pecten. 

^  From  KoiXoi,  signifyiiifj;  hollow;  and  non/ryi,  signifying  a  maker. 

218  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE.  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.  vol.  xxxin. 

Maxillary  'palpi  obsolete. 

Labial  palpi  moderate,  curved,  slightly  ascending;  terminal  joint 
much  shorter  than  median. 

Ilaustellmn  naked. 

Ocelli  absent. 

Head  and  tliorax  smooth. 

Forewings  tapering,  acute. 

Neuration  12  veins;  2,  3,  and  4  separate,  discoidal  subobsolete 
l>etween  4  and  5;  5  out  of  radius  before  <S,  apparently  connate  with 
(6  +  7  +  8) ;  6  and  7  stalked,  inclosing  the  apex,  8  out  of  stalk  of  (6  +  7) ; 
tornal  branch  of  media  traceable  between  3  and  4,  rest  of  media  sub- 
obsolete;  1*^  strongly  furcate,  1'  strongly  developed  outw^ardly.  Hind- 
wings  -o,  tapering,  acute,  margins  not  sinuate;  cilia  2^. 

Neuration  8  veins;  cubitus  strong,  as  also  2  and  3;  media  weak,  its 
upper  fork  subobsolete,  but  becoming  distinct  as  vein  5;  discoidal 
obsolete;  radius  strong,  6  and  7  stalked;  8  strong. 

Ahdomen  moderate,  wide  at  tlie  base. 

Legs  hind  tibia?  hairy  above  and  l)eneath. 

This  genus  belongs  to  the  group  of  ElacMsta  Treitschke,  from 
which  it  differs  entirely  in  its  larval  habits  and  in  having  all  the 
veins  present  in  both  wings.  In  ElacMsta  vein  6  of  the  forewings 
arises  from  the  stalk  of  (7+8),  while  in  C^oelopa4a  veins  6  and  7  are 
stalked,  vein  8  arising  from  their  stem. 

COELOPCETA  GLUTINOSI,  new  species. 

Antennse  fawn-whitish,  barred  on  the  upper  side  with  fuscous. 

Palpi  whitish. 

Head  and  thorax  whitish,  sprinkled  with  fawn. 

Forewings  fawn-whitish,  profusely  sprinkled  and  shaded  through- 
out with  fawn-ocherous,  or  fawn-brown,  a  few  fuscous  scales  at  the 
extreme  base  of  the  costa,  and  at  the  base  of  the  costal  and  apical 
cilia  in  some  specimens ;  cilia  fawn-ocherous,  sprinkled  on  their  basal 
half  with  fawn-brown. 

Alar  expanse. — 12-13  nun. 

Hindwings  tawny  gray;  cilia  rather  paler,  grayish  fuscous. 

Ahdomen  gray;  anal  tuft  fawn-wdiitish. 

Legs  whitish;  hind  tarsal  joints  barred  with  fuscous. 

Ty2^e.—Ma\e,  No.  90511;  female,  No.  90512  in  Mus.  Walsingham; 
paratypes,  male  and  female,  No.  10350,  U.S.N.M.  (11  specimens.) 

Habitat. — California,  Mendocino  County,  Coal  Creek  Canon  (Pot- 
ter's Valley),  June  14,  1871;  larvse  in  galls  on  Eriodycteon  glutinosum, 
June  14,  issued  middle  of  June  to  middle  of  July,  1871:  Lake  County, 
Scott's  Valley  (5  miles  north  of  Clear  Lake),  June  17-19,  1871:  Lower 
Lake,  June  22-23,  1871:   Colusa    County,   Phip's    Place,  June    26, 


1871:  Shasta  Count}^,  Hatchet  Creek,  Jul}^  14-17,  1871:  Bear  Creek, 
July  27-28,  1871:  Siskiyou  County,  Mount  Shasta,  August  2-Sep- 
tember  1,  1871.     Seventj'-three  specimens  (Walsingham,  collector). 

The  color  of  the  forewings  is  somewhat  variable;  in  some  specimens 
the  darker  sprinkling  gives  a  suffused  appearance  beyond  the  middle 
and  is  condensed  in  two  obscure  marginal  spots  on  either  side  of  the 
tornus,  but  in  the  majority  this  brownish  sprinkling  is  evenly  dis- 
tributed over  the  ^ving  surface  and  no  markings  are  apparent.  In 
other  specimens  the  ground  color  becomes  almost  white  and  the 
darker  sprinkling  is  unimportant. 

I  first  met  with  this  species  in  the  middle  of  June,  1871,  on  the 
borders  of  Mendocino  and  Lake  counties,  California,  where  I  took 
specimens  flying  among  plants  of  Eriodycteon  glutinosum;  on  the 
same  plant  I  found  bladder-like  galls  produced  by  a  larva,  apparently 
mining  in  the  midrib.  The  gall  occupied  nearly  the  whole  width  of 
the  leaf,  which  was  curled  up  at  the  sides  and  at  the  end  by  contrac- 
tion. On  opening  these  galls  a  small  elongate-ovate  and  rather 
flattened  cocoon  was  found ;  from  these  the  moths  continued  to  emerge 
up  to  the  middle  of  July.  More  specimens  were  met  with  at  the  end 
of  July  and  the  beginning  of  August  on  the  borders  of  Shasta  and 
Siskiyou  counties;  it  is  certainly  abundant  where  it  occurs. 

I  am  indebted  to  the  late  Professor  Bolander,  of  San  Francisco,  for 
the  determination  of  the  plant. 

Genus  STAGM ATOPHORA  Herrieh-Schaeffer. 

Stagmatophora  Herrich-Schaeffer,  Syst.  Beschr.  Schmett.  Eur.,  V,  1853,  p.  49, 
No.  87;  VI,  1853,  expl.  of  pi.  vii. — Staudinger  and  Rebel,  Oat.  Lep.  Eur., 
Pt.  2,  1901,  p.  188,  No.  405.— Walsingham  and  Durrant,  Ent.  Mo.  Mag., 
XLII,  1906,  p.  196-7. 


Gelechia  sexnotella  Chambers,  Bull.  U.  S.  Geo.  Surv.,  IV,  1878,  p.  88. — Hagen, 
Papilio,  IV,  1884,  p.  99.— Riley,  Smith  List.  Lep.  Bor.  Am.,  1891,  p.  102, 
No.  5482. 

Movipha  sexnotella  Busck,  Journ.  N.  Y.  Ent.  Soc,  X,  1902,  p.  97-98. — Dyar. 
Bull.  U.  S.  N.  Mus.,  No.  52,  1902,  p.  543,  No.  6168. 

Antennse  brownish  fuscous,  with  a  small  white  spot  at  the  end  of 
the  basal  joint. 

Palpi  cream-white,  the  terminal  joint  biannulate  with  brownish 

Head  white. 

Thorax  bro^^^lish  fuscous. 

Forewings  rather  shining,  brownish  fuscous,  with  shining  white 
markings;  a  rather  outwardly  obliciue  costal  streak,  from  near  the 
base,  reaching  over  the  fold  but  not  to  the  dorsum,  a  medic-costal 

220  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxm. 

spot,  somewhat  obliquely  prolonged,  and  a  larger  costal  spot  before 
the  apex;  also  two  small  dorsal  spots,  the  first  opposite  the  middle 
costal  spot,  the  second  beyond  it,  and  a  small  spot  at  the  apex;  cilia 
brownish  gray. 

Alar  expanse. — 11  mm. 

Hindwings  and  cilia  brownish  gray. 

Abdomen  brownish  fuscous,  with  whitish  marks  along  the  sides. 

Legs  whitish,  barred  with  brownish  fuscous  on  the  hind  tarsal 

Habitat. — Bosque  County,  Texas;  Georgiana,  Florida;  Pennsylvania; 
Virginia.  Larva  in  stem-gall  on  Trichostomum  dichotoma;  issued 
June  9,  1881.     Walsingham  determined  No.  4497,  1906. 

There  is  a  specimen  from  Beverly,  Massachusetts,  July  11,  1868 
(Burgess)  " Stagmatophora  argyroda,^  Mus.  Z."  (Zell.  Coll.  101533), 
which  very  nearly  agrees  with  the  type,  the  only  difference  being 
that  the  two  dorsal  spots  and  some  white  scales  on  the  margin  between 
these  and  the  apical  spot  are  slightly  raised  and  somewhat  metallic. 
I  must  express  my  thanks  to  Mr.  Busck  for  suppressing  a  prospective 
synonym  by  letting  me  know  that  this  description  applies  to  Gelechia 
sexnotella  Chambers,  with  which  I  was  unacquainted. 

Genus  HYPONOMEUTA  Latreille. 

Antennx  fuscous. 

Palpi  slender,  projecting  about  the  length  of  the  head  beyond  it; 
whitish,  touched  with  chestnut-brown. 

Head  and  tliorax  white,  dusted  with  grayish  above. 

Forewings  white,  with  grayish  dusting  along  the  costal  portion, 
especially  near  the  base;  numerous  grayish  brown  spots  of  varying 
sizes  run  in  four  diverging  lines  from  the  base;  on  the  costal  por- 
tion above  the  cell  is  a  row  of  six,  the  last  but  one  of  which  is  situ- 
ated at  about  half  the  wing-length;  below  this  series  is  another,  of 
six  or  seven,  running  through  the  discal  cell,  and  on  the  outer  third 
of  the  wing  are  two  or  three  detached  spots  above  it  leading  up  to 
the  apical  series;  immediately  below  the  fold  is  a  third  row  of  spots, 
and  along  the  dorsum  are  four  or  five  more,  forming  the  fourth  row; 
the  apical  series  commences  on  the  costa  at  about  the  end  of  the 
cell,  and  is  continued  along  the  termen  to  the  tornus,  consisting  of 
about  eleven  spots;  cilia  fawn-color. 

Alar  expanse. — 19  mm. 

Hindwings  light  chestnut-brown,  or  fawn-color,  somewhat  intensi- 
fied toward  the  apex;  cilia  concolorous. 

Abdomen  and  legs  agreeing  in  color  with  the  hindwings. 

a  From  dpyvpdrjXoi,  signifying  silver-studded. 


Type. — Female,  No.  5391,  Miis.  Walsingham ;  paratypes,  U.  S. 
Nat.  Mus./  Mus.  Fernald.     Three  specimens. 

HaUtat.—TexsiS  {"  Ber.  Gerir). 

A  single  specimen  given  me  by  the  late  Monsieur  Ragonot  in  1884 
agreed  with  another  in  the  late  Doctor  Riley's  collection,  also  from 
Texas;  a  third  specimen  is  in  the  collection  of  Professor  Fernald. 
The  paratypes  were  perhaps  labeled  by  me  about  1885,  "  Enxmia 
posticella  Wlsm.  MS.;"  they  however  differ  from  Mieza  Walker 
( =  Eustixis  Hiibner,  =  Enxmia  Zeller)  in  the  coincidence  of  veins  3 
and  4  of  the  hindwings,  thus  agreeing  with  Hyponomeuta  Latreille. 

Family  TINEIDyE. 

-Genus  BUCCULATRIX  Zeller. 


Antemise  white,  faintly  annulate  with  grayish  fuscous. 

Head  and  thorax  white. 

Forewings  white,  with  a  patch  of  fawn-colored  scales  on  the  costa 
beyond  the  middle,  a  smaller  patch  of  the  same  color  before  the  mid- 
dle; opposite  to  and  between  these  two  is  a  larger  patch  of  fawn 
scales  adjacent  to  the  dorsum,  with  a  black  spot  at  its  inner  edge 
on  the  fold ;  the  termen  is  shaded  with  fawn  and  contains  some  scat- 
tered black  scales,  the  fawn  shading  extending  through  the  cilia, 
which  are  grayish  about  the  tornus  and  white  at  the  apex;  under- 
side rather  bright  ocherous,  with  white  margins. 

Alar  expanse. — 8  mm. 

Hindwings  pale  brownish  gray;  cilia  slightly  paler. 

Abdomen  pale  brownish  gray. 

Legs  whitish;  hind  tarsi  faintly  spotted. 

Type.—MeAe  (Walsingham  determined,  No.  4993,  1906).  Cat.  No. 
10352,  U.S.N.M. 

Habitat. — Lancaster,  California. 

Larva  from  leaves  of  Eurotia  canata.  Pupa  in  a  white,  ribbed 
cocoon,  issued  May,  1890  (A.  Koebele,  collector).     Unique. 

Genus  LITHOCOLLETIS   Hubner. 

Antennx  whitish. 
Palpi  white. 

Head  pale  rust-brown;  face  white. 

Forewings  whitish  fawn,  with  very  indistinct  whitish  costal  streak- 
lets;  the  first,  before  the  middle,  oblique,  outwardly  margined  with 

oThis  specimen  does  not  now  appear  in  the  U.  S.  National  Museum  collection, 
and  has  been  lost,  presumably.  It  was  seen  by  Lord  Walsingham  in  1886  and  brought 
back  to  America  by  Dr.  C.  V.  Riley.  The  species  may  be  the  same  as  //.  atomo- 
cella  Dyar,  from  Texas  and  Illinois,  Cat.  No.  6614,  U.S.N.M.— Harrison  G.  Dyar. 

222  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

rust-brown;  the  second,  at  about  the  middle,  also  outwardly  mar- 
gined with  rust-brown,  runs  obliquely  outward  and  is  angulated  on 
the  cell,  returning  to  the  middle  of  the  dorsum,  its  lower  half  longer 
and  more  oblique  than  its  upper;  the  third  costal  streak  is  triangular, 
not  oblique,  also  outwardly  margined  with  rust-brown,  which  is  con- 
tinued across  the  mng  to  the  tornus,  where  there  is  also  a  faint 
indication  of  a  whitish  spot;  there  is  no  basal  streak,  and,  except 
for  a  slightly  paler  space  before  the  line  of  dark  scales  on  the  middle 
of  the  dorsum,  no  defined  dorsal  streak;  the  space  between  the  streaks 
and  about  the  apical  portion  of  the  wing  is  slightly  shaded  with  rust- 
brown,  and  the  apex  is  profusely  sprinkled  with  blackish  scales  mixed 
with  some  white  ones;  a  slender  blackish  line  runs  around  the 
extreme  apex  at  the  base  of  the  pale  cilia,  which  have  a  pale  rust- 
brown  line  running  through  their  middle. 

Alur  expanse. — 6  mm. 

Hindwings  and  cilia  grayish. 

Abdomen  grayish. 

Legs  whitish,  unspotted. 

Type. — Male.  Walsingham  determined  No.  4972,  1906.  Cat.  No. 
1035.3,  U.S.N.M. 

Habitat. — New  York.      (Beutenmiiller  collection.)     Unique. 

This  species  belongs  to  the  group  of  messaniella  Zeller;  there  is 
no  record  of  its  life  history. 

LITHOCOLLETIS  CERIFER.^,  new  species. 

Antennse  grayish. 

Palpi  silvery. 

Head  pale  saff ron-browai ;  face  silvery. 

Thorax  saffron-brown. 

Forewings  shining  safl'ron-brown,  with  two  straight,  transverse, 
silvery  fascias,  both  dark-margined  externally;  the  first  at  one-fourth 
from  the  base,  sloping  slightly  inward  toward  the  dorsum;  the  second 
slightly  beyond  the  middle,  almost  at  right- angles  to  the  costa; 
beyond  the  second  fascia  two  silvery  spots,  the  first  costal,  the  second 
opposite  to  it  on  the  tornus;  these  are  also  dark-margined  externally, 
and,  being  almost  confluent,  present  the  appearance  (in  one  wing) 
of  a  third  fascia,  not  quite  so  far  removed  from  the  second  as  this 
is  from  the  first;  a  few  fuscous  scales  are  scattered  about  the  apex; 
cilia  brownish,  grayish  toward  the  tornus. 

Alar  expanse. — 6  mm. 

Hindwings  and  cilia  brownish  gray. 

Abdomen  dull  grayish  fuscous. 

Legs  whitish,  slightly  speckled  with  grey. 

Type.— Mole.  Walsingham  determined.  No.  4969,  1906.  U.  S. 
National  Museum,  Cat.  No.  10361. 

Habitat. — New  York.     Larva  on  Myrica  cerifera.     Unique. 


This  species  was  first  named  ceriferella  Walsin<:;ham  MS.,  but  as 
aeriferella  Clemens  is  by  a  typoo;rapliical  error  catalogued  as  ceriferella 
H.  Edwards,  Bull.  U.  S.  National  Museum  No.  35,  p.  132  (1889),  the 
new  species  is  now  published  as  ceriferx  Walsingham. 


Antenna:'  pale  saffron. 

Palpi  white. 

Head  pale  saffron ;  face  white. 

Forewings  pale  saffron,  the  extreme  costa  whitish  from  the  base, 
with  two  very  oblique,  shining,  whitish  costal  streaks  tending  outward, 
the  first  at  the  middle,  the  second  beyond  it,  and  two  much  shorter 
streaks  in  the  costal  cilia  pointing  inward — all  anteriorly  dark- 
margined;  on  the  dorsum  are  three  very  conspicuous,  broad,  white 
streaks,  tending  obliquely  outward,  the  first  and  second  before  the 
middle,  the  third  beyond  it — these  are  all  also  anteriorl}^  margined 
with  ferruginous,  the  ferruginous  shades  bent  outward  about  the  mid- 
dle of  the  wing,  giving  them  an  angulated  appearance ;  cilia  shining, 
safl'ron,  a  small  blackish  apical  dot  and  a  dark  line  running  from  it 
through  the  cilia  toward  the  tornus. 

Alar  expanse. — 8.5  mm. 

Hindvnngs  whitish  gray;  cilia  pale  grayish. 

Abdomen  tinged  with  saffron;  anal  tuft  grayish. 

Legs,  hind  tibiae  yellowish  white,  very  faintly  spotted. 

T^^^^'.— Female.  "  Cat.  No.  10354,  U.S.N.M. 

Hahitat. — Santa  Cruz  Mountains,  California  (A.  Koebele,  collector). 
Unique.      (Walsingham  determined.  No.  4976,  190G.) 

There  is  no  record  of  the  life  history. 


LithocoUetis  bifasdella  Chambers,  Bull.  U.  S.  Geol.  Surv.,  IV,  1878,  pp.  101-2, 
119,  153.— Packard,  U.  S.  Dept.  Agr.,  Int.  Ent.  Comm.  Bull.,  VII,  1881, 
p.  54. — Hagen  (and  Frey),  Papilio,  IV,  1884,  p.  151. — Walsingham,  Insect 
Life,  II,  1884,  pp.  24,  119;  III,  1891,  p.  329.— Packard,  U.  S.  Dept.  Agr., 
Kept.  Ent.  Coram.,  V,  1890,  p.  219.— Riley,  Smith's  List  Lep.  Bnr.  Am., 
1891,  p,  108,  No.  5839.— Dyar,  Bull.  U.  S.  Nat,  Mus,,  No.  52,  1902,  p.  556, 
No.  G329. 
Antennse  grayish  fuscous,  faintly  barred  with  ocherous. 
Palpi  shining  silvery  white. 

Head  pale  ocherous  above,  reddish  brown  at  the  sides;  face  shin- 
ing silvery  white. 

Thorax  rich  reddish  brown. 

Forewings  sliining,  rich  reddish  brown,  with  shining  silvery  white 
markings;  a  slightly  oblique  fascia  near  the  base,  further  from  the 
base  on  the  costa  than  on  the  dorsum,  a  second  parallel  fascia  at 
about  the  middle,  both  with  a  few  dark  scales  on  their  outer  sides; 
a  small  costal  streak  before  the  apex,  preceded  by  another  on  the 


dorsum  before  the  tornus,  above  which  are  a  few  white  scales  on 
the  costal  cilia,  both  streaks  have  a  few  black  scales  on  their  outer 
side;  cilia  reddish  brown,  fading  to  gray  about  the  tornus. 

Alar  expanse. — 7  mm. 

Hindwings  gray;  cilia  grayish. 

Abdomen  grey. 

Legs  whitish,  posterior  tibiae  very  faintly  spotted. 

Caenotype. — Male  (Walsingham  determined,  No.  4974,  1906)  U.  S. 
National  Museum. 

Type. — Female  in  Museum  of  Comparative  Zoology,  Cambridge, 

Larva  on  Quercus  alba. 

Habitat. — Kentucky,  New  York  (Beutenmuller  collection),  U.  S. 
National  Museum. 

Genus  ORNIX  Treitschke. 
ORNIX  INNOTATA,  new  species. 

Antennse  bro"vvnish  fuscous,  very  faintly  annulate. 

Palpi  whitish,  annulate,  with  fuscous  before  the  apex. 

Head  brownish. 

Thorax  grayish  brown. 

Foreivings  grayish  brown,  with  a  series  of  almost  undistinguish- 
able  streaklets  along  the  costa,  slightly  oblique  outward;  a  minute 
whitish  spot  occurs  about  the  middle  of  the  costa,  and  there  are  two 
pale  spots  in  the  costal  cilia  before  the  apex ;  the  apical  cilia  have  a 
pale  line  along  their  base,  preceded  along  the  margin  by  a  few  dark 
fuscous  scales;  there  is  also  a  faint  indication  of  a  darkened  spot 
near  the  outer  end  of  the  fold;  cilia  brownish  gray. 

Alar  expanse. — 9  mm. 

Hindirings  grayish;  cilia  brownish  gray. 

Abdomen  grayish  brown;  anal  tuft  slightly  ocherous. 

Legs  cinereous. 

Type.—Msile.     Cat.  No.  10355,  U.S.N.M. 

Habitat. — United  States.     Unique.     (Walsingham  determined,  No. 

4984,  1906.) 

Genus  TISCHERIA  Zeller. 


Antennse,  head,  and  thorax  pale  whitish  straw-color. 

Forewings  pale  whitish  straw-color,  the  extreme  costa  narrowly 
sprinkled  with  purplish  brown  scales  to  two-thirds  the  length  of  the 
wing,  where  the}^  form  a  slight  costal  spot;  a  dorsal  spot,  consisting 
of  a  group  of  scales  of  the  same  color,  lies  about  the  tornus,  and 
beyond  it  the  apex  of  the  wing  is  thickly  bestrewn  with  purplish 
scales,  a  reddish  brown  hue  prevailing  among  them;  this  dark  scal- 
ing does  not  extend  to  the  costal  cilia,  which  are  of  the  pale  ground 

NE  W  A  MERWA  X  TIN  FIT)  MO  THS—  \]\  1 LSTNGHA  M.  225 

color,  but  the  apical  cilia  and  those  extending  to  the  dorsum  are  pale 

Alar  expanse. — 7  mm. 

Hindwings  pale  yellowish  siray,  the  base  slightly  thickened;  cilia 
slightly  coppery  gray. 

Abdomen  and  legs  pale  yellowish  gra}'. 

7V2>f.— Male.     Cat.  No'.  10356,  U.S.N.M. 

Habitat. — New  York  (Beutenmiiller  collection ) .  I "f^nique .  Walsing- 
Imm  determined,  No.  4991,  1906. 

A  small,   slender,   delicate   species,    decidedly   tlistinct   from   any 

known  form. 

Genus  SCARDIA  Treitschke. 

SCARDIA   GRACILIS,  new  species. 

Antennas.  cUstinctly  ciliate,  the  joints  tufted ;  whitish  ocherous,  annu- 
late with  fuscous. 

Maxillary  palpi  strongly  developed,  folded;  .whitish  ocherous. 

Labial  palpi  whitish  ocherous  on  their  inner  side,  the  median  joint 
almost  as  long  as  the  terminal,  tinged  with  brownish  externally  on 
the  terminal  joint  and  on  the  median  joint  to  its  apex. 

Head  and  thorax  whitish  ocherous;  the  latter  with  a  brownish  fus- 
cous band  across  its  middle,  the  tegulae  anteriorly  brownish  fuscous. 

Forewings  narrow,  elongate,  the  costa  slightly  bulged  near  the  base, 
apex  rounded,  termen  oblique;  whitish  ocherous,  much  clouded  and 
speckled  with  brownish  fuscous,  which  appears  in  a  series  of  costal 
spots  of  varying  size  and  in  a  large  median  costal  blotch  which  extends 
in  a  somewhat  triangular  form  to  the  lower  edge  of  the  cell,  its  outer 
edge  being  almost  perpendicular  to  the  dorsum;  the  dark  coloring  is 
also  strongly  apparent  along  the  fold,  arising  at  the  extreme  base  of 
the  costa,  crossing  the  fold  obliquely  outward,  and  reaching  nearly 
to  the  dorsum  at  about  one-fifth  from  the  base,  thence  angulated 
upward  to  the  fold  and  returning  to  the  dorsum  at  about  its  middle; 
thence  again  angulated  upward  and  continued,  with  more  or  less 
interruption,  parallel  with  the  termen  to  the  costa  before  the  apex; 
a  series  of  small  dark  spots  along  the  termen ;  cilia  whitish  ocherous, 
with  a  browaiish  fuscous  shade  running  through  them  near  their  base 
and  spreading  over  them  outwardly  at  about  their  middle;  between 
these  dark  markings  the  intermediate  space  is  speckled  with  brown- 
ish fuscous;  underside  with  a  slight  cupreous  tinge,  the  ver}'  pale 
margins  speckled  witli  brownish  fuscous,  a  spot  of  the  same  showing- 
through  the  wing  at  the  end  of  the  cell. 

Alfir  expanse. — 25  mm. 

Hindwings  very  pale  whitish  ocherous,  the  rather  shining  cilia  with 
one  or  two  brownish  fuscous  spots  around  the  apex. 

Abdomen  whitish  ocherous,  sprinkled  with  fuscous  posteriorly. 

Legs  whitish  ocherous,  the  anterior  and  median  banded  above  with 
fuscous;  the  posterior  tarsal  joints  sprinkled  with  fuscous. 
Proc.  N.  M.  vol.  xxxiii— 07 15 

226  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

Tyjye.-YemoXe.     Cat.  No.  10357,  U.S.N.M. 

Habitat. — California  (Beutenmuller  collection).  Unique.  Walsing- 
ham  determined,  No.  4756,  1906. 

Apparently  allied  to  Scardia  anatomdla  Grote,  but  of  a  somewhat 
more  slender  and  paler  appearance,  differing  also  in  the  dark  shade 
reaching  to  the  dorsum  in  the  middle  of  the  forewing. 

Genus  PSEUDOXYLESTH  lA",  new  genus. 

TyjJe  of  genus. — Pseudoxylesthia  angustella  Walsingham. 

Antennx  simple  in  both  sexes;  basal  joint  without  pecten. 

Maxillary  palpi  present,  not  folded. 

Labial  palpi  porrect,  closely  clothed,  terminal  joint  as  long  as 

Haustellum,  long. 

Ocelli  absent. 

Head  rough  above;  face  with  appressed  scales. 

Thorax  smooth. 

Forewings  narrow,  elongate,  of  equal  width  throughout,  apex 

Neuration  12  veins,  all  separate;  7  to  apex;  2  from  near  angle  of 

Hindwings  broader  than  the  forewings,  termen  slightly  sinuate, 
attenuate,  but  rounded  at  the  apex. 

Neuration  8  veins;  5  and  6  stalked;  7  straight;  3  and  4  remote. 

Abdomen  rather  stout;  male  with  shortly  bifid  uncus  and  long, 
narrow  claspers;  female,  anal  segment  with  long  hairs,  ovipositor 

Legs  not  thickly  but  loosely  clothed. 

Allied  to  Xylesthia  Clemens,  but  differing  in  the  stalking  of  veins 
5  and  6  in  the  hindwings. 


Antennx  greyish. 

Palpi  hoary  grayish. 

Head  and  thorax  hoary  gray ;  tegulse  touched  with  ocherous. 

Forewings  hoary  grayish,  sprinkled  with  ocherous,  especially  along 
the  costa  and  beyond  the  middle,  also  at  the  extreme  base  of  the 
dorsum;  some  bands  of  dense  fuscous  speckling  extend  across  the 
wing  from  costa  to  dorsum,  the  first,  at  about  one-fourth,  running 
obliquely  outward  from  the  costa  reaches  the  dorsum  at  about  one- 
third  from  the  base,  this  is  more  or  less  connected  with  the  base  of 
the  wing  by  dark  speckling;  the  second  beyond  the  middle  of  the 
costa,  tends  outward  in  the  direction  of  the  tornus,  becoming  dilated 

«  From  the  Greek  word  ipEvd})^,  signifying  false  and  Xylesthia. 

NO.  1567. 


and  somewhat  broken-up  along  the  dorsum,  this  is  joined  by  a  short, 
straightish  band  which  connects  it  with  the  costa  at  one-third  from 
the  apex,  and  beyond  this  again  is  a  narrower  band  preceding  the 
termen,  a  detached  costal  spot  before  it  and  another  almost  about 
the  middle  of  the  wing;  cilia  hoary,  much  speckled  with  fuscous;  un- 
derside cinereous,  cilia  paler. 

Alar  expanse. — Male  18  mm.;  female  24  mm. 

Hindwings  brownish  cinereous:  cilia  with  a  slight  ocherous  tinge. 

Abdomen  brownish  cinereous;  anal  tuft  slightly  tinged  with  ocherous. 

Legs  cinereous,  with  some  darker  speckling. 

Type.—Msde  No.  32547;  female  No.  5.390  «  Mus.  Walsingham;  para- 
type  female  (Walsingham  determined.  No.  4902,  1906);  Cat.  No. 
10358,  U.S.N.M. 

Habitat.— Arizoim—  (Cox,  collect( »r ) ;  Texas  (' '  Ber.  Gerh . " ' ) .     Three 


Genus  TINEA  Linnaeus. 

TINEA   SPARSIPUNCTELLA,  new  species. 

AntenucE  blackish,  white  towards  the  base. 

Maxillary  palpi  folded. 

Labial  palpi  hoary,  with  a  few  projecting  bristles  on  the  upper  side 
of  the  median  joint. 

Head  and  thorax  hoary  white. 

Forewings  grayish  ^vhite,  profusely  sprinkled  with  brownish  fus- 
cous dots,  very  equally  distributed  about  the  wing;  these  have  a 
tendency  to  run  together  into  narrow  transverse  streaks  in  fine  speci- 
mens, but  are  apparently  very  easily  obliterated;  somewhat  morc^ 
conspicuous  than  the  others  are  is  a  line  of  spots  along  the  costa  and 
around  the  apex  and  termen  to  the  tornus;  a  small  patch  at  the  end 
of  the  cell,  about  e(|uidistant  from  the  costa  and  dorsum,  and  three 
or  four  spots  ranged  parallel  to  and  beneath  the  foKl ;  cilia  white  at 
the  base,  grayish  outwardly,  with  a  darker  parting  line. 

Alar  expanse. — 26  mm. 

«  I  wrote  to  Lord  Walsingham,  calling  his  attention  to  the  fact  that  his  Pseudu.nj- 
h'stia  angustella  had  apparently  been  already  descriljed  as  Dyotopasta  yumadla 
Kearfott.  He  replied  as  follows:  "Our  generic  descriptions  are  at  variance— you 
write  -ocelli  large,'  I  write  'ocelli  absent;'  you  write  'tongue  and  maxillary  pnlju 
obsolete,'  I  write 'Haustellum  long.  Maxillary  Palpi  present.'  Mr.  Durrant  and 
I  have  very  carefully  reexamined  my  types  under  the  microscope.  The  male  (No. 
32547)  from  Arizona  (Cox,  through  Riley,  1886),  the  head  of  which,  however,  is  much 
distorted  and  possibly  injured,  has  no  tongue.  The  female  (No.  5390)  Texas  (Ber. 
Gehr.)  received  from  Ragonot,  has  a  long  tongue  curled  round  one  of  the  labial  palpi 
and  possesses  distinct  maxillaries."  On  reexamination  I  find  that  there  are  no 
ocelli;  but  all  the  specimens,  both  the  cotypes  returned  by  Lord  Walsingham  and 
others  before  me,  lack  tongue  and  maxillary  palpi.  Lord  Walsingham's  name,  P>^eii- 
doxylestia  angustella.  is  therefore  retained  based  on  the  female  type  (No.  53f)())  in 
his  possession. — August  Busck, 

228  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiu. 

Hindwings  and  cilia  grayish  fuscous. 

Ahdomen  slightly  darker:  female  ovipositor  extruded. 

Legs  grayish  fuscous. 

Type. — Female  No.  90947  in  Mus.  Walsingham;  paratype,  female, 
No.  90948,  Cat.  No.  10359,  U.S.N.M. 

Habitat. — Mendocino  County,  north  of  Mendocino  city,  California 
(near  the  town),  June  3-5,  1871.     Three  specimens. 

A  very  distinct  species,  perhaps  nearest  to  the  occidentella  Cham- 
bers group.     The  veins  are  all   present  and  se])arate  in  both  wings. 

Genus  HOMONYMUS  Walsingham. 

Antennx  cinereous. 

Palpi  erect,  reaching  scarcely  above  the  base  of  the  antennge, 
thickly  clothed  throughout;  mixed  brownish  ocherous  and  brown- 
ish fuscous,  appearing  slightly  paler  than  the  head  and  thorax  above 
and  below  them. 

Head  and  tliorax  are  brownish  fuscous,  the  scales  tipped  with 
hoary  gray. 

Forewings  rather  narrow,  of  about  equal  width  throughout,  ex- 
cept at  the  extreme  base,  the  width  equal  about  one-third  the 
length,  termen  slightly  convex,  oblique,  apex  rounded. 

Neuration  12  veins,  all  separate;  dull  cinereous,  with  some  paler 
hoary  patches  running  along  the  fold  to  the  end  of  the  cell,  thickly 
sprinkled  throughout  with  brownish  ocherous  and  dark  fuscous 
scales  which  are  concentrated  in  some  small  patches,  one  at  the  end 
of  the  cell,  one  on,  and  on 3  immediately  above  the  fold  beyond  it, 
with  a  series  of  very  obscure  costal  spots;  cilia  brownish  fuscous, 
slight]}^  paler  along  their  base  and  mixed  with  brownish  ocherous 
about  the  tornus;  underside  uniformly  brownish  fuscous,  with  nar- 
rowly pale  margins. 

Alar  expanse. — 24  mm. 

Hindwings,  8  veins,  all  separate;  slightly  wider  than  the  forewings; 
brownish  fuscous;  cilia  with  some  paler  markings. 

Ahdomen  (missing). 

Legs  brownish  fuscous. 

Type. — Male  (Walsingham  determined,  No.  4749,  1906),  Cat.  No. 
10360,  U.S.N.M. 

Habitat.— Custer  County,  Westcliff,  Colorado.  (Collection  Beuten- 
miiller).     Unique. 

This  agrees  with  the  genus  Homonymus,  described  from  South 
America,  but  differs  from  the  only  species  at  present  known  in  its 
shorter  palpi  and  by  the  absence  of  deep  purple  coloring  in  the 
hindwings,  as  well  as  by  the  somewhat  different  pattern  of  the  ob- 
scure markings  on  the  forewings. 


Bv  Alvix  Seale  and  Barton  A.  Beax. 

In  the  months  of  January  and  Febriiary,  1907,  two  lots  of  iishes 
were  received  from  Maj.  Edgar  A.  Mearns,  V.  S.  Ai-my,  stationed  in 
the  Phihppine  Islands.  One  hundred  and  thirty-two  species  are 
represented,  including  seven  which  are  described  as  new. 

The  collections  are  from  Zamboanga,  Mindanao,  had  been  well 
preserved  in  formalin  (here  transferred  to  alcohol),  and  form  part  of 
Accessions  Nos.  46983  and  46985,  U.S.N.M.  By  reason  of  the  new 
species  and  rare  forms  contained  they  are  a  very  acceptable  addition 
to  the  collection  of  fishes. 

The  arrangement  of  the  families  of  fishes  used  here  is  similar  to  that 
adopted  by  Doctor  Jordan  in  recent  papers  on  fishes  of  the  same 
general  fauna  and,  although  not  wholly  concurred  in,  is  used  for  con- 
venience and  with  the  view  of  conforming  in  classification  with  the 
numerous  papers  already  published  and  being  printed  upon  Philij)- 
pine  fishes. 

Family  CYPRINID^. 

Barbus  quinquemaculatus,  new  species. 

Head,  3.33;  depth,  3;  eye,  3.7;') ;  snout,  3.75;  interorbital,  2.75  in 
head;  D..  11;  A.,  7;  .scales,  5 '24/2;  eight  scales  in  front  of  dorsal. 

Bod}-^  moderately  robust,  back  from  nuchal  region  to  dorsal  fin 
considerably  elevated;  snout  rather  pointed;  lower  lip  included. 
Barbels  four,  their  length  greater  than  diameter  of  eye.  Mouth 
small,  the  maxillary  ending  on  anterior  line  of  orbit. 

Pharyngeal  teeth  in  three  series,  5,  3,  2,  mostly  hooked.  Gill-rakers 
very  small,  about  8  on  lower  arch.     Opercle  and  preopercle  entire. 

Caudal  peduncle  rather  robust,  its  depth  1.25  in  its  length. 

Proceedings  U.  S.  National  Museum,  Vol.  XXXIII— No.  1568. 





Head  naked,  body  firmly  scaled,  the  lateral  line  with  a  slight  curve 
downward  anteriorly,  running  a  little  below  the  axis  of  the  body  and 
upward  along  the  middle  of  the  caudal  peduncle.     Dorsal  and  anal 

with  scaly  sheaths. 
Ventrals  with  well- 
developed  axillary 

Second     ray     of 
dorsal  ossified   and 
strong,    its   poster- 
ior margin  slightly 
dentic  u  1  a  t  e  ,    its 
length  1.75  in  head. 
Base  of  dorsal  2  in 
head.       Origin     of 
dorsal   midway  be- 
tween   the    tip    of 
snout   and    end    of 
;    caudal   vertebrae. 
i    Base   of  anal    2.90 
i    in  head;  its  longest 
>    ray    1.75   in   head. 
;    Caudal     large, 
forked,  its    longest 
\    ray    greater     than 
■    length      of      head. 
:    Ventrals     1.35     in 
;    head;    their  origin 
midway  bet  ween 
origin    of    pectoral 
and  that    of    anal, 
their  tips    scarcely 
reaching  the    anal. 
Pectorals     1.25    in 

Color  in  spirits: 
Very  dark  grayish 
green  on  upper  half 
of  body,  yellowish 
below;  scales  on 
lower  part  of  sides 
with  dark  margins. 
A  distinct  round  black  spot  on  base  of  caudal,  another  at  the  origin  of 
the  dorsal,  a  third  less  distinct  at  origin  of  anal,  and  two  round 
black  spots  on  the  median  line  near  the  middle  of  the  body.     A 

NO.  1568. 


blackish  wash  at  the  origin  of  the  lateral  line.  Dorsal  whitish,  its 
osseus  ray  gray.  Caudal  and  pectorals  grayish.  Ventrals  and  anal 

Type  specimen.— Q^i.  No.  57840,  U.S.N.M.,  3.50  inches  long,  from 

near  Zamboanga. 

This  species  shows  a  wide  variation  in  color;  there  may  be  an  indis- 
tinct dusky  line  on  sides  of  body,  or  the  various  spots  may  be  scarcely 
perceptible,  although  present  in  all  our  series.  The  ventral  surface 
may  have  a  wash  of  bright  orange. 

Numerous  specimens  obtained  by  Doctor  Mearns  at  Mount  Malin- 
dang  all  show  a  splendid  purplish  reflection  with  a  golden  wash  to 


The  spots  on  these  specimens  are  scarcely  perceptible. 

This  species  equals  Barhus  macidatus  var.  unnamed.  See  A.  Giin- 
ther,  Voy.  H.  M.  ^.  OliaUenger,  Report  on  the  Shore  Fishes,  pp.  53-54. 

MEARNSELLA,  new  genus. 

This  genus  is  characterized  by  the  presence  of  two  barbels,  and  in 
having  the  pharyngeal  teeth  hooked  and  in  two  series,  inner  row  with 
4  and^the  outer  with  5  teeth;  body  with  the  entire  abdominal  edge 
trenchant;  pectorals  elongate  and  anal  of  moderate  length. 

This  genus  of  Cyprinida?  is  related  to  Eustira  of  Giinther,  differing 
chiefly  fn  the  presence  of  barbels,  in  having  but  two  series  of  pharyn- 
geal teeth,  and  a  smaller  number  of  dorsal  rays. 

This  genus  is  named  in  honor  of  Major  E.  A.  Mearns,  U.  S.  A.,  by 
whom  the  specimens  were  collected. 

Type. —  Mearnsella  alestes  Scale  and  Bean. 

Mearnsella  alestes,  new  species. 

Head,  4;  depth,  3.75;  eye,  3.25  in  head,  equal  to  length  of  snout; 
interorbital,  2.50  in  head;  D.,  11;  A.,  15;  scales,  6/32/2. 

Body  oblong,  compressed ;  thorax  and  abdomen  trenchant ;  mouth 
moderately  large,  oblique,  with  lower  j  aw  slightly  pro]  ecting ;  maxillary 
ending  below  anterior  margin  of  eye.  A  long  maxillary  barbel  on 
each  side,  reaching  to  middle  of  opercle.  Caudal  peduncle  long  and 
slender,  its  depth  2  in  its  length.  Pharyngeal  teeth  small,  curved, 
sharp  pointed  and  hooked,  without  evident  grinding  surface.  Oper- 
cle and  preopercle  entire. 

Lateral  line  abruptly  bent  down  to  axis  of  pectoral,  extending 
thence  along  the  lower  portion  of  body  to  caudal.  Body  covered 
smooth,  deciduous,  striated  scales. 

Dorsal  fin  located  on  the  posterior  half  of  body,  its  origin  opposite 
that  of  anal.  Length  of  dorsal  base  one-half  that  of  head ;  its  longest 
LIO  in  head;  anal  origin  midway  between  base  of  caudal  and  lower 



vol..  XXXIIl. 

axis  of  pectoral;  base  of  anal  fin  1.35  in  head,  about  equal  to  its 
longest  ray.     Caudal  large,  forked;  its  longest  ray  about  equal  to 

head.  Ventrals  small,  1.75  in 
head.  Pectorals  long,  being 
contained  twice  in  distance  of 
dorsal  from  tip  of  snout;  their 
origin  considerably  below  the 
axis  of  the  body  and  on  a  line 
with  the  posterior  angle  of  the 

Color  in  spirits:  Dull  greenish, 

lighter  below,  scales  of  the  sides 

shaded    with    brown    punctula- 

tions.     A  distinct  narrow  black 

line  from  the  opercle   to  caudal 

ending  in  a  black  blotch  at  base  of 

caudal  fin.    Some  dusky  blotches 

on  sides   above  pectoral  fin.     A 

\    dusky  median  line  on  back;  dor- 

\    sal  and  caudal  with  a  slight  wash 

\    of    dusky;    anal,   pectorals,   and 

j    ventrals,   light  grayish;  a  small 

\    black  spot  at   the  upper  axis  of 

\    the  pectoral. 

;        Two  specimens. 

:         TyjJe-sjjeciinen. — Cat.  No. 

'    57841,    U.S.N.M.;    length,    2.45 

inches;    cotype,    2    inches   long; 

both  from  near  Zamboanga. 

Rasbora  punctulatus,  new  species. 

Head,  4;  depth,  3.10;  eye,  3 
in  head;  snout,  3.50;  interor- 
bital,  2.50;  scales,  5i/26/2;  D.,9; 
A.,  8. 

No  barbels.  Mouth  mode- 
rately small,  oblique;  the  sym- 
physis of  the  upper  jaw  notched 
to  receive  the  curved  point  of 
the  lower  jaw;  maxillary  extend- 
ing to  the  anterior  border  of 
eye.  Pharyngeal  teeth,  curved, 
pointed,  5,  3,  2. 
Body  oblong,  compressed,  covered  with  large,  cycloid,  striate 
scales,  10  series  in  front  of  dorsal.     Lateral  line  with  a  low  curve 

NO.  1568.     FISHES  FROM  THE  PHILIPPINES— SEALE  AND  BEAN.        233 

extending  along  lower  part  of  sides  to  caudal.     Caudal  peduncle 
robust,  its  depth  two  in  length. 

The   dorsal   fin   ^vithout    enlarged    osseus   rays;    its   longest   ray 
1.25    in    head.      The 

•    •  £.     ±\         .t;^     •  \m»n- ""-.  .,m  \iUl!lJll'ff,i„ 

origin  ot  the  nn  is 
midway  between  tip 
of  snout  and  end 
of  caudal  vertebrae. 
Origin  of  anal  poster- 
ior to  base  of  dorsal 
being  midway  be- 
tween the  end  of  the 
caudal  vertebrte  and 
the  axis  of  the  pec- 
toral. Base  of  anal 
1 .80  in  head ;  its  long- 
est ray  1.35. 

Caudal  large,  fork- 
ed, its  longest  ray 
about  e([ual  to  head. 
Pectorals  1 . 1 0  in  head . 
Ventrals  large,  1.45  in 
head,  their  tip  about 
reaching  the  vent; 
their  origin  midwa}' 
between  vent  an d 
posterior  axis  of 

Color  in  spirits : 
Dull  greenish  above, 
lighter  below,  scales 
of  sides  with  darker 
margins.  A  distinct 
black  stripe  from  the 
upper  part  of  opercle 
to  caudal  fin. 

Dusky  blotch  on 
opercle;  entire  base 
of  anal  dusky,  some- 
what dusky  at  base  of 
caudal,  otherwise  fins 
dusky  white. 

Eleven  specimens  measuring  from  1.50  to  3  inches. 

Type-specimen. — Cat.  No.  57842,  U.S.N.M.,  3  inches  long,  Zam- 


PROCEEDINas  OF  THE  XATTOXAL  MVSEVM.         vol.  xxxii 

Family  POLYNEMID^. 

Polydactylus  opercularis,  new  species. 

Head,  3.25:   depth,  3.50;   eye,  4  in  head;  snout  less  than  eye,  4.10 

in  head;  interorbital 
space  equal  to  eye;  D., 
VIII,  1,  12;  A.,  Ill, 
11;  P.,AaiI,  +;  scales, 
5/55/8.     • 

Body  oblong,  com- 
pressed; snout  project- 
ing- beyond  the  inferior 
mouth;  maxillary  two 
in  head ;  teeth  villif orm 
in  jaws  and  on  vomer 
and  palatines ;  pre- 
opercle  distinctly  ser- 
rated ;  opercle  entire ; 
head  scaled ;  adipose 
eyelid  well  developed. 
Gill-rakers  long  and 
slender,  about  25  on 
the  lower  arch.  Depth 
of  caudal  peduncle  con- 
tained H  times  in  its 
length.  Fins  all  scaled. 
Second  dorsal  spine 
1.25  in  length  of  head; 
longest  dorsal  ray  H  in 
head;  its  base  1.25  in 
its  height.  Third  anal 
spine  much  the  longest ; 
longest  anal  ray  con- 
tained 1.60  in  length 
of  head,  equal  to  length 
of  anal  base.  Origin 
of  anal  fin  midway  be- 
tween end  of  caudal 
vertebrae  and  distal 
end  of  maxillary.  Pec- 
toral fin  1.12  in  head . 
Ventrals  1.75  in  head, 
their  tip  reaching  to 
anus.  Caudal  deeply  forked;  its  longest  ray  equals  the  longest 
pectoral  filament,  the  latter  as  shown  in  illustration  is  too  long. 

Color   in  spirits   silvery  white,   without   dark   stripes.     A   slight 
bluish    tint    on  upper   half    of    body;    dusky  blotch    on  opercles; 

No.i5(;8.      FISHES'  FROM  THE  PHILTPPIXES—SEALE  AXD  BEAN.        285 

dorsals,  caudal,  and  anal  with  dusky  margins,  very  wide  and  distinct 
on  anal.     Pectorals  and  ventrals  blackish. 

One  fine  specimen,  6.75  inches  Ion*]:;,  from  Zamboanga. 

Type-specimen. — Cat .  ^^  ^,„  ^  ^ 

No." 57844,  U.S.N.M. 

Family  SERRANID.^. 

new  species. 


Head,  2.55;  depth, 
3.10;  eye,  5  in  head: 
snout,  4;  interorbital, 
7.25;  D.,  IX,  15;  A., 
111,9;  scales,  18/95/24: 
50  pores  in  lateral  line. 

Body  oblong-,  com- 
pressed, covered  with 
fine  ctenoid  scales. 
Head,  including  end  of 
maxillary,  fulh^  scaled. 
Mouth  large,  the  pre- 
maxillary  extending  to 
a  line  from  the  poster- 
ior margin  of  the  pupil ; 
its  distal  end  equal  to 
the  interorbital  space. 
Teeth  in  jaws,  vomer, 
and  )>alatines;  those  of 
j  aws  in  several  series : 
the  lower  jaw  with  the 
inner  series  enlarged 
and  depi'essible ;  the 
upper  jaw  wit^i  the 
outer  series  enlarged 
and  firm;  two  ciuwed 
anterior  canines  in  each 
jaw.  Gill-rakers  rather 
short,  the  longest  about 
equal  to  width  of  pupil; 
15  rakers  on  lower  arch, 

Preopercle  rounded,  scarcely  denticulate.  Opercle  with  three 
spines,  the  middle  one  the  largest  and  nearer  to  the  lower  spine  than 
to  upper.     Opercular  flap  obtusely  pointed,  its  upper  margin  being 

236  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

almost  straight.  Caudal  peduncle  of  moderate  strength,  its  depth 
being  equal  to  its  length.  Origin  of  the  dorsal  fin  directly  above  the 
axis  of  the  pectorals;  the  sixth  dorsal  spine  longest,  its  length  3.25 
in  head. 

First  dorsal  spine  short,  its  length  equal  to  mdth  of  interorbital ; 
the  longest  dorsal  ray  is  2.65  in  head;  base  of  anal  fin  2.35  in  head; 
its  second  spine  being  longest  and  strongest,  3.10  in  head;  third 
spine  almost  its  equal  in  length.  Caudal  strongly  rounded,  its  median 
ray  1.75  in  head.  Pectorals  1.45  in  head;  ventrals  1.90  in  head; 
their  tip  barely  reaching  vent.  Origin  of  ventral  is  midway  between 
tip  of  snout  and  sixth  anal  ray.     Longest  anal  ray  2.10  in  head. 

Color  in  spirits:  Entire  body  and  fins  golden  yellow,  covered  with 
numerous  round  and  oblong  spots  of  deep  brown  (dark),  these 
tending  to  form  irregular  longitudinal  lines  on  the  upper  part  of  head 
and  [body;  maxillary  and  mandible  with  dark  spots;  pectorals 
uniform  yellowish  with  two  or  three  spots  on  base;  ventrals  yellowish, 
the  outer  ray  with  narrow  margin  of  brown. 

Dorsal,  anal,  and  caudal  spotted,  membranes  of  spinous  dorsal 
with  oblique  lines  formed  by  the  dark  spots. 

Two  fine  specimens,  9.75  inches  long,  from  Zamboanga. 

Ty pes j)ecimm.— Cat.  Xo.  57843,  U.S.N.M. 


Choerops  zamboangae,  new  species. 

Head,  3;  depth,  2.75;  eye,  5.20  in  head;  snout,  2.25;  interorbital, 
3.45;  D.,  XII,  8;  A.,  Ill,  10;  scales,  U,  29,  10;  7  in  front  of  D. 

Body  oblong,  compressed;  anterior  profile  of  head  rounded,  lips  of 
moderate  thicloiess;  five  or  six  imperfect  rows  of  imbricate  scales  on 
cheeks;  opercle  and  preopercle  entire;  opercles  well  scaled,  top  of  head 
and  snout  naked;  maxillary  slipping  under  preorbital,  its  distal  end 
scarcely  reaching  to  line  with  anterior  margin  of  orbit;  each  jaw  with 
four  enlarged  anterior  canines,  the  second  pair  of  upper  jaw  much 
smaller  than  the  first;  posterior  canine  present;  no  teeth  on  vomer 
or  palatines;  gill-rakers  short,  their  length  less  thaii  width  of  pupil, 
11  on  lower  arch;  caudal  peduncle  strong,  its  depth  equal  to  its  length 
(last  anal  ray  to  end  of  vertebrae);  dorsal  fiji  low,  the  spines  stift", 
longest  dorsal  spine  equal  to  orbit  (each  with  a  filament);  longest 
dorsal  ray  2,50  in  head;  base  of  anal  fin  1.50  in  head,  its  third  spine 
the  longest,  the  longest  ray  2.45  in  head;  pectorals  1.30  in  head;  ven- 
trals 1.60  in  head,  their  tip  not  reaching  anal  opening;  the  origin  of 
the  ventral  fin  is  midway  between  tip  of  snout  and  base  of  third  anal 
ray;  caudal  truncate,  none  of  its  rays  produced;  its  median  ray  1.75 
in  head. 

Color  in  spirits:  Yellowish  white,  the  upper  anterior  two-thirds  of 
body   (including  head)  dull  light  drab;  a  conspicuous  orange  line, 

NO.  1568.      FISHES  FROM  THE  PHILIPPINES— SEALE  AND  BEAN        237 

equal  to  width  of  eye,  extends  from  base  of  caudal  to  axis  of  pectoral 
fin;  a  short  broken  brown  line  at  lower  margin  of  orbit;  a  greenish 
blue  line  on  lower  mandible  from  angle  to  angle;  a  slight  blotch  of 
yellow  on  oper- 
cle ;  spinous  dor- 
sal drab ;  soft 
dorsal  yellowish 
w  i  t  h  narrow 
margin  of  drab; 
caudal  yellow- 
ish; anal,  pec- 
torals, and  ven- 
trals  uniform 

Two  fine  spec- 
i  m  e  n  s  fro  m 
Z  a  m  b  o  a  n  g  a  , 
length  8.75  and 
10  in. 

Ty  pe-speci- 
men. — Cat.  No. 

Callyodon  latifas- 
ciatus,  new  spe- 

Head,  3 ; 
depth,  3;  ey  e  , 
6.50  in  head; 
snout,  2.50;  in- 
terorbital  3;  D., 
IX,  10;  A.,  IL 
9;  scales,  2^,  23, 
6;  three  rows  of 
scales  on  cheeks, 
the  lower  row  of 
three  scales  cov- 
ering the  pre- 
opercular  limb ; 
six  rows  of 
scales  in  front 
of  dorsal. 

Body  oblong,  compressed,  the  upjier  and  lower  anterior  profile 
with  a  low  even  curve  to  the  tip  of  the  rather  pointed  snout;  lips  thin 
and  narrow,  covering  about  half  of  the  upper  jaw  and  less  than  half 



VOL.  xxxni. 

of  the  lower;  teeth  whitish;  a  posterior  canine  present  on  upper  jaw; 

gill-rakers  small  and  setiform,  about  thirty-seven  on  outer  limb  of 

lower  arch.     Caudal  ])eduncle  stout,  its  depth  equal  to  its  length. 

Longest  dorsal  spine 
3.75  in  head,  longest 
dorsal  ray  2.90:  base 
of  anal  1.50  in  head;  its 
longest  ray  3.10  in 
head;  pectorals  1.45  in 
head;  ventrals  1.90, 
their  tip  falling  far 
short  of  anal  opening; 
the  origin  of  the  ven- 
tral is  midway  between 
tip  of  snout  and  third 
anal  ray.  Caudal  lu- 
nate, its  middle  ray  1.80 
and  its  longest  ray  1.30 
in  head. 

Color  in  spirits:  Dull 
brown  above,  the  lower 
third  of  body  yellow- 
ish white,  between  the 
latter  and  the  lateral 
line  there  is  a  wash  of 
deep  black  extending 
from  the  posterior  mar- 
gin of  eye  to  the  caudal 
])eduncle.  Top  of  snout 
dusky;  margin  of  lips 
yellowish.  Spinous  dor- 
sal dull  greenish  with 
narrow  blue  margin ; 
soft  dorsal  fading  into 
whitish,  without  the 
blue  margin;  caudal 
greenish  yellow,  with 
slight  dusky  margin  to 
upper  and  lower  rays: 
Anal,  ventral,  and  pec- 
torals, yellowish,  with- 
out markings;  a  slight 

dusky  blotch  on  upper  axis  of  pectorals. 

Two  fine  specimens,  10.25  and  11.25  inches  long  from  Zamboanga. 
Type-specimen.— Q^i.  No.  57845,  U.S.N.M.;  11.25  inches  long. 

NO.  1568.      FISHES  FROM  THE  PHILIPPINES— SEALE  AND  BEAN.        239 

An  annotated  list  of  the  species  other  than  those  described  as  new, 
and  which  Doctor  Mearns  informs  us  were  all  taken  at  or  in  the  imme- 
diate vicinity  of  Zamboanga,  follows: 

Family  DASYATID.^. 

Dasyatis  kuhli  (Miiller  and  Henle). 

One  specimen,  9.50  inches  long  (tail  absent). 

Taeniura  lymma  (Forskal). 

One  specimen.  Snout  to  vent  11  inches;  vent  to  end  of  caudal 
16.50  inches. 

Family  CIIANID^. 

Chanos  chanos  (Forskal). 

Two  specimens,  each  12  inches  long. 

Family  CI.UPEID^. 

Clupea  melanura  (Cuvier  and  Valenciennes). 
Five  specimens,  4.75  to  5.25  inches  long. 

Harengula  moluccensis  Blacker. 

One  specimen,  1*.75  inches  long. 


Konosirus  nasus  (Bloch). 

Four  specimens,  5.50  to  6  inches  long. 


Anchovia  bcelama  (Forskal). 

Two  specimens,  1.25  and  2.50  inches  long.  Numerous  additional 
specimens,  3  to  3.50  inches  long,  are  slightly  more  elongate  than 
figured  by  Doctor  Bleeker,  but  in  other  respects  agree  very  well  with 
the  description  of  A.  hoelama. 

Family  ANGUILLID^. 

Anguilla  mauritiana    Bennett. 

Four  specimens,  12  to  22  inches  long,  bearing  collector's  numbers 
937,  938,  939,  and  980. 

Family  MUR^NID/E. 

Gymnothorax  fimbriata  (Bennett). 

One  fine  specimen,  30  inches  long,  agrees  c[uite  well  wdth  Doctor 
Bleeker's  figure  of  Gymnothorax  isingleenoides,  which  Doctor  Gunther 
placed  in  the  synonymy  of  G.fmhriata. 

Family  PLOTOSID^E. 

Plotosus  anguillaris  (Bloch). 

Three  specimens,  8  to  9  inches  long,  and  a  very  large  number  of 
young  from  1.75  to  2.50  inches  long. 



Gasterotokeus  biaculeatus  (Bloch). 
One  specimen,  5  inciies  long. 

Syngnathus  schlegelii  Kaup. 

One  specimen. 

Corythroichthys  bleekeri  Day. 
Six  specimens. 


Hippocampus  kuda  (Bleeker). 

Two  dried  specimens,  3^  inches  loni;-. 

Family  PEGASID.E. 

Zalises  draconis  (Linnaeus). 

Two  specimens,  2.50  inches  long. 

Family  BELONID^. 

Tylosurus  leiurus  (Bleeker). 

One  specimen,  3.50  inches  long. 

Tylosurus  leiuroides  (Bleeker). 

Four  specimens,  3.50  to  7  inches  long. 

Family  EXOC^CETID^. 

C5rpsilurus  altipinnis  (Cuvier  and  Valenciennes). 

One  specimen,  6.75  inches  long. 

Zenarchopterus  dispar  (Cuvier  and  Valenciennes) . 

One  specimen,  6  inches  long. 

Zenarchopterus  philippinus  Peters. 

Six  specimens,  2  to  4  inches  long. 

Family  ATHERINID^. 

Atherina  lacunosa  Forster. 

Numerous  specimens,    1.75   to  3.50  inches  long.     Four  examples 
have  a  very  distinct  lateral  band,  but  no  dusky  shades  in  pectorals. 

Family  J^fLIGILID^. 

Liza  waigiensis  (Quoy  and  Gaimard). 

Ten  specimens,  1.50  to  3.50  inches  long. 

Liza  troscheli  (Bleeker). 

Numerous  specimens,  1  to  3  inches  long. 
Liza  amarula  (Cuvier  and  Valenciennes). 

Numerous  specimens,  1  to  4.50  inches  long. 

NO.  1568.      FISHES  FROM  THE  PHILIPPINES— SEALE  AND  BEAN.        241 
Family  SPHYR^NID^. 

Sphyraena  obtusata  (  Cuvier  and  Valenciennes). 

Two  specimens,  10.75  and  18.25  inches  long. 

Polydactylus  plebeius  (Broussonet). 

Head,  3;  depth,  3.75;  eye,  4.20  in  head;  snout,  4.75. 

D.,  VIII,  1,  13;  A.,  Ill,  13;  scales  58  to  end  of  caudal  vertebrge, 
63  to  end  of  lateral  Ime.  Pectoral  appendages  5.  Color  in  spirits 
Yellowish  white,  darker  above,  and  with  a  streak  along  each  row  of 
scales ;*fins  dusky;  caudal  yellowish,  margined  with  dusky. 

Two  fine  specimens,  9.50  and  10  inches  long. 

Careful  comparison  of  these  examples  with  specimens  from  Samoa 
leave  no  doubt  in  our  minds  that  the  fish  are  identical,  and  that  the 
species  described  as  Polydactylus  zopliom/us  by  Jordan  and  jMcGregor 
is  the  young  P.  plebeius.     The  number  of  rows  of  scales  are  the  same. 


Holocentrus  cornutus  Bleeker. 

Three  specimens,  8  to  8.50  inches  long. 

Holocentrus  caudimaculatum  Riippell. 

One  fine  specimen,  10.50  inches  long,  from  Zamboanga.  Color 
in  spirits  yellowish,  with  indistinct  pinkish  lines  on  center  of  row^s  of 
scales.     Spinous  dorsal  orange.. 

Myripristis  murdjan  (Forskal). 

One  specimen,  8  inches  long. 

Myripristis  macrolepis  (Bleeker). 

One  specimen,  8  inches  long. 

Family  SCOMBRID.^. 

Scomber  macrolepidotus  Riippell. 

Two  specimens,  10  and  10.50  inches  long. 

Family  C^ARANGID^. 

Scombroides  toloo-parah  (Riippell). 
Two  specimens,  6.25  inches  long. 

Scombroides  tala  (Cuvier  and  Valenciennes). 

One  specimen,  26  inches  long. 

Caranx  speciosus  (Forskal). 

One  specimen,  15.50  inches  long.  Cross  bands  of  body  alternating 
wide  and  narrow;  distinct. 

Caranx  sexfasciatus  Quoy  and  Gaimard. 

Six  young  specimens,  2  to  3.75  i" dies  long. 
Proc.  N.  M.  vol.  xxxiii— 07 16 


Caranx  carangus  (Bloch). 

Six  young  specimens,  2.75  to  4.75  inches  long. 

Megalaspis  cordyla   ^  Linnaeus). 

Four  specimens,  8  to  9  inches  long. 

Alectis  ciliaiis  (Bloch). 

One  specimen,  13  inches  long. 

Family  EQUULID^. 

Leiognathus  dussumieri  (Cuvier  and  Valenciennes). 

One  specimen,  2  inches  long. 

Leiognathus  edentula  (Bloch). 

Two  fine  sj^ecimens,  7  to  7.50  inches  long. 


Arrhamialineolata  (Ehrenberg). 

Five  young  s]:)eciniens,  1.25  inches  long.     These  have  the  caudal 
spot  well  developed,  but  do  not  show  a  distinct  shoulder  spot. 

Amia  orbicularis  (Kuhl  and  v.  Hasselt) . 

One  specimen,  nnitilated,  about  3.50  inches  long. 

Amia  fasciata  (Quoy  and  Gaimard). 

Oze  specimen,  1.50  inches  long. 

Family  AMBASSID^. 

Priopis  lungi  Jordan  and  Seale. 

Numerous  specimens,  1.20  to  3  inches  long. 

Priopis  urotaenia  (Bleekerj. 

Numerous  specimens,  1  to  3  inches  long. 

Family  KUHLIID^. 

Kuhlia  rupestris  (Lacepede). 

Two  specimens,  5.25  to  11  inches  long. 

Kuhlia  malo  (Cuvier  and  Valenciennes). 

One  specimen,  2.62  inches  long. 

Family  SERRANID^.. 

Epinephelus  merra  Bloch. 

Two  specimens,  6.30  and  8.50  inches  kmg. 

Epinephelus  tauvina  (Forskal). 

Two  specimens,  7.75  and  8.50  inches  long. 

Epinephelus  fasciatus  (Forskal). 

Two  specimens,  10.10  and  10.25  inches  long. 
Epinephelus  undulosus  (Quoy  and  Gaimard). 

One  specimen,  11.25  inches  long. 

NO.  1568.      FISHES  FROM  THE  PHILIPPINES— SEA LE  AND  BEAN.         243 

Cephalopholis  urodelus  (Forster). 
One  specimen,  S  inches  long. 

Cephalopholis  obtusauris  Evermann  and  Scale. 

One  specimen,  12.50  inches  long. 

Cephalopholis  sonnerati  ( Cuvier  and  Valenciennes). 

Third  anal  spine  sligiitly  longer  than  the  second,  3.50  in  head; 
second  anal  spine  4.10  in  head.     One  specimen,  14  inches  long. 

Family  LI'TIANID.E. 

Lutianus  marginatus  (Cuvier  and  Valenciennes). 

Seven  specimens,  1.50  to  4  inches  long. 
Lutianus  monostigma  (Cuvier  and  Valenciennes). 

Five  specimens,  2.50  to  4  inches  long.  • 

Lutianus  fulviflamma  iBleeker). 

Six  specimens,  2  to  7  inches  long. 

Lutianus  chrysotaenia  (Bleeker). 

Two  specimens,  10.50  inches  long. 

Lutianus  gibbus  (Forskal). 

One  specimen,  19  inches  long. 

Lutianus  vitta  (Quoy  and  Gaimard). 

One  specimen,  10  inches  long. 

Lutianus  rivulatus  (Cuvier  and  Valenciennes). 

One  specimen,  14  inches  lv>ng.  Four  young  specimens  from  the 
Philippine  Islands  show  less  of  the  rivulated  markings  of  the  head, 
but  the  dusky  vertical  cross  bands  are  ver\'  distinct. 

Lutianus  kasmira  (Forskal). 

One  specimen,  8  inches  long. 

Diacope  sebae  Cuvier  and  Valenciennes. 

Two  fine  sjiecimens,  S  to  12  inches  long. 

Gymnocranius  lethrinoides  (Bleeker). 

One  specimen,  12.50  inches  long. 

Family  ILE^IULID^. 

Caesio  lunaris  (Ehrenberg). 

One  specimen,  12  inches  long. 

Caesio  erythrogaster  (Kubl  and  van  Hasselt). 

Odontonectes  Guxther,  Fishes  Brit.  Mus.,  I,  p.    265. 
One  specimen  12  inches  long. 

Terapon  jarbua  (Forskal). 

Nine  specimens,  0.75  to  8.50  inches  long. 

Terapon  theraps  Cuvier  and  Valenciennes. 

One  very  young  specimen. 

244  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

Scolopsis  cancellatus  (Cuvier  and  Valenciennes). 

Seven  specimens,  7.50  inches  long. 
Scolopsis  bimaculatus  Riippell. 

One  specimen,  11.50  inches  long. 

Pristipoma  hasta  (Bloch). 

Three  specimens,  1.50  to  13.50  inches  long.  These  represent  the 
form  called  Pristipoma  hasta  by  Bleeker  and  figured." 

Euelatichthys  crassispinus  ( Riippell). 

One  specimen,  4.50  inclies  long. 
Pentapus  nemurus  (Bleeker). 

Two  specimens,  11  and  11.50  inches  long. 

Plectorhynchus  haematochir  (Bleeker). 

One  specinffen,  16.50  inches  long.  This  specimen  agrees  in  every 
respect  with  Bleeker.'s  figure. 

Family  SPARID^. 

Lethrinus  miniatus  (Forster). 

Two  specimens,  9.25  and  11  inches  long. 

Lethrinus  harak  (Forskal). 

Tliree  specimens,  2.75  to  12  inches  long. 

Lethrinus  richardsoni  Giinther. 

Three  specimens,  8,  10,  and  11  inches  long. 

Lethrinus  mashenoides  Ehrenberg. 

Two  specimens,  12.50  and  14.75  inches  kmg.  We  refer  tliis  to  his 
species  with  some  doubt.  They  have  a  dusky  mark  on  the  sides 
between  base  of  pectoral  and  lateral  line.  Head  3. 10  to  base  of  caudal 
vertebrse,  depth  2.60;  eye  3.75  in  head,  1.90  in  snout;  dorsar  X,  9; 
anal  S;  scales  48;  teeth,  distinct  molars  on  sides  of  jaws;  canines  in 
front;  color  in  spirits  silvery,  no  dark  bands  or  bars  except  a  dusky 
spot  above  axil  of  pectorals. 

Lethrinus  xanthotaenia  Bleeker. 

One  specimen  12  inches  long. 

Family  GERRIDiE. 

Xystaema  kapas  (Bleeker). 

Tliree  specimens,  2.50  inches  long. 

Xystaema  punctatum  (Cuvier  and  Valenciennes). 

Twenty-three  young,  length  .25  to  1.50  inches.  Characterized  by 
the  seven  dark  vertical  bands. 

Xyxtaema  oyena  (Forskal). 

Five  specimens,  1  to  4  inches  long. 

a  Atlas  Ichthy.,  VIII,  pi.  cccxxv.  fig.  3. 

Family  SCIAENID.E. 

Umbrina  dussumieri  Cuvier  and  Valenciennes. 

Three  specimens,  5  inches  long. 


Sillago  maculate  Quoy  and  Gaimard. 

One  specimen,  5.50  inches  long. 

Family  Mm^LID.E. 

Pseudupeneus  moana  Jordan  and  Scale. 

Three  specimens,  8.25  to  9  inches  long. 

Upeneus  vittatus  (Forsk&l). 

Four  specimens,  4.50  to  8.50  inches  long. 

Family  TOXOTID^. 

Toxotes  jaculatrix  (Pallas). 

Two  specimens,  7.25  inches  long. 


Abudefduf  septemfasciatus  (Cuvier  and  Valenciennes). 

Four  specimens,  2.10  to  6  inches  long. 

Abudefduf  antjerius  (Kuhl  and  van  Hasselt). 
One  ver}^  young  specimen,  1  inch  long. 

Family  LABRID^. 

Lepidaplois  bilunulatus  (Lacepede). 

Two  specim.ens,  8.75  and  0  inches  long. 

Color  in  spirits,  pinkish  white;  a  large  jet-black  blotch  extending 
forward  at  the  posterior  axis  of  soft  dorsal ;  a  wide  black  line  extend- 
ing back  from  angle  of  mouth  to  lower  posterior  edge  of  opercle;  a 
black  spot  on  anterior  part  of  spinous  dorsal. 

Cheilinus  trilobatus  Lacepede. 

One  specimen,  7.50  inches  long. 
Cheilinus  chlorurus  (Bloch). 

One  specimen  7  inches  long. 

Cheilio  inermis  (Forskal). 

Four  specimens  10.50  to  11.50  inches  long. 


Chcerops  macrodon  Bleeker. 

Two  specimens  7  and  10  inches  long;  collected  August,  1906. 

Scarichthys  caeruleopunctatus  (Riippell). 

Three  specimens  9.50  to  10  inches  long. 

Scarichthys  auritus  (Kuhl  and  van  Hasselt). 

Two  specimens  7.50  and  8  inches  long. 



vol..  XX.Mll. 

Callyodon  nigra  Riippell. 

Two  specimens  11  and  12  inches  long;  collected  Auo-ust,  lOOfi. 

Callyodon  macrorhinus  (Bleeker). 

One  specimen  14.50  inches  long;  collected  in  August,  lOOC). 

Callyodon  rivulatus  (  Cuvier  and  Valenciennes). 

One  specimen  13.50  inches  long;  collected  in  August,  1906. 

Callyodon  zonularis  Jordan  and  Scale. 

Two  specimens  S.50  and  9.50  inches  long;  collected  in  August,  1906. 
Family  PLATACID^. 

Platax  orbicularis  (Forskal). 

One  specimen  12.50  inches  long;  collected  in  1906. 
One  young  specimen  1 .875  inches  long. 


Scatophagus  argus  ?   (Gmelini. 

The  following  description  of  the  young  of  this  species  is  hased  on 
tliree  specimens  0.40  to  0.55  inches  long;  collected  at  Zamboanga: 
Body   strongly   compressed,    elevated,    the    outline   suborbicular ; 

/  ^^ 











Fig.  S.— Scatophagus  argus,  young. 

trunk  covered  with  minute  setiform  scales;  hns  unsealed  except  two 
or  three  rows  of  minute  scales  at  base  of  soft  dorsal  and  anal;  caudal 
peduncle  unarmed;  head  covered  with  bony  armature;  the  preor- 
bital  unarmed;  angle  of  preopercle  spinate;  mouth  small  terminal; 
teeth  consisting  of  a  single  series  of  flat,  notched  incisors;  no  teeth  on 
vomer  or  palatines;  branchiostegal  rays  5;  gills  4;  gill  membrane 
slightly  attached  to  isthmus;  two  dorsal  flns;  the  spinous  portion 

NO.  1568.      FISHES  FROM  THE  PHILIPPINES— SEALE  AND  BEAN.        247 

with  about  eleven  spines;  anal  with  three  spines;  ventrals  large, 
thoracic,  I,  5. 

Head,  2.10;  depth,  1.25;  eye,  2.30  in  head;  snout,  3  in  head:  inter- 
orbital  about  equal  to  eye. 

D.  _^  XI,  16;  A."  III,^  14;  Br.  5;  gills  4,  a  slit  l)ehind  fourth.  Gill- 
rakers  short,  about  12  on  lower  limb.  Body  without  distinct  scales, 
velvety.     Lateral  line  present  but  indistinct. 

Head  inclosed  in  a  bom'  armature.  A  strong  protuberance  at  the 
upper  posterior  margin  of  the  orbit  followed  by  a  strong  spine.  Above 
this  a  flat  nuchal  spine.  Preopercle  wdth  a  strong  vertical  stay  and 
three  spine-like  points  diverging  from  its  lower  angle.  Preorbital 
narrow,  unarmed;  mouth  small.  Teth,  a  single  series  of  compressed 
lobate  incisors  about  six  on  each  side  of  lower  jaw  and  twelve  in  the 

Body  elevated,  compressed.  Depth  of  caudal  peduncle  about 
twice  its  length,  without  spines  or  plates.  Dorsal  fins  scarcel}' 
united;  fourth  spine  the  longest,  its  length  slightly  greater  than  dia- 
meter of  orbit.  Soft  dorsal  low,  its  height  less  than  that  of  spinous 
dorsal,  anal  similar  to  soft  dorsal;  the  three  anal  spines  about  ecpial 
in  length.  Caudal  rounded,  its  length  1.50  in  head.  Pectorals  broad 
with  about  15  united  rays.  Ventrals  large,  I,  5;  their  length  1.75  in 
head,  their  tip  almost  reaching  anal. 

Color  very  dark  brown  with  four  indistinct  black  vertical  bands  of 
less  width  than  the  interspaces.  Spinous  dorsal  and  ventrals  black; 
soft  dorsal,  anal,  and  pectorals,  yellowish  white. 

An  additional  specimen,  1.50  inches  long,  is  included  in  the  lot. 


Acanthurus  tuberosus  (Cuvier  and  Valenciennes/. 

One  11-inch  specimen. 

Acanthurus  lituratus  ( Forster). 

One  16-inch  specimen. 
Acanthurus  marginatus  Cuvier  and  Valenciennes. 

One  12-inch  specimen,  1906. 

Acanthurus  annulatus  (Quoy  and  Gaimardi. 

One  20-inch  specimen. 
Hepatus  dussummieri  (Cuvier  and  Valenciennes). 

One  specimen,  length  12.75  inches. 

Hepatus  celebicus  (Bleeker). 

Six  specimens,  length  2  to  2.25  inches,  and  three  young. 
Family  SIGANID.E. 

Siganus  virgatus  (Cuvier  and  Valenciennes). 

Two  specimens,  length  8.25  and  9.20  inches. 
Siganus  fuscescens  (Houttuyn). 

Two  specimens  length  7  and  7.50  inches. 


Siganus  vermiculatus  (Kuhl  and  van  Hasselt). 

Two  specimens,  length  8  and  9.25  inches. 

Family  BAI.ISTID^E. 

Balistes  verrucosus  Bleeker. 
One  specimen. 


Canthigaster  compressus  (Proce). 

One  specimen,  length  2.50  inches. 

Tetraodon  immaculatus  Bloch. 

Three  specimens. 

Tetraodon  reticulatus  Bloch  and  Schneider. 

One  specimen,  length  1.50  inches. 

Tetraodon  patoca  Buchanan. 

Nine  specimens,  length  0.50    to  4  inches. 

Spheroides  lunaris  ?  (Bloch). 

One  very  young,  length  0.50  inch. 

Family  SCORPiENID^. 

Synancidium  horridum  (Linnaeus). 

Three  examples,  9  and  10  inches  long. 


Parapercis  cylindrica?  (Bloch). 

One  very  young  specimen. 

Family  GOBIID/E. 

Mapo  fuscus  (Ruppell). 

Eleven  specimens. 

Gnatholepis  sternbergi  Smith. 

One  young  specimen,  length  1  inch,  referred  with  some  doubt  to 
this  species. 

Odontobutis  obscurus  (Peters). 

Nine  specimens. 
Drombus  plackyi  Jordan  and  Seale, 

Two  specimens,  one,  length  2.50  inches,  the  other  length  2.25  inches. 

These  specimens  are  larger  and  better  preserved  than  the  type 
with  which- we  have  compared  them.  The  dark  blotch  in  the  spinous 
dorsal  is  very  distinct.  There  is  also  a  light  margin  to  the  soft  dorsal 
and  a  whitish  margin  to  the  upper  caudal  rays,  the  body  is  dusky 
without  marks.  The  white  spot  at  the  upper  axis  of  pectoral  is 

Eleotris  ophiocephalus  (Kuhl  and  van  Hasselt). 

One  young,  length  1.50  inches. 


By  Paul  Bartsch, 

Assistant  Curator,  Division  of  Molluslcs,   U.  S.  National   Museum. 

The  West  American  members  of  this  wemis  were  first  brought  to 
the  attention  of  conchologists  by  Prof.  C.  B.  Adams,  who  in  1852 
described  three  species  in  his  catalogue  of  shells  collected  at  Panama/' 
Triplioris  alternatus,  inconspicuus,  and  infrequens.  Of  these,  the  last, 
Tri'plions  infrequens  has  proved  to  be  a  Cerithiopsis^  Later,*" 
Doctor  Carpenter  reported  the  occurrence  of  Triforis  adversa  Mon- 
tagu, a  common  European  species,  on  the  West  Coast.  The  speci- 
mens referred  to,  by  him,  are  not  the  Old  World  species  but  must  be 
cited  under  one  or  several  of  the  forms  described  in  the  present 

Through  the  kindness  of  Prof.  John  Tyler,  of  Amherst  College,  I 
have  been  enabled  to  examine,  redescribe,  and  figure,  the  original 
specimen  described  byDoctor  Adams. 

Plate  XVI,  fig.  17. 

Shell  rather  stout,  brown,  with  a  wax-yellow  band  about  one- 
third  the  width  of  the  height  ot  the  whorls  encirchng  the  middle  of  the 
turns.  (Nucleus  decollated  in  all  the  specimens  examined),  post- 
nuclear  whorls  separated  by  strongly  channeled  sutures,  ornamented 
on  the  early  turns  by  a  double  spiraH  row  of  tubercles  and  on  the  last 

«Ann.  Lye.  Nat.  Hist.,  V,  pp.  382-383. 
b  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  London,  1863,  p.  350. 
cRept.  Brit.  Ass.  Adv.  Sci.,  1864,  p.  613. 

<^  In  the  preparation  of  the  present  diagnosis  the  following  terminology  is  used: 
Spiral  sculpture,  the  markings  following  the  directions  of  the  coils  of  the  whorls. 
Axial  scidpture,  the  markings  which  extend  from  the  summit  of  the  whorls  toward 
the  umbilicus. 

The  axial  sculi)ture  may  be — 

Vertical,  when  the  markings  are  in  general  parallelism  with  the  axis  of  the  shell; 
Protractive,  when  the  markings  slant  from  the  preceding  suture  forward; 
Retractive,  when  the  markings  slant  from  the  suture  backward. 

Proceedings  U.  S.  National  Museum,  Vol.  XXXIII— No.  1569. 


250  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxm. 

three  by  a  triple  row,  the  median  one  of  which  is  very  slender  on  all 
but  the  last  turn  and  is  situated  a  little  nearer  the  posterior  row  than 
the  suprasutural  one.  There  are  twenty  tubercles  upon  the  second 
and  twenty-six  upon  the  penultimate  turn.  These  tubercles  are 
joined  by  moderately  strong  spiral  bands  and  axial  riblets  which 
inclose  strongly  impressed  rounded  pits  between  them.  The  periph- 
ery is  marked  by  a  keel  almost  as  strong  as  the  supraperipheral 
one,  while  the  base,  which  is  uniformly  dark  brown,  bears  two 
prominent  keels,  the  anterior  one  of  which  is  well  upon  the  short, 
stout  columella.  The  channels  between  these  keels  are  crossed  by 
the  feeble  extensions  of  the  axial  riblets.  Aperture  strongly  chan- 
neled anteriorly  and  posteriorly;  columella  and  parietal  wall  covered 
with  a  strong  callus. 

The  type  and  two  additional  specimens.  Cat.  No.  32216,  U.S.N.M., 
come  from  Monterey,  California.  The  type  has  the  last  seven  whorls 
and  measures:  length,  4.6  mm.;  diameter,  2.2  mm.  Two  other 
specimens.  Cat.  No.  56015,  IJ.S.N.M.,  come  from  the  same  locality, 
and  a  sixth,  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  S.  vS.  Berry,  was  dredged  in  12 
fathoms  off  Del  Monte,  Monterey  Bay,  California. 

TRIPHORIS  PEDROANUS,  new  species. 
Plate  XVI,  fig.  1. 

Shell  sinistral,  elongate-conic,  light  brown.  Nuclear  whorls  four, 
increasing  regularly  in  size.  The  first  three  smooth,  probably  by 
erosion,  the  next  faintly,  obsoletely  sculptured  by  about  thirty-six 
slender,  equally  strong  and  equally  spaced,  axial  riblets  and  two  slen- 
der spiral  threads,  separated  by  a  narrow  chamiel  near  the  periphery 
of  the  whorl.  Succeeding  turns  separated  by  broad  and  deep  chan- 
neled sutures;  the  first  seven  ornamented  by  two  equally  strong 
spiral  rows  of  tubercles,  which  are  .separated  by  a  chamiel,  as  wide  as 
that  at  the  sutures.  Beginning  with  the  eighth  turn,  a  slender  tuber- 
culate  keel  makes  its  appearance  in  this  chamiel,  situated  a  little 
nearer  the  posterior  keel  than  the  suprasutural  one.  This  keel 
increases  steadily  in  size  and  on  the  penultimate  turn  exceeds  the 
supraperipheral  one  in  strength.  On  the  last  three  turns  the  tubercles 
of  the  posterior  keel  are  a  little  more  strongly  developed  than  on  the 
other  keels.  On  all  the  keels  the  tubercles  slope  a  little  more  abruptly 
at  their  posterior  border,  the  anterior  edge  being  gently  rounded. 
There  are  fifteen  tubercles  upon  the  first,  seventeen  upon  the  fifth,  and 
twenty-four  upon  the  penultimate  postnuclear  turn.  The  tubercles 
are  connected  spirally  b}^  a  moderately  wide  band  and  axially  by 
slender  riblets,  the  spaces  inclosed  between  these  connections  appear- 
ing as  rounded  pits.  The  entire  surface  of  the  spire  is  crossed  by 
numerous  microscopic  spiral  lines  and  lines  of  growth.     Periphery  of 


the  last  whorl  ornamented  by  a  tubercular  keel,  which  is  not  quite  as 
strong  as  the  supraperipheral  keel.  Base  dark  brown,  moderately 
long,  marked  by  two  strong  spiral  keels,  the  anterior  one  of  which  is 
situated  partly  upon  the  columella,  while  the  other  one  occupies  a 
plane  half  way  between  the  anterior  and  the  peripheral  keel.  The 
spaces  which  separate  these  keels  are  about  equal  in  width  and  are 
crossed  by  slender  continuations  of  the  axial  riblets.  Columella  stout 
and  twisted,  marked  by  slender  spiral  lirations.  Aperture  pyriform, 
strongly  channeled  anteriorly  and  posteriorly;  outer  lip  patulous, 
marked  within  by  a  light  brown  band  posteriorly  and  a  narrow  dark- 
brown  zone  at  the  base;  columella  and  parietal  wall  covered  with  a 
thick  callus. 

The  above  description  is  based  upon  two  specimens,  cotypes.  Cat. 
No.  152206,  U.S.N. M.  An  adult  individual,  from  San  Pedro,  Califor- 
nia, has  furnished  the  description  of  the  adult  features.  It  has  lost 
the  nuclear  whorls.  The  eight  which  remain  measure:  Length,  5.1 
mm.;  diameter,  1.9  mm.  Cat.  No.  56910,  U.S.N.M.,  a  juvenile  speci- 
men, collected  by  Dr.  W.  H.  Dall,  at  Catalina  Island,  California,  has 
furnished  the  description  of  the  nuclear  and  early  post-nuclear  turns. 
It  has  four  nuclear  whorls  and  seven  and  one-half  post-nuclear  turns, 
and  measures :  Length,  3  mm. ;  diameter,  1 .35  mm.  A  third  specimen, 
Cat.  No.  56017,  U.S. N.M.,  was  collected  by  Doctor  Dall  at  San  Diego, 
California.  A  fourth  was  coUected  by  Mr.  F.  W.  Kelsey  among  rocks 
in  sand  and  gravel  at  low  tide  at  Ocean  Beach,  California.  Three 
fossil  specimens  from  the  Upper  San  Pedro  Series,  at  the  lumber  yard, 
San  Pedro,  California,  were  examined  in  Mr.  Delos  Arnold's  collection. 

TRIPHORIS   CALLIPYRGUS,  new  species. 

Plate  XVI,  lig.  4. 

Shell  elongate,  conic,  subturrited,  uniformly  light  brown.  (Early 
whorls  decollated.)  The  remaining  seven  are  separated  by  strongly 
impressed  sutures,  and  are  ornamented  with  three 'spiral  tuberculate 
keels  on  the  spire.  The  middle  one  of  these  keels  is  decidedly 
stronger  than  the  rest  and  marks  the  widest  part  of  the  turns,  while 
the  anterior  one  is  the  least  developed  on  all  the  early  turns.  On  the 
last  whorl  the  three  are  subequal.  In  addition  to  the  spiral  keels  the 
spire  is  marked  by  slender,  axial  riblets,  of  which  there  are  about 
eighteen  upon  the  first  of  the  remaining  and  twenty  upon  the  penul- 
timate turn,  the  intersection  of  the  riblets  and  the  spiral  keels  form- 
ing the  tubercles.  The  tubercles  slope  convexly  toward  their  anterior 
limit  and  are  somewhat  excavated  posteriorly.  Periphery  of  the  last 
whorl  marked  by  a  sulcus.  Base  with  two  equally  strong  keels  on 
the  posterior  half,  sejiarated  from  each  other  by  a  sulcus  as  wide  as 
the  peripheral  one,  and  a  third  weak  thread  on  the  base  of  the  thick 

252  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxm. 

columella.  Aperture  irregular,  the  main  portion  subcircular,  strongly 
channelled  posteriorly  and  anteriorly;  outer  lip  moderately  strong, 
columella  short,  stout,  and  decidedly  twisted,  covered  partly  by  the 
very  strong  purplish  parietal  callus. 

The  type.  Cat.  No.  195377,  U.S.N.M.,  comes  from  San  Pedro, 
California,  and  measures:    Length,  5.2  mm.;  diameter,  2.2  mm. 

This  species  differs  from  all  the  other  Calif ornian  Triphoris  in  hav- 
ing the  middle  keel  between  the  sutures  best  developed,  forming  a 
prominent  shoulder  at  this  point,  while  the  one  at  the  summit  is  only 
feebly  represented,  the  reverse  being  true  in  the  other  species. 

TRIPHORIS  CARPENTERI,  new  species. 

Plate  XVI,  lig.  !(!. 

Triforis  adversa  Carpenter,  Rept.  Brit.  Ass.  Adv.  Sci.,  1863,  p.  628,  in  part;  not 
Triphoris  adversus- Montagu . 

Shell  elongate-conic,  almost  cylindric,  bleached,  white.  (Early 
whorls  decollated.)  Later  turns  ornamented  by  three  spiral  ridges,  of 
which  the  posterior  one  is  a  little  more  strongly  developed  than  the 
other  two  and  forms  the  summit  of  the  whorls.  The  other  two 
spiral  ridges  are  equal  and  equally  spaced.  In  addition  to  the  spiral 
ridges,  the  whorls  are  marked  by  axial  ribs,  about  as  strong  as  the 
spiral  ridges,  the  intersection  of  the  ribs  and  ridges  forming  strong 
tubercles,  while  the  spaces  inclosed  between  them  appear  as  deeply 
impressed  square  pits.  There  appear  to  be  about  twenty-two  tuber- 
cles upon  all  the  whorls.  The  sutures  appear  as  broad,  deep  channels, 
which  are  crossed  by  the  extensions  of  the  axial  ribs.  On  the  last 
three  turns  the  posterior  edge  of  the  peripheral  keel  is  apparent  in 
the  suture.  In  addition  to  the  above  sculpture,  the  entire  surface  of 
the  spire  is  marked  with  microscopic  lines  of  growth  and  equally  fine 
spiral  striations.  Periphery  of  the  last  turn  marked  by  a  strong 
spiral  keel.  Base  marked  by  two  strong  rounded  keels,  of  which  the 
posterior  one  is  separated  about  as  far  from  the  peripheral  keel  as 
that  is  separated  from  the  supraperipheral  one.  The  anterior  keel  of 
the  base  is  situated  on  the  columella  and  is  separated  by  a  little  wider 
and  deeper  channel  from  the  posterior  keel  tlian  that  is  from  its 
posterior  neighbor;  anteriorly  it  is  limited  by  a  feebly  impressed 
groove.  The  channels  of  the  base  are  crossed  by  weak  continuations 
of  the  axial  riblets.  Aperture  ovate,  strongly  channelled  anteriorly 
and  moderately  so  posteriorly;  columella  short,  stout,  and  twisted; 
covered  by  a  strong  callus  which  also  extends  over  the  parietal  wall. 

The  type.  Cat.  No.  15583,  U.S.N.M.,  was  collected  in  Neah  Bay, 
Washington,  by  J.  G.  Swan.  It  consists  of  the  last  eight  turns,  which 
measure:  Length,  7.2  mm.;  diameter,  2.2  mm! 


TRIPHORIS   HEMPHILLI,  new  species. 
Plate  XVI,  fig.  12. 

Shell  sinistral,  elongate-conic,  chestnut  brown.  (Nuclear  whorls 
decollated.)  Succeeding  turns  separated  by  strong  channeled 
sutures,  ornamented  on  the  fii-st  five  turns  by  a  double  spiral  row  of 
tubercles  which  are  separated  by  a  channel  a  little  wider  than  the 
tubercles.  Beginning  with  the  sixth  tiu'n,  a  slender,  spiral,  faintly 
tuberculate  keel,  placed  a  little  nearer  the  posterior  than  the  supra- 
sutural  row  of  tubercles,  makes  its  appearance  in  the  channel.  This 
keel  remains  slender  and  does  not  quite  attain  the  strength  of  the 
suprasutural  one,  even  on  the  last  turn.  The  tubercles  are  joined 
spirally  by  quite  strong  connections  and  axially  by  moderately 
strong  riblets.  The  spaces  inclosed  by  these  joining  elements  appear 
as  elongated  pits,  of  which  the  axial  axis  is  the  longest.  There  are 
sixteen  tubercles  upon  the  second  and  twent3^-two  upon  the  penulti- 
mate turn.  The  tubercles,  as  well  as  their  spiral  connections,  are 
somewhat  excavated  posteriorly,  but  well  rounded  anteriorly,  and 
the  posterior  row  "of  tubercles  is  considerably  more  strongly  developed 
than  the  suprasutural  on  the  last  five  turns.  In  addition  to  the 
sculpture  descril)ed,  the  entire  surface  of  the  spire,  tubercles,  and 
intertubercular  spaces  are  marked  by  slender  lines  of  growth.  Periph- 
ery of  the  last  whorl,  marked  by  a  tubercular  cord,  a  little  less  strongly 
developed  than  the  suprasutural  one.  Base  rather  elongated,  marked 
b}'  two  rather  broad,  low,  spiral  cords,  the  anterior  one  of  which  is 
partly  situated  upon  the  columella.  The  well  rounded  channel, 
which  separates  these  keels,  as  well  as  the  supraperipheral  channel, 
are  crossed  by  weak  continuations  of  the  axial  riblets.  Aperture 
decidedly  channeled  anteriorly,  posterior  angle  obtuse;  columella 
thick  and  twisted,  covered  with  a  thick  callus,  which  extends  over 
the  parietal  wall. 

The  type  has  ten  post-nuclear  whorls  and  measures:  Length,  5.1 
mm.;  diameter,  1.6  mm.  It  and  two  additional  specimens  are 
entered  as  Cat.  No.  106428,  U.S.N.M.  They  were  collected  by  Mr. 
Henry  Hemphill  from  shell  washings  at  Point  Abreojos,  Lower 

TRIPHORIS  CATALIN^NSIS,  new  species. 

Plate  XVI,  fig.  IS. 

Shell  sinistral,  elongate-conic,  rather  stout,  with  the  posterior 
half  of  the  exposed  portion  of  the  whorls  white  and  the  anterior  half 
light  bro\\ai.  (Part  of  the  nuclear  whorls  decollated.)  The  three  and 
one-half  remaining  turns  of  the  nucleus  increase  regularly  in  size  and 
are  marked  by  about  twenty-six  slender  axial  riblets  on  the  first  and 
thirty-two  on  the  next  and  the  third  whorl.  In  addition  to  these 
riblets  the  nuclear  whorls  are  encircled  by  two  prominent  sublamellai 

254  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

slender,  finely  tuberculate  spiral  keels,  which  are  placed  about  equi- 
distant from  the  sutures  and  are  a  little  nearer  to  each  other  than  to 
the  sutures.  The  anterior  one  of  these  keels  is  much  more  strongly- 
developed  on  the  last  nuclear  turn  than  the  posterior  member.  The 
intersection  of  the  spiral  keels  and  axial  riblets  are  tuberculate.  The 
whorls  have  a  strong  sloping  shoulder  which  extends  from  the  posterior 
keel  to  the  summit.  Post-nuclear  w^iorls  separated  by  strongly  marked 
sutures,  ornamented  by  two  spiral  rows  of  nodules,  of  wliich  the  pos- 
terior one  is  the  stronger.  These  tw^o  rows  of  nodules  are  separated 
on  the  first  seven  post-nuclear  whorls  by  a  spiral  channel  almost  as 
wide  as  the  suture.  From  the  seventh  post-nuclear  whorl  on,  a  slen- 
der, spiral,  weakly  tuberculate  cord  makes  its  appearance  in  the  chan- 
nel, growing  stronger  with  each  succeeding  turn.  This  cord  is  situ- 
ated a  little  nearer  the  posterior  row  of  tubercles  than  the  anterior,  and 
like  the  posterior  row  of  tubercles  is  white.  The  tubercles  are  con- 
nected by  blunt,  ill-deiuied,  axial  riblets.  There  are  about  twenty 
tubercles  on  the  first  and  fifth  post-nuclear  whorls  and  twenty-four 
upon  the  penultimate  turn.  In  addition  to  the  strong  sculpture  just 
defined,  the  entire  surface,  tubercles  and  depressions,  are  crossed  by 
many  fine  lines  of  growth  and  spiral  striations.  Periphery  of  the  last 
whorl  marked  by  a  slender,  weakly  tuberculate  keel.  Base  exceed- 
ingly short,  almost  flat,  crossed  by  strong  lines  of  growth  and  fuie  spiral 
striations,  marked  by  a  brown  band  at  the  insertion  of  the  columella. 
Aperture  subquadrate,  outer  lip  sinuous,  conforming  wdth  the  exter- 
nal sculpture,  basal  wall  slightly  concave ;  columella  very  stout,  short, 
and  strongly  twisted.     Basal  channel  well  developed. 

The  type,  wliich  is  unique— Cat.  No.  193998,  U.S.N.M.— is  an  imma- 
ture specimen  and  comes  from  Catalina  Island,  California.  It  has  ten 
post-nuclear  whorls  and  measures:  Length,  5.3  mm.;  diameter, 
2.2  mm. 

TRIPHORIS  STEARNSI,  new  species. 
Plate  XVI,  fig.  3. 

Shell  elongate-conic,  sinistral,  flesh  colored.  (Early  whorls  decol- 
lated.) The  nine  remaining  are  moderately  high,  marked  by  a  double 
spiral  row  of  very  strong,  equally  developed,  rounded  tubercles,  which 
are  separated  on  the  first  three  turns  by  a  channel  as  deep  and  well 
marked  as  the  sutures.  This  space  between  the  tw^o  rows  of  tubercles 
gradually  develops  into  a  slender  tuberculate  keel,  which  on  the  last 
turn  is  about  half  as  wide  as  the  tubercular  ridges.  There  are  about 
eighteen  tubercles  on  the  tiiird  to  seventh  of  the  remaining  wdiorls 
and  twenty  on  the  penultimate.  Periphery  angulated.  Base  short, 
marked  by  two  strong  spiral  keels.     (Aperture  fractured.) 

The  type,  Cat.  No.  32259,  U.S.N.M.,  belongs  to  the  Stearns  collec- 
tion and  was  found  in  the  Gulf  of  California.  It  measures:  Length, 
4.1  mm.;  diameter,  1.4  mm. 


Plate  XVI,  fig.  2. 

Shell  sinistral,  small,  broadly  elongate,  conic,  dark  brown.  Nuclear 
whorls  four,  light  brown,  increasing  regularly  in  size,  provided  with 
spiral  and  axial  sculpture  (but  this  is  too  badly  worn  to  l)e  properly 
diagnosed  in  all  our  specimens).  Post-nuclear  whorls  eight,  sepa- 
rated by  channelled  sutures.  The  first  four  post-nuclear  whorls 
have  a  double  spiral  row  of  tubercles,  the  posterior  row  being  a  little 
more  strongly  developed  than  the  anterior.  These  rows  are  sepa- 
rated by  a  channel  about  as  wide  as  the  tubercular  ridges.  Begin- 
ning with  the  fifth  whorl,  a  slender  tuberculate  cord  appears  in  the 
middle  of  the  channel  which  separates  the  two  spiral  ridges;  this 
grows  steadily  in  size  with  each  turn,  until  on  the  last  volution  it  is 
quite  as  strong  as  the  suprasutural  cord.  On  the  later  turns  the 
middle  and  suprasutural  spiral  cords  and  their  tubercles  fall  off  quite 
abruptly  at  their  posterior  border  and  slope  roundly  toward  their 
anterior  limit.  The  tubercles  on  all  the  turns  are  joined  b}^  rather 
w^ide  spiral  bars  and  axial  ribs,  which  inclose  deep  squarish  pits 
between  them.  Periphery  and  base  of  the  last  turn  well  rounded,  the 
former  marked  by  a  low  somewhat  flattened  keel,  which  is  separated 
from  the  supraperipheral  cord  by  a  channel  as  wide  as  the  one  which 
separates  the  supraperipheral  J^eel  from  the  middle  one.  The  channel 
is  crossed  by  the  extension  of  the  axial  riblets.  The  base  is  marked 
by  two  spiral  cords  about  as  broad  and  of  the  same  character  as  the 
peripheral  one.  These  cords  are  separated  by  channels  as  broad  as 
that  which  separate  the  peripheral  cord  from  the  supraperipheral 
one  and  are  crossed  by  feeble  extensions  of  the  axial  riblets.  The 
anterior  basal  cord  is  situated  upon  the  base  of  columella  and  its 
anterior  border  fuses  almost  imperceptibly  with  it.  The  entire  sur- 
face is  crossed  by  many  exceedingly  fine  spiral  striations  and  lines  of 
growth.  Aperture  subquadrate,  posterior  angle  obtuse,  anteriorly 
strongly  channelled;  outer  lip  subpatulous  anteriorly,  not  sinuous; 
columella  short,  thick,  twisted.  Columella  and  the  parietal  wall  are 
covered  with  a  strongly  developed  callus. 

There  are  three  specimens  of  this  species  in  the  collection  of  the 
U.  S.  National  Museum,  Cat.  No.  106424,  collected  by  ^Ir.  Henry 
Hemphill,  at  Point  Abreojos,  Lower  Califorina.  The  type,  which  is 
one  of  these  tliree,  has  lost  three  of  its  nuclear  whorls;  the  remaining 
nine  turns  measure:  Length,  4.0  mm.;  diameter,  L5  mm. 

TRIPHORIS   EXCOLPUS,  new  species. 

Plate  XVI,  fig.  8. 

Shell  sinistral,  with  alternating  brown  and  white  zones.  (Nuclear 
whorls  decollated.)  The  first  three  of  the  succeeding  turns  are 
marked  by  a  double  spiral  row  of  tubercles.     On  the  first  two  turns 

256  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxm. 

the  posterior  row  is  less  strongly  developed  than  the  anterior  and  is 
brown  in  color,  while  the  channel  that  separates  it  from  the  anterior 
and  the  anterior  row  are  yellowish  white.  From  the  third  whorl  on 
the  posterior  row  of  tubercles  becomes  more  strongly  developed  than 
the  other.  Beginning  with  the  fourth  turn,  a  slender  tubercular  keel 
appears  in  the  space  between  the  two  tubercular  ridges,  which  on  the 
sixth  turn  is  as  strong  as  the  anterior  cord.  Thus  the  shell  is  marked 
by  a  brown  tubercular  ridge  at  the  summit  and  two  white  tubercular 
ridges  anterior  to  it  after  the  fourth  turn.  The  tubercles  are  joined  by 
a  broad  spiral  cord  and  axial  riblets.  The  connections  inclose  quite 
deep  oblong  pits.  There  are  eighteen  tubercles  upon  the  first  whorl, 
twenty-two  upon  the  fifth,  and  t-^enty-f our  upon  the  penultimate 
turn.  Sutures  channelled.  Periphery  of  the  last  whorl  strongly 
angulated,  marked  by  a  low  subacute  keel.  The  channel  between 
the  peripheral  keel  and  the  supraperipheral  row  of  tubercles  is  crossed 
by  weak  extensions  of  the  axial  riblets.  Base  short,  hght  brown, 
having  a  single  slender,  spiral  thread,  about  as  far  anterior  to  the 
periphery  as  the  suprasutural  tuberculated  ridge  is  posterior  to  it. 
There  are  also  very  slender  extensions  of  the  axial  riblets,  which 
pass  from  the  periphery  to  the  insertion  of  the  columella.  In  addi- 
tion to  the  above  sculpture,  the  base  is  marked  by  many  exceedingly 
fine  spiral  striations  and  lines  of  growth.  Aperture  subquadrate; 
posterior  angle  obtuse,  strongly  channelled  anteriorly,  outer  lip 
rendered  sinuous  by  the  external  sculpture.  Columella  short,  thick, 
and  somewhat  curved,  covered  by  a  faint  callus  which  also  extends 
over  the  parietal  wall. 

The  type  is  an  immature  specimen  which  has  lost  the  nucleus. 
The  eight  remaining  whorls  measure:  Length,  3.7  mm.;  diameter, 
1.6  mm.  It  is  Cat.  No.  4069,  U.S.N.M.,  and  was  collected  at  Cape 
vSt.  Lucas,  Lower  California.  Another  badly  worn  individual.  Cat. 
No.  15434,  U.S.N.M.,  is  from  Guacomayo,  Mexico. 

TRIPHORIS  PANAMENSIS,  new  species. 

Plate  XVI,  fig.  19. 

Shell  sinistral,  elongate  conic,  of  dark-brown  color.  Nuclear 
whorls  tliree,  forming  a  cylindrical,  smooth  apex.  The  five  succeed- 
ing turns  are  marked  by  a  double  spiral  row  of  tubercles,  which  are 
separated  by  a  channel  considerably  wider  than  the  channeled 
sutures.  Beginning  with  the  eighth  turn  a  tuberculate  cord  makes 
its  appearance  in  the  space  between  the  two  tubercular  ridges,  a  Httle 
nearer  to  the  one  at  the  summit  than  the  supraperipheral  one.  This 
cord,  at  first  faintly  developed,  increases  steadily  in  size,  until  on  the 
last  volution  it  almost  equals  the  other  two  in  strength.  The  tuber- 
cles occur  in  regular  axial  series  and  are  connected  spirally  and  axially 
by  slender  riblets,  the  riblets  inclosing  small  squarish  m.eshes.     There 


are  about  fourteen  tubercles  on  the  fourth  (the  first  sculptured) 
whorl  and  twenty-four  on  the  tenth  and  the  penultimate  turn.  On 
the  last  ten  whorls  the  tubercles  at  the  summit  of  the  whorls  are 
considerably  stronger  than  the  other  two  and  darker  colored.  The 
sutures  on  the  later  whorls  are  deeply  channeled;  the  channels  are 
crossed  by  a  slender  riblet  at  each  tubercle.  Periphery  of  the  last 
whorl  marked  by  a  strong  keel  which  is  weakly  tuberculate.  Base 
marked  by  two  spiral  keels  a  little  weaker  than  the  peripheral  one. 
These  two  are  ornamented  by  feebly  developed  tubercles,  the  deep 
channels  between  them  being  crossed  by  the  continuations  of  the 
slender  axial  riblets.  Aperture  of  irregular  outline;  posterior  angle 
well  rounded,  strongly  channeled  anteriorly;  outer  lip  sinuous  to 
correspond  with  the  external  sculpture;  columella  very  strong, 

The  type,  Cat.  No.  56014,  U.S.N.M.,  is  from  Panama.  It  has 
seventeen  whorls,  and  measures:  Length,  8.7  mm.;  diameter,  2.2  nun. 

TRIPHORIS  DALLI,  new  species. 

Plate  XVI,  fig.  14. 

Shell  acicular,  increasing  regularly  in  size,  irregularly  variegated 
with  varying  shades  of  brown,  yellow,  and  white.  Nuclear  wdiorls 
four,  browm,  marked  by  two  strong,  narrow  spiral  tlii-eads  wliich  divide 
the  space  between  the  sutures  into  tlu'ee  parts,  of  whicli  the  anterior 
two  are  about  equal,  while  the  posterior  one  is  a  little  wider  than  the 
rest.  In  addition  to  the  spiral  tlu'eads,  the  surface  is  marked  by 
many  regular,  slender,  axial  riblets,  almost  as  strong  as  the  spiral 
keels;  of  these  there  are  about  tliirty  upon  the  second  and  twenty- 
eight  upon  the  fourth  turn.  The  fu-st  tlu-ee  postnuclear  turns  are 
white,  the  remaining  variegated.  The  early  ones  are  marked  by  a 
double  row  of  tubercles,  one  at  the  summit,  the  other  at  the  periphery, 
separated  by  a  broad  channel.  The  anterior  one  is  the  stronger. 
Beginning  with  the  fourth  turn,  a  slender  thread  makes  its  appearance 
in  the  intermediate  channel,  a  little  posterior  to  the  middle.  This 
remains  slender  and  on  none  of  the  turns,  not  even  the  last,  becomes 
as  strongly  developed  as  the  other  two.  The  postnuclear  whorls 
are  also  marked  by  poorly  developed,  rather  broad,  axial  riblets,  the 
intersection  of  which  with  the  spiral  keels  marks  the  tubercles.  The 
tubercles  slope  more  abruptly  posteriorly  than  anteriorly.  The 
entire  surface  is  crossed,  in  addition  to  the  above-described  sculpture, 
by  microscopic  spiral  and  axial  lines.  Sutures  strongly  impressed. 
Periphery  of  the  last  whorl  marked  by  a  well-impressed  channel. 
Base  rather  short,  evenly  rounded,  marked  by  tlii-ee  keels,  of  which 
the  fu'st  adjoins  the  peripheral  sulcus  and  is  beaded  and  colored  like 
its  posterior  neighbor.     The  other  two  keels  are  not  tuberculate  and 

Proc.  N.  M.  vol.  xxxiii— 07 17 


are  separated  by  a  channel  a  little  deeper  and  wider  than  the  channel 
wliich  separates  the  middle  keel  from  the  first.  The  third  keel  is  the 
least  developed  and  is  situated  on  the  base  of  the  columella.  The 
anterior  part  of  the  base,  including  the  median  keel,  is  of  light-brown 
color.  Aperture  irregular,  the  main  portion  circular.  The  posterior 
slit  closed  at  the  edge,  but  with  a  circular  perforation  a  little  distance 
behind  the  edge;  anteriorly  the  outer  lip  is  closely  appressed  to  the 
columella,  but  a  circular  perforation  is  present  at  the  base  of  the 
columella.  Columella  short  and  decidedly  twisted.  The  type  has 
seventeen  whorls,  and  measures:  Length,  6.5  mm.;  diameter,  2.0  mm. 
The  type  and  tlu-ee  specimens,  Cat.  No.  195375,  U.S.N.M.,  were 
dredged  by  the  steamer  Albatross,  of  the  U.  S.  Bm-eau  of  Fisheries, 
at  Station  2798,  in  18  fathoms  in  the  Bay  of  Panama. 


Plate  XVI,  fig.  15. 

Triphoris  inconspicuus  C.  B.  Adams,  Ann.  Lye.  Nat.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  1852,  j^.  383. 

Shell  small  and  slender,  reddish  brown  fading  to  redcUsh  yellow  on 
the  last  turn,  with  the  supra-sutural  keel  yellowish  white.  Nuclear 
whorls  fine,  the  first  two  yellowish  white,  feebly  sculptured,  the  other 
three  brown,  marked  by  two  strong  narrow  spiral  tlireads,  wliich 
cUvide  the  space  between  the  sutures  into  three  parts,  of  which  the 
anterior  two  are  about  equal  wliile  the  posterior  one  is  a  little  wider 
than  the  rest.  In  addition  to  the  spiral  threads,  the  surface  is  marked 
by  regular,  slender,  axial  riblets,  which  are  about  as  strong  as  the 
spiral  threads ;  of  these  there  are  about  twenty-four  upon  the  fourth 
and  twenty-eight  upon  the  fifth  turn.  Post-nuclear  whorls  sepa- 
rated by  deeply  channeled  sutures,  ornamented  on.  the  early  whorls 
by  two  narrow,  tuberculate,  spiral  keels,  which  are  separated  by  a 
very  wide  channel.  The  tubercles  are  connected  across  tliis  channel 
by  the  rather  strong,  protractive,  axial  riblets,  of  which  there  are  about 
sixteen  upon  the  first,  twenty-two  upon  the  fifth,  and  twenty-six  upon 
the  penultimate  post-nuclear  whorls.  Beginning  with  the  fifth  post- 
nuclear  turn,  the  middle  band  makes  its  appearance  in  the  middle 
of  the  channel.  This  increases  steadily  in  size,  but  attains  only  about 
half  the  size  of  the  anterior  keel  on  the  last  turn.  In  adchtion  to  this 
strong  sculpture,  the  entire  surface  of  the  spire,  tubercles,  and  inter- 
spaces are  marked  by  microscopic  lines  of  growth  and  spiral  striations. 
Periphery  of  the  last  whorl  marked  by  a  rather  narrow  deep  channel. 
Base  with  three  prominent,  equally  strong,  and  equally  spaced  keels. 
The  peripheral  sulcus  and  the  two  basal  sulci  between  the  keels  are 
marked  by  the  continuations  of  the  axial  riblets.  Aperture  irregular, 
pyriform,  decidedly  channeled  posteriorily,  main  portion  subcircular; 
parietal  wall  covered  with  a  very  thick  callus,  wliich  extends  down 
along  the  short,  stout,  and  anteriorily  decidedly  twisted  columella. 


The  basal  portion  of  the  outer  hp  is  closely  appressed  to  the  coliimellar 
callus  and  completely  closes  the  anterior  channel,  leaving  only  a 
round  perforation  at  the  anterior  extremity  of  the  columella. 

The  specimen  described  and  figured,  Cat.  No.  195376,  U.S.N.M., 
has  fifteen v.diorls  and  measures:  Length,  4.1  mm.;  diameter,  1.1  mm. 
It  was  dredged  by  the  steamer  of  the  U.  S.  Bureau  of  Fisheries  steamer 
Albatross  at  Station  2798,  in  18  fathoms,  in  the  Bay  of  Panama.  The 
type  lot,  No.  208  C.  B.  Adams  collection,  at  Amherst,  New  Hamp- 
shire, contains  ten  specimens,  none  of  wliich  are  as  well  preserved  as 
the  one  figured. 

A  color  form  of  tliis  species  has  the  posterior  and  mechan  keel  wliite, 
wliile  the  supra-peripheral  one  and  the  base  are  light  brown.  I  will 
suggest  for  this  form  the  varietal  name,  hicolor,  fig.  6,  Cat.  No.  195376, 
U.S.N.M.,  dredged  hj  the  Fisheries  steamer  Alhatross  at  the  same  sta- 
tion. Another  specimen  of  this  form  was  found  among  C.  B.  Adams 
type  lot  of  Triphoris  alfernatus  from  Panama. 


Piatt"  XVI.  tig.  11. 

Triphoris  alhrnatus  C.  B.  Adams,  Ann.  Lye.  Nat.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  V,  1852,  pp.  382-3. 

Shell  regularly  elongate-conic,  with  the  median  and  anterior  spiral 
row  of  tul)ercles  wax  yellow,  and  the  rest  of  the  spire,  periphery,  and 
base  brown  on  the  later  whorls.  Nuclear  whorls  live,  wax  yellow, 
ornamented  by  two  spiral  ridges,  the  posterior  one  of  which  falls  on 
the  middle  of  the  turns  and  the  anterior  about  half  way  between 
this  and  the  anterior  suture.  In  addition  to  this  they  are  crossed  by 
many  slender  raised  axial  threads,  thirty-two  of  which  occur  upon  the 
last  turn.  The  whorls  are  sloping!}^  shouldered  from  the  posterior 
keel  to  the  summit.  Post-nuclear  whorls  separated  by  deeply  chan- 
neled sutures  ornamented  on  the  early  turns  by  two  strongly  tuber- 
culiite  s])iral  keels — one  at  the  summit,  the  other  at  the  periphery. 
The  tubercles  are  formed  by  the  intersection  of  the  spiral  keels  and 
the  axial  ribs  and  slope  rather  suddenly  posteriorly  and  roundly 
toward  their  anterior  limit.  Begimiing  with  the  fifth  post-nuclear 
whorl  a  slender  spiral  cord  makes  its  appearance  in  the  middle  of 
the  broad  channel  between  the  two  keels;  this  increases  steadily  in 
size,  and  on  the  last  turn  bears  tubercles  which  ecpial  those  of  the 
anterior  keel  in  strength.  Axial  ribs  somewhat  retractive,  eighteen  on 
the  first,  twenty  upon  the  fifth,  and  twenty-two  upon  the  penidtimate 
whorl.  The  spaces  inclosed  between  the  spiral  keels  and  axial  ribs  are 
deep  oblong  pits,  the  long  axis  of  which  coincides  with  the  spiral  keels. 
Periphery  of  the  last  turn  marked  by  a  strong  spiral  keel.  Base 
well  rounded,  marked  by  two  strong  spiral  keels,  the  posterior  one  of 
which  agrees  with  those  posterior  to  it  in  spacing  and  is  weakly 
tuberculated,  while  the  anterior  one,  which  is  situated  on  the  base 

260  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.xxxiii. 

of  the  columella,  is  smooth  and  separated  a  little  more  distantly 
from  its  neighbor.  The  supraperipheral  and  basal  channels  are 
crossed  by  the  continuation  of  the  axial  ribs.  Aperture  (?)  frac- 
tured; columella  stout  and  twisted,  covered  by  a  strong  callus  which 
extends  over  the  parietal  wall. 

The  type,  Cat.  No.  207,  C.  B.  Adams  collection,  Amherst  College, 
Amherst,  Massachusetts,  has  fifteen  whorls,  and  measures:  Length, 
4.8  mm.;  diameter,  1.5  mm. 

There  are  two  other  specimens  in  the  type  lot,  all  of  which  were 
collected  by  Dr.  ('.  B.  Adams  at  Panama. 

Plate  XVI,  fig.  7. 

Shell  small,  acicular,  with  the  keel  at  the  summit  and  the  base 
light  brown,  the  rest  white.  Nuclear  whorls  five,  ornamented  with 
two  ratlier  closely  placed  spiral  threads,  the  posterior  one  of  which 
marks  the  middle  of  the  exposed  portions  of  the  nuclear  whorls,  and 
many  slender,  axial  riblets,  of  which  there  are  about  twenty-four 
upon  the  fourth  and  twenty-eight  upon  the  fifth  turn.  Post-nuclear 
whorls  eight,  separated  by  deep  channeled  sutures,  ornamented  on 
the  early  whorls  by  two  strongly  tuberculated  keels,  separated  by  a 
deep  channel,  which  is  crossed  by  the  moderately  strong  axial  rib- 
lets,  which  connect  the  tubercles  of  the  two  ridges.  Beginning  with 
the  fourth  whorl  a  slender  keel  makes  its  appearance  between  the 
other  two,  which  rapidly  increases  in  size,  becomes  tuberculated, 
and  on  the  penultimate  and  last  turn  exceeds  the  basal  keel  in 
strength.  There  are  about  fourteen  riblets  U])on  the  first,  twenty 
upon  the  fifth,  and  twenty-two  upon  the  penultimate,  post-nuclear 
whorl.  Base  marked  by  three  non-tul:)erculated,  equally  strong  and 
equally  spaced  sj^iral  ridges.  Aperture  irregular,  pyriform,  strongly 
channeled  posteriorly  and  anteriorly,  with  a  rounded  opening  at  the 
anterior  extremity  of  the  short,  stout,  twisted  columella.  Parietal 
wall  and  columella  covered  by  a  strong  callus. 

The  type  and  six  specimens.  Cat.  No.  195380,  U.S.N.M.,  were 
dredged  by  the  steamer  Alhatross  of  the  United  States  Bureau  of 
Fisheries,  at  Station  2813,  in  40  fathoms,  off  the  Galapagos  Islands. 
The  type  has  thirteen  whorls,  and  m.easures:  Length,  3.2  mm.; 
diameter,  1.1  mm. 

Two  striking  color  forms  of  this  species  were  found  in  the  lot 
obtained  from  the  above  station.  One,  represented  by  a  single 
specimen,  Cat.  No.  105380,  U.S.N.M.,  which  may  be  known  as 
variety  postalhus,  fig.  5,  has  the  posterior  and  median  keel  white, 
the  rest  brown.  The  other  variety,  unicolor,  fig.  13,  represented  by 
nine  specimens,  Cat.  No.  105379,  U.S.N.M.,  is  uniformly  brown. 

NO.  1569.  WEST  A  M ERIC  A  N  MOLL  USKS—BA  R  TSCIL  261 

Plate  XVI,  fig.  !>. 

Shell  aciciilar,  nuclear  whorls  light  brown,  the  others  white,  except- 
ing the  narrow  band  that  connects  the  tubercles  into  a  spiral  series 
which  are  brown.  Nuclear  whorls  five,  the  first  smooth,  the  rest 
marked  by  two,  quite  closely  placed  spiral  threads,  the  posterior  one 
of  which  falls  on  about  the  middle  of  the  exposed  portion  of  the  turns. 
In  addition  to  the  spiral  threads  the  whorls  are  marked  by  slender 
axial  riblets,  of  which  there  are  about  twenty-four  upon  the  second 
and  twenty-eight  upon  the  fifth  turn.  Post-nuclear  whorls  sepa- 
ratetl  by  deep  sutures  and  ornamented  from  the  very  beginning  by 
three  tubercular  spiral  keels,  of  which  the  median  is  the  most  strongly 
and  the  anterior  the  least  developed.  All  the  tubercles  slope  very 
abruptly  posteriorly,  which  lends  them  a  somewhat  truncated  appear- 
ance at  this  end,  and  more  gradually  anteriorly.  They  are  connected 
axially  by  slender  riblets,  of  which  there  are  about  fourteen  on  the 
first,  sixteen  upon  the  fifth,  and  eighteen  upon  the  penultimate  post- 
nuclear  whorl.  Periphery  of  the  last  whorl  marked  by  a  slender  tuber- 
culate  keel  in  the  immature  shell.  Base  sloping  concavely  from  the 
keel  to  the  columella;  without  spiral  keels,  crossed  by  the  feeble  con- 
tinuations of  the  axial  riblets  which  gradually  evanesce  as  they 
approach  the  columella.  Aperture  subc|uadrate,  irregular,  strongly 
channeled  anteriorly,  outer  and  basal  lip  conforming  with  the  external 
sculpture  and  slope,  columella  short,  stout  and  slightly  twisted. 

The  type  and  four  specimens.  Cat.  No.  195381,  U.S.N.M.,  were 
dredged  by  the  U.  S.  Fisheries  steamer  Albatross  at  Station  2813,  in 
40  fathoms  off  Chatham  Island,  one  of  the  Galapagos  group,.  They 
are  immature.  The  type  has  twelve  whorls  and  measures:  Length 
2.8  mm.;  diameter,  1.1  mm. 

This  is  one  of  the  most  distinct  forms  known  to  us  at  present  from 
the  entire  coast;  the  presence  of  the  three  spiral  keels  from  the  very 
beginning  is  a  character  possessed  by  only  one  other  form,  namely,  T. 
callipyrgus  from  San  Pedro,  California,  which  is  a  much  larger  species 
with  three  basal  keels. 

TRIPHORIS  ADAMSI,  new  species. 

Plate  XVI,  fig.  10. 

Shell  acicular,  uniformly  yellowish  wdiite.  Early  nuclear  whorls 
decollated;  the  three  remaining  are  marked  by  the  characteristic 
sculpture,  the  double  spiral  thread,  the  posterior  one  of  which  is 
upon  the  middle  of  the  whorls,  and  many  slender,  axial  riblets,  of 
which  there  are  about  twenty-four  upon  the  last  turn.  Post-nuclear 
whorls  increasing  very  regularly  in  size,  ornamented  with  a  double 

2G2  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

spiral  row  of  strong  tubercles.  Channel  separating  these  two  rows 
quite  wide.  The  tubercles  are  joined  axially  by  low,  rather  broad 
riblets,  which  are  decidedly  protractive.  Beginning  with  the  sev- 
enth whorl  the  slender,  median  spiral  thread  makes  its  appearance. 
This  is  considerably  nearer  the  posterior  keel  than  the  anterior,  but 
in  our  specimens,  which  are  all  young,  attains  only  a  moderate 
development,  with  extremely  weak  tubercles.  There  are  about 
eighteen  ribs  on  the  first,  twenty  upon  the  second,  and  twenty-two 
upon  the  penultimate  post-nuclear  turn.  Periphery  of  the  last  whorl 
marked  by  a  strong  spiral  keel.  Base  excavated  without  spiral 
keels  covered  by  the  feeble  continuations  of  the  axial  riblets,  which 
gradually  fade  out  as  they  approach  the  short,  stout  slightly  t\\  isted 
columella.     Aperture  subquadrate,  decidedly  channeled   anteriorly. 

The  type  and  two  additional  specimens.  Cat.  No.  195382,  U.S.N.M., 
were  dredged  by  the  steamer  Albatross  of  the  U.  S.  Bureau  of  Fish- 
eries, at  Station  2813,  in  40  fathoms,  off  Chatham  Island,  one  of  the 
Galapagos  Islands.  The  type  has  twelve  whorls  (the  first  two 
nuclear  probably  having  been  lost)  and  measures:  Length,  3.4  mm.; 
diameter,  1.2  mm. 

In  this  form  of  the  aperture  and  sculpture  of  the  base  this  species 
agrees  with  Triphoi^'is  cJiathamensis,  but  the  sculpture  of  the  spire  is 
entirely  different. 


The  measurements  cited  after  the  name  refer  to  the  axial  length  of  the  specimen. 
All  the  figures  have  been  enlarged  six  diameters. 

Fig.     1.  Trip/ions  pfdroan»s,  new  species;  type;  5.1mm. 

2.  Tiiphoris  peninsularis,  new  species;  type;  4.0  mm. 

3.  Tnphoris  stearnsi,  new  species;  type;  4.1  mm. 

4.  Tnphoris  callipyrgus,  new  species;  type;  5.2  mm. 

5.  Triphoris  galapagensis  postalhus,  new  subspecies;  type. 

6.  Triphoris  inconspicuiis  bicolor,  new  subspecies;  type. 

7.  Triphoris  galapagensis,  new  species;  type;  3.2  mm. 

8.  Triphoris  excolpus,  new  species;  type;  3.7  mm. 

9.  Triphoris  chathamensis,  new  species;  type;  2.8  mm. 

10.  Triphoris  adamsi,  new  species;  type;  3.4  mm. 

11.  Triphoris  altcrnatus  C.  B.  Adams;  type;  4.8  mm. 

12.  Triphoris  hemphilli,  new  species;  type;  5.1  mm. 

13.  Triphoris  galapagensis  unicolor,  new  subspecies;  type. 

14.  Triphoris  dalli,  new  species;  type;  6.5  mm. 

15.  Triphoris  inconspicuiis  C.  B.  Adams;  4.1  mm. 

16.  Triphoris  carpenteri,  new  species;  type;  7.2  mm. 

17.  Triphoris  montereyensis,  new  species;  type;  4.6  mm. 

18.  Triphoris  catalinensis,  new  species;  type;  5.3  mm. 

19.  Triphoris  panavnensis,  new  species;  type;  8.7  mm. 


PROCEEDINGS,    VOL.    XXXIll      PL.    XVI 











West  American  Mollusks. 

For  explanation  of  plate  see  page  262. 


By  David  Stark  Jordan  and  Robert  Earl  Richardson, 

Of  Stanford  Unirersilij. 

The  writers  have  receiith'  received  from  Mr.  Masao  Nakamiira,  a 
Japanese  naturalist,  tc^acher  in  the  schools  of  Nagaoka,  in  the  province 
of  Echig-o,  in  Japan,  a  small  collection  of  fishes,  from  that  region. 
Among  these  are  three  species  new  to  science.  Series  of  the  speci- 
mens mentioned  arc  in  the  United  States  National  Museum  and  in  the 
museum  of  Stanford  University. 

Family  COBITID^F. 

I.   LEFUA"   ECHIGONIA  Jordan  and  Richardson,  new  species. 

Head  4|  in  length,  to  base  of  caudal;  depth  5^ ;  D.  T  or  8;  A.  I,  7; 
scales  about  90;  width  of  head  If  in  its  length;  snout  3  in  head;  inter- 
orbital  space  '2^  in. head;  pectoral  li;  ventral  2i;  eye  2  in  interorbital 

Fig.  1.— Lefua  echigonia. 

Body  moderately  elongate,  compressed  behind;  caudal  peduncle 
deep,  its  depth  fully  half  the  length  of  the  head;  head  depressed, 
broad  and  flat  above,  its  width  more  than  two-thirds  of  its  length; 
eyes  anterior,  lateral;  mouth  somewhat  inferior,  su})terminal,  with 
flesh}'  lips,  the  lower  jaw  included,  barbels  8,  one  pair  nasal,  one  pair 
terminal  on  the  maxillary,  and  two  pairs  on  the  muzzle  anterior  to  the 
nasal  and  superior  to  the  maxillar}^  pair. 

Scales  very  small,  cycloid,  none  on  the  head;  lateral  line  obsolete. 

Dorsal  inserted  slightly  behind  ventrals,  the  base  of  its  first  ray  nearer 
to  tip  of  caudal  than  to  end  of  snout;  anal  wholly  behind  dorsal;  caudal 
rounded,  a  low  adipose  membrane  procurrent  on  the  caudal  peduncle 
dorsally  and  ventrally. 

"According  to  Dr.  Leo  Berg  (Proc.  IT.S.N.M.,  XXXII,  1907),  Elvis  Jordan  and 
Starks,  to  which  this  species  belongs,  is  identical  with  the  earlier  Lefua  Herzenstein 

Proceedings  U.  S.  National  Museum,  Vol.  XXXIII— No.  1570. 


264  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxni. 

Color  in  spirits  olivaceous,  densely  dusted  everywhere  except  on 
belly  with  rather  coarse  dark  specks;  a  lateral  row  of  obscure,  irregu- 
larh'  formed,  or  more  or  less  broken  dusk}^  spots,  each  nearly  as  large 
as  eye;  a  dark  humoral  spot  of  rectangular  form  situated  in  a  pit-like 
depression;  belly  pale,  whitish;  dorsal  and  caudal  finely  specked  with 
dusky;  other  fins  plain;  no  large  tin  spots  or  blotches. 

This  species  is  related  to  Lefua  nil'konis  (Jordan  and  Fowler),  differ 
ing  from  it,  however,  in  its  much  smaller  scales,  shorter  ventral  fins, 
and  in  its  coloration,  there  being  no  caudal  blotch. 

Known  from  three  specimens  li  to  If  inches  long  from  a  stream 
near  Nagaoka,  in  Echigo,  Japan,  on  the  northwestern  part  of  the  island 
of   Hondo. 

The  type  is  Cat.  No.  20164,  Stanford  University.  A  cotype  is  in 
the  U.  S.  National  Museum. 

{Echigo^  a  province  in  Japan). 

Family  AGONID.F:. 

2.   PALLASINA   ERYNGIA  Jordan  and   Richardson,  new  species. 

Head  4.2  in  length  without  caudal;  depth  3.50  in  head;  width  of 
body  in  front  of  soft  dorsal,  where  body  is  not  subject  to  distention, 
27.5  in  length  without  caudal;  D.  VI-8;  A.  10;  P.  11;  eye  2.5  in 
snout;  interorbital  space  2  in  diameter  of  orl)it;  nose  2.1  in  head; 
barbel  twice  head;  plates  in  lateral  line  50;  between  dorsals  12; 
between  ventrals  and  anal  15. 

Fig.  2.— Pallasina  eryngia. 

Body  completely  encased  in  an  armor  of  bony  plates,  as  in  P.  hai'hata 
(Steindachner);  plates  of  the  dorsal  and  ventral  edges  with  low  keels 
which  terminate  behind  in  a  short  spine;  breast  with  a  central  plate 
larger  than  the  rest,  surrounded  by  smaller  plates  which  lie  between 
it  and  the  bounding  pectoral  edge;  all  the  plates  with  radial  striations 
proceeding  from  a  central  umbo  or  from  the  point  of  the  keel;  a  sub- 
orbital row  of  small,  thin  plates  with  radiating  stria?;  angle  of  opercu- 
lum and  preoperculum  each  with  a  short  spine ;  jaws  with  fine  awl-shaped 
teeth  in  narrow  bands. 

Spinous  a  little  higher  than  soft  dorsal,  its  longest  spine  2.(3  in  head; 
origin  of  anal  barely  in  front  of  base  of  first  dorsal;  pectorals  reach- 
ing slightly  past  front  of  first  dorsal;  ventrals  (in  male)  3.25  in  head. 

Color  of  upper  parts  in  alcohol  brownish,  specked  very  finely  and 
densely  with  darker;  a  rather  sharp  line,  coinciding  with  the  keels  of 


the  lower  row  of  lateral  scutes,  separating  the  upper  darker  from  the 
lower  paler  color  of  the  anterior  part  of  the  trunk;  breast  and  forward 
part  of  belly  pale;  concavity  of  hinder  part  of  belly  behind  front  of 
anal,  and  of  caudal  peduncle,  darkened  with  line  punctulations,  which 
are  more  or  less  gathered  into  roundish  blotches,  forming  a  monili- 
form  series,  and  not  extending  fully  to  the  margins  of  the  concavity. 

Here  described  from  a  single  specimen,  the  type.  No.  20165,  Stanford 
University,  b\  inches  long,  taken  on  the  coast  of  Echigo,  Japan,  by 
Masao  Nakamura.  Four  specimens  of  a  similar  fish,  3  to  -i  inches  long, 
and  with  the  barbel  about  equaling  the  length  of  the  head,  taken  b}^ 
Messrs.  Jordan  and  Snyder  at  Aomori,  Japan,  in  1901,  p<)ssi])ly  belong  to 
this  species.  The  species  here  descri])ed  is  well  distinguished  from 
Pallasina  harbata"-  (Steindachner)  by  its  slenderer  body,  its  extremely 
elongated  barbel,  and  its  fewer  pectoral  rays  (these  being  12  or  13  in 
/*.  larhda.) 

(ypvyyog^  the  goat's  beard.) 

Family  GOBIlDiE. 

3.   CHLOEA   NAKAMURiE  Jordan  and   Richardson,  new  species. 

Head  3J;  depth  4i;  D.  VII— 11;  A.  11;  P.  IS;  eye  -If  in  head;  nose 
3f;  maxillary  2|;  interorbital  f  of  e3'e;  scales  7o. 

Bod}^  robust,  not  much  compressed,  the  back  elevated,  the  protile 
convex  behind  nape,  and  the  caudal  peduncle  slender,  its  depth  about 
4  in  head;  head  pointed,  deeper  than  wide;  interorbital  space  concave; 
e3'es  anterior,  directed  somewhat  upward;  mouth  very  large,  the  max- 
illary reaching  a  vertical  from  posterior  l)order  of  pupil;  tongue  broad, 
bitid;  gill  membranes  united  to  isthmus  at  a  point  two  eye-lengths  in 
front  of  ventrals;  gill-rakers  on  tirst  arch  2  +  10,  short  and  thick; 
pseudobranchia?  large. 

Scales  small  and  finely  ctenoid;  head  and  breast  naked;  belly  covered 
with  very  small,  easily  displaced  scales. 

Dorsal  fins  separated  by  a  distance  equal  to  diameter  of  eye,  the 
spinous  scarcel}^  higher  than  the  soft  dorsal;  anal  inserted  under  third 
ra}"  of  soft  dorsal,  length  of  depressed  anal  five-sixths  of  head;  caudal 
rounded  posteriorly;  pectoral  rounded  behind,  no  filaments  on  its 
iq^per  edge;  ventrals  reaching  one-half  the  distance  from  their  ])ase 
to  base  of  anal. 

«  Six  specimens  of  PaUashia  harbata  from  Port  Clarence,  Alaska,  2  from  Herendeen 
Bay,  3  from  Chignik  Bay,  and  4  from  Nemuro,  Japan,  show  no  noticeable  variation 
in  the  body  proportions,  in  tlie  length  of  the  barbel,  or  in  the  number  of  pectoral 
rays,  the  barljel  never  exceeding  in  length  twice  the  diameter  of  the  eye.  The 
specimens  mentioned  inchide  both  males  and  females.  PaUashia  ai.c  Starks  is  dis- 
tinguished both  from  the  present  species  and  from  P.  barbala  by  its  much  larger 
eye,  which  is  fully  Ij  times  the  diameter  of  the  eye  in  specimens  of  the  pther  two 
species,  and  the  belly  is  punctulated  more  densely  and  evenly  and  farther  forward. 

266  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxm. 

Color  in  spirits  pale  muddy  pinkish,  everywhere  densely  and  finel}" 
specked  with  black,  including-  back,  sides,  belly,  and  head;  hns  and 
branch iostegals,  with  the  exception  of  the  pectorals,  yet  more  densely 
specked  with  black,  so  that  to  the  naked  eye  they  appear  almost  jet 
black,  especially  at  margins;  pectorals  pale;  lightly  specked  with 

This  species  is  close  to  Cldoea  castanea  (O'Shaughness}^),  from  which 
it  ditl'ers  in  its  much  longer  maxillary  and  in  coloration.  It  is  here 
described  from  3  specimens,  If  to  2  inches  in  length,  from  Nagaoka, 
in  Echigo,  Japan. 

The  type  is  No.  20163,  Stanford  University.  Cotypes  are  in  the 
U.  S.  National  Museum.     Two  of  the  specimens  are  females,  distended 

,  .-K^-f^l^^as^ 

Fig.  3.— CHLOEA   NAK.iMl'R.E. 

with  eggs,  and  a  singk>  one  (the  type)  is  a  n^ale.  It  isprobal)lo  tjiat 
the  dark  color  on  fins  and  l)ranchiostegals  is  partially  the  evanescent 
nuptial  coloration.  The  speckling-  of  the  belly  (in  l)oth  sexes)  and  the 
longer  maxillary  of  this  species  sufticiently  separate  it  from  ChloPa 

In  the  same  collection  with  these  species  are  numerous  .specimens  of 
CJixnoijohluH  riua'Tognaihox  (Bleekcr)  and  of  CliloPa  sarchyunh  Jordan 
and  Snyder. 

(Named  for  Masao  Nakamura,  a  Japanese  naturalist.) 


By  Edward  Bruce  Williamson^ 

Of  Bluff  ton,  Indiana. 

This  paper  is  the  second  of  the  series,  following  the  general  plan 
of  and  based  on  the  collections  described  in  Part  I,  namely:  (1)  A 
collection  made  by  Dr.  W.  L.  Abbott  in  Lower  Siam,  and  presented 
to  the  U.  S.  National  Museum;  (2)  a  collection  made  by  Mrs.  A.  V.  B. 
Crumb,  presumably  in  the  vicinity  of  Toungu,  Burma,  and  owned 
by  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  of  Philadelphia,  and  (3)  a  col- 
lection made  by  Mr.  R.  A.  Earnshaw  for  the  present  writer  in  the 
Karenni  and  Toungu  districts,  Burma.  My  indebtedness  to  Mr.  R.  A. 
Earnshaw  requires  a  secontl  acknowledgment.  Since  the  publication 
of  Part  I  he  has  sent  me  material  containing  specimens  of  the 
greatest  interest  and  value,  and  necessitating  at  some  future  date 
additional  remarks  on  the  Calopteryginae  of  Burma.  Through  the 
kindness  of  M.  Guillaume  Severin,  of  the  Musee  Royale  de  I'Histoire 
Naturelle  de  Belgique,  I  am  enabled  to  figure  in  this  i)aper  the 
venation  of  twelve  specimens  from  the  De  Selys  collection.  These 
photographs  were  made  at  the  museum  in  Belgium.  The  pho- 
tographs of  other  specimens  were  made  in  the  laborator}-  of  Prof. 
James  G.  Needham  and  under  his  direction.  Mr.  Samuel  Henshaw 
loaned  me  a  few  very  valuable  specimens  from  the  Museum  of  Com- 
parative Zoology,  Cambridge,  Massachusetts.  M.  Rene  Martin  not 
only  loaned  me  a  number  of  specimens,  but  gave  me  others  which  have 
been  invaluable  in  this  study.  Through  the  good  offices  of  Prof.  F. 
Foerster  I  purchased  in  Germany '  a  collection  containing  many 
Gomphines  from  Tonkin.  Mr.  C.  C.  Adams  has  loaned  me  a  number  of 
specimens  from  India,  Japan,  and  China.  Dr.  Philip  P.  Calvert  has 
been  freely  consulted  regarding  many  details. 

In  an  effort  to  select  a  nomenclature  for  the  wing  veins  that  would 
meet  with  the  approval  of  students  in  this  countr3^,  at  least,  an  exten- 

o  See  Part  I.  Subfamily  Calopterygin.^,  Proc.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus. ,  XXVIII,  pp.  165-187, 
published  April  22,  1905. 

Proceedings  U.  S.  National  Museum,  Vol.  XXXIII— No.  1 571 . 


268  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.        vol.xxxiii. 

sive  correspondence  has  been  carried  on  with  Doctor  Calvert,  Professor 
Needham,  and  Mr.  Rolla  P.  Ciirrie,  to  all  of  whom  I  am  indebted  for 
9,dvice  and  suggestions.  I  have  tried  to  harmonize  these  suggestions 
as  nuich  as  possible,  and  the  names  used  in  explaining  the  diagram 
of  wing-venation  are  the  result. 

In  the  paper  on  the  subfamily  Calopterygin^  the  species  discussed 
were  mostly  well  known  and  represented  by  large  series  of  specimens  in 
many  collections,  but  in  the  subfamilies  at  present  under  discussion 
an  entirely  different  condition  exists.  The  reasons  for  this  may  be 
briefly  discussed. 

In  the  Calopteryginae  there  are  species  in  wliicli  the  differences  in 
color  between  the  sexes  are  probably  as  great  as  in  any  species  of  bird 
or  butterfly,  although  those  peculiar  secondary  sexual  characters  of 
the  male  usually  shown  by  such  birds  and  butterflies  are  wanting  in 
the  order  Odonata."  Of  the  oriental  genera  of  Calopterygina?  Bliino- 
cypJia  is  the  largest,  and  shows  a  maximum  development  in  these 
color  differences.  The  Calopteryginse  are  not  specialized  for  pro- 
tracted flight,  but  spend  nuich  of  their  lives  near  their  birthplace; 
or  if  they  wander  it  is  by  successive  flights  in  an  environment  gen- 
erally similar  to  their  accustomed  daily  haunts.  Nevertheless  their 
flight  may  be  swift  and  mobile.  Like  the  highl}^  colored  humming- 
birds, some  of  them  at  least  are  pugnacious,  though  evidences  of 
injuries  to  each  other  from  this  cause  are  wanting.  Two  males  of 
Calopteryx  angustipennis  will  perform  such  rapid  evolutions  about  each 
other  that  the  eye  can  scarcely  follow  them.  Males  of  Hetserina  wage 
similar  warfare.  It  would  be  strange  if  males  of  RhinocypJia  did  not 
fight  ill  the  same  way.  In  Bhinocypha  the  hyaline  spots  in  the  wings 
of  certain  males  might  well  serve  the  same  function  attributed  to 
ej^e-spots  and  other  striking  markings  on  the  outer  portions  of  the 
wings  of  Lepidoptera,''  but  none  of  the  many  specimens  I  have  seen 
was  so  damaged  as  to  indicate  that  they  do  so  serve.  In  fact,  I 
know  of  no  evidence  that  the  brightly  colored  and  often  metallic 
Calopteryginse  are  ever  devoured  by  birds.  The  display  of  colors  by 
the  male  before  the  female  has  been  recorded  for  two  species  belong- 
ing to  two  widely  different  genera,  though  the  possibility  of  voluntary 
sexual  selection  by  these  insects  is,  it  appears  to  me,  very  remote. 
Those  most  active  in  their  display,  however,  probably  would  be  the 
most  vigorous  and  liighly  colored  of  their  associates  and  would,  in 
competition  with  others  of  the  same  species,  stand  the  best  chance  of 
reproducing.  The  male  abdominal  appendages  in  this  subfamily  are 
but  little  specialized,  and    throughout  the   group   are  remarkably 

a  Some  stigmatic  differences  may  offer  an  exception  to  the  rule. 

&  These  markings  are  supposed  to  produce  on  the  insects'  natural  enemies  the  false 
impression  that  thoy  are  real  vital  organs,  by  which  they  may  be  captured  with 


similar  in  form.  Calopteryginae  generally  do  not  display  great 
sensitiveness  to  weather  conditions.  Temporary  cloudiness  and  slight 
changes  in  wind  or  temperature  do  not  result  in  immediate  decrease 
of  activity  or  in  search  for  a  new  environment.  There  is  reason  to 
helieve  that  as  a  group  the  species  have  a  moderately  long  or  pro- 
tracted seasonal  range. 

Comparing  now  the  subfamily  Gomphinae — the  largest  of  the 
subfamilies  considered  in  this  paper — with  the  Calopteryginsp,  I 
find  in  the  former  only  slight  differences,  if  any,  between  the  sexes 
of  anj^  species,  and  these  almost  entireh^  confined  to  body-mark- 
ings. Moreover,  the  GomphinsB  are  as  a  group  obscurely  or  pro- 
tectively colored.  ISIetallic  or  other  brilliant  colors,  so  common  in 
CalopteryginiP  and  in  certain  beetles  which  are  not  eaten  by  birds 
are  unknown.  The  ground-color  varies  from  pale  brown  through 
various  shades  of  brown  and  yellowish  or  reddish  brown  to  black. 
The  markings  are  from  Avhite  through  pale  green,  green,  pale  yellow, 
and  clear  yellow  to  orange;  or  the  ground-color  may  be  the  paler, 
marked  w4th  the  darker  colors.  The  A\4ngs  are  hyaline,  or  slightly 
fumose.  In  wing  venation  these  dragonflies  are  highly  specialized, 
adapting  them  to  protracted  flights.  For  example,  some  species 
spend  much  of  their  time  in  tall  forest  trees  and  during  a  day  may 
make  numerous  trips  from  a  stream  to  trees  at  considerable  dis- 
tances from  the  water.  There  is  reason  to  believe  that  certain 
species  spend  much  of  their  lives  at  a  distance  from  the  streams 
which  gave  them  birth,  being  fully  able,  when  the  time  arrives,  to 
return  by  rapid  and  sustained  flight.  The  size,  stnicture,  and  con- 
sistency of  these  insects  make  them  favorable  food  for  medium- 
sized  or  larger  insectivorous  birds,  and  it  \\\&j  be  well  supposed  that 
natural  selection  has  tended  to  suppress  brilliant  colors  and  habits 
which  would  attract  attention.  The  males  do  not  make  themselves 
conspicuous  by  pugnacious  attacks  on  each  other.  Several  may 
be  on  the  wing  in  close  proximity  without  attacking,  though  they 
fre(}uently  approach  as  if  in  search  of  females.  In  the  form  of  the 
abdominal  appendages  of  the  male  the  Gompliinae  are  highly  special- 
ized. In  the  oriental  region  Onychogomphus  is  represented  by  the 
greatest  number  of  species,  and  in  this  genus  both  venation  and 
male  appendages  are  highly  specialized.  This  specialization  and 
presumably  more  perfect  adaptation  of  the  appendages  to  their 
use  would  render  the  speedy  capture  of  the  female  almost  certain. 
Moreover,  the  scattering  of  the  species  through  woodland  and  fields 
adjacent  to  streams  woukl  render  the  meeting  of  individuals  to 
some  extent  accidental.  In  view  of  these  facts  conflicts  between 
males  are  probably  the  exception.  During  the  act  of  copulation 
Gomphinse  generally  seek  more  retired  and  elevated  places  than 
the  Calopteryginae.  Some  Gomphiiii^,  at  least,  displaj^  great  sen- 
sitiveness to  weather  conditions,   appearing  about  certain  favorite 




haunts  only  a  few  hours  during  the  day,  absenting  themselves  almost 
entirely  one  day,  apparently  ^\athout  reason,  to  appear  in  undimin- 





















11     <D 

z    S  M 

■^     3 

?   S   3    m    §     tS 

^  o  -^  2  S    . ' 

^  « 

_       c  a    ~  a 
=3  .  -  -g  —  CO  -g 

fi  o  S  i  "«  -^ 

-  ^  '^   c 

0)     ^ 

a    o  „  o  dj  g 

^      c3  r^    CT^    c^    F 


■3  S  _  g.  a  s 

a  ^ 












^  .a 









.2   >> 










s  ■« 

OS     0) 















4-3  !i 
—  o 
M  =( 

■S  s 

o  .S 

O      M 

5  2 



















p  - 














~,  -fl 
















•fi  5  -« 

j:  6  f^ 

1  + 
a,  g 

"2  3 

o  w  +    6  ** 

ished  numbers  on  the  succeeding  day.    A  cloud  passing  before  the  sun, 
where  several  males  of  Gom.phus  are  flying,  may  cause  every  dragonfly 


to  forsake  the  water  for  the  trees  and  bushes,  where  they  rest  inactive 
and  inconspicuous  till  the  reappearing  sun  brings  them  again  to  the 
stream.  Continued  cloudiness  ma}^  cause  them  to  leave  the  river, 
scattering  far  and  wide  over  fields  and  woods.  Moreover,  species  of 
this  subfamily  are  well  known  to  have  a  brief  seasonal  range  in 
temperate  regions,  and  the  same  thing  is  probably  true  in  the  tropics. 

Because  of  the  scarcity  of  positive  records  for  Burma  and  Lower 
Siam  of  species  of  the  subfamilies  under  discussion  in  tliis  paper,  a 
slightl}^  different  treatment  from  that  emploj^ed  in  the  paper  on  the 
Calopteryginse  has  seemed  desirable.  In  this  paper  I  have  given  dis- 
tribution and  brief  notes  on  all  the  species  known  in  the  oriental 
fauna.  From  this  it  must  not  be  supposed  that  I  expect  subsequent 
collecting  to  show  a  large  percentage  of  these  species  to  occur  in 
Burma  and  Lower  Siam.  On  the  contrary,  I  believe  a  number  of 
species  at  present  undescribed  will  be  revealed. 

Throughout  the  })aper  the  halftone  figures  of  wings  are  of  arbitrary 
size  and  give  no  idea  of  the  relative  size  of  the  wings  in  various  species. 
The  figures  representing  thoracic  color  pattern  are  diagrammatic,  all 
drawn  over  the  same  outline,  and  give  no  idea  of  the  difl'erent  forms 
and  sizes  of  the  insects  themselves.  The  figure  illustrating  venational 
nomenclature  is  still  more  diagrammatic.  (See  figs.  1-3.)  The 
remaining  figures  are  drawn  to  scale — the  same  for  all — and  give  an 
idea  of  the  relative  sizes  in  different  species. 


ORDER    ODONATA    (Neuroptera    Odonata,    Para- 


aa.  Front  and  hind  wings  dissimilar  in  shape,  the  latter  usually  broader  at  base;  the 
quadrangle  of  the  suborder  Zygoptera  «  divided  to  form  the  triangle  and  super- 
triangle.     Males  with  one  inferior  abdominal  appendage  which,  however,  may 

be  deeply  bifid  or  rudimentary Suborder  ANISOPTERA 

b .  Antenodals  of  first  series  mostly  coinciding  with  those  of  the  second  series ;  triangle 
of  front  wing  with  its  long  axis  at  right  angles  to  the  length  of  the  wing,  and 
t  riangle  of  hind  wing  with  its  long  axis  parallel  to  the  length  of  the  wing. 

Family  Libellulid.e 
bb.  Antenodals  of  first  series  not  coinciding  with  those  of  the  second  series,  excepting 

in  the  case  of  two,  which  are  thickened Family  jEshnid.e 

c.  Radial  and  median  supplements  present;  triangle  of  front  wing  at  least  as  elon- 
gate as  triangle  of  hind  wing;  M2  paralleling  Mj  at  least  as  far  as  the  stigma. 

Head  globose.     Lateral  abdominal  carinee  present subfamily  .eshnin.^ 

cc.  Head  transversely  elongated ;  eyes  separated  or  meeting  at  a  single  point  only. 
Lateral  abdominal  carinse  wanting. 
d.  Radial  supplement  developed ;  triangle  of  front  wing  at  least  as  elongate  as 
triangle  of  hind  wing.     Median  labia  llobe  divided. .  .PctaHa  and  allies, 
probably  worthy  of  subfamily  rank ;  (not  regional. ) 
dd.  Radial  and  median  supplements  not  developed ;  M.2  ijaralleling  R^. 

"See  Proc.  U.  S.  National  Museum,  XXVIII,  p.  167. 

272  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxin. 

e.  Median  labial  lobe  divided.     Stigma  of  uniform  width,    the  distance 

■  between  C  and  R^  a  cell  or  two  beyond  stigma  less  than  the  distance 

between  Ri  and  M^  at  the  same  level;  in  front  and  hind  wings  at  least 

4  cross  veins  between  M^_-f  and  M4^. 

/.  Subtriangles  of  front  and  hind  wings  similar  in  shape.     Eyes  touching 

dorsally  or  but  little  separated. 

g.  Median  space  without  cross  veins;  triangle  of  hind  wing  more  elongate 

than  triangle  of  front  wing subfamily  cordulegasterin^ 

gg.  Median  space  with  cross  veins;  triangle  of  front  wing  at  least  as  elon- 
gate as  triangle  of  hind  wing subfamily  CHLOROGOMPHiNiE 

/(.  Triangle  of  hind  wing  strongly  narrowed  in  the  direction  of  the 

long  axis  of  the  wing Chlorogomphus 

hh.  Triangle  of  hind  wing  about  equilateral Orogomphus 

ff.  Subtriangles  of  front  and  hind  wings  dissimilar;  triangle  of  front  wing 
not  as  elongate  as  triangle  of  hind  wing.     Eyes  widely  separated. 

SUBFAMILY  PETALURiN^E  (uot  regional) 

ee.  Median  labial  lobe  entire.     Eyes  widely  separated.     Stigma  wider  at 

middle  than  at  either  end,  the  distance  between  C  and  Ri  a  cell  or  two 

beyond  stigma  about  equaling  the  distance  between  Ri  and  Mj  at  the 

same  level;  triangle  of  front  wing  less  elongate  than  triangle  of  hind 


/.  Subtriangle  of  front  wing  crossed  (except  in  Gomphidia  javanica) ;  super- 
triangular  cross  veins  present;  distance  from  forking  of  Mi_2  and  M3  to 
subnodus  equal  in  front  and  hind  wings,  in  front  wing  equal  to  one- 
fourth  the  distance  from  wing  base  to  subnodus;  cross  veins  between 
Mi_3  and  M^  numerous,  at  least  4  in  hind  wing;  M3  in  hind  wing  slightly 
waved;  Rg  and  M4  with  accessory  sectors;  stigma  long,  equaling  one- 
third  the  distance  from  nodus  to  distal  end  of  stigma. 
g.  Lateral  margins  of  abdominal  segment  8  dilated.     Triangle  of  front 

wing  short,  the  inner  and  superior  sides  about  equal Ictinus 

gg.  Lateral  margins  of  abdominal  segment  8  not  dilated.     Triangle  of 
front  wing  longer,  the  outer  and  superior  sides  about  equal. 

ff.  Subtriangle  of  front  wing  and  all  supertriangles  without  cross  veins;  dis- 
tance from  forking  of  Mi_2  and  M3  to  subnodus  equal  to  about  one- 
third  the  distance  from  wing  base  to  subnodus  in  front  wing;  R^  and 
M4  without  .distinct  accessory  sectors;  stigma  shorter,  in  length  less 
than  one-third  the  distance  from  nodus  to  distal  end  of  stigma. 
g.  Triangle  of  hind  wing  crossed;  at  least  3  rows  of  cells  between  M4  and 
Cui  at  level  of  penultimate  antenodal  in  front  wing. 
h.  Triangle  of  front  wing  crossed;    arculus  in  front  and  hind  wings  at 
level  of  second  antenodal;   anal  area  of  front  wing  with  2  rows  of 
cells  proximal  to  the  triangle,  followed  distally  by  more  than  2 
rows;  M4  and  Cu^  in  front  wing  divergent,  about  15  cells  between 
at  wing  margin;   in  hind  wing  2  cross  veins  between  M,_3  and  M^; 
trigonal  supplement  distinctly  present;  distance  from  forking  of 
Mi_2  and  M3  to  subnodus  about  equal  in  both  wings. 
i.  Cubital  space  with  2  or  3  cross  veins  in  addition  to  the  one  forming 
the  subtriangle;    Mj^  in  front  wing  arising  nearer  nodus  than 
stigma;    basal  antenodal  of  second  series  present  in  four  wings; 
sectors  strongly  curved,  the  angle  of  R^  with  the  hind  margin 

obtuse Sieholdivs 

a.  Cubital  space  with  1  cross  vein  in  addition  to  the  one  forming  the 
subtriangle;  Mi^  in  front  wing  arising  nearer  stigma  than  nodus; 


basal  antenodal  of  second  series  wanting;  sectors  less  curved, 
R3  meeting  the  hind  margin  of  wing  at  an  acute  angle .  Hagenius  «■ 
hh.  Triangle  of  front  wing  free;  arculus  in  front  and  hind  wings  near 
the  third  antenodal;  anal  area  of  front  wing  with  1  row  of  cells 
proximal  to  the  triangle,  followed  by  not  more  than  2  rows;  M4 
and  Cui  in  front  wing  nearly  parallel,  about  9  cells  between  at 
margin;  in  hind  wing  1  cross  vein  between  Mi_3  and  M^;  tri- 
gonal supplement  not  distinct;  distance  from  forking  of  Mi_2 
and    M3    to    subnodus    greater    in    front    wing    than    in    hind 

wing Davidius 

gg.  Triangles,  subtriangles,  and  supertriangles  all  normally  free;    dis- 
tance from  forking  of  Mi_2  and  M3  to  subnodus  greater  in  front  wing 
than  in  hind  wing;  sectors  uniformly  curved ;  trigonal  supplement 
not  distinctly  developed;   stigma  short,  usually  one-fourth  or  less 
in  distance  from  nodus  to  distal  end  of  stigma. 
h.  Normally  with  3  or  more  cross  veins  between  M1-3  and  M4  in  hind 
wing  and  4  or  more  in  front  wing;   Mj..,  and  M^  approximated  at 
or  immediately  beyond  their  origin  at  the  arculus;   stigma  with- 
out brace  vein. 
i.  Basal  antenodal  of  second  series  present  in  all  wings  (excepting 
in  Leptogoviphus  sp.);   anal  area  of  front  wing  with  1  or  2  rows 
of  cells  before  the  triangle,  followed  by  2  or  more  rows. 
j.  More  than  2  rows  of  cells  between  Mi  and  Mj^  at  level  of  distal 
end  of  sti'gnia;   anal  area  of  front  wing  with  maximum  width 
of  3  or  more  cells;    proximal  angle  of  triangle  in  front  wing 
not  as  far  distant  from  arculus  as  length  of  proximal  side  of 
subtriangle;  forking  of  Mi_3  and   M4  in  hind  wing  symme- 
trical   Macrogomphus 

jj.  One  row  of  cells  (rarely  2)  between  M^,aud  AIi_^  at  level  of  distal 
end  of  stigma;  anal  area  of  front  wing  with  a  maximum  width 
of  2  cells;  proximal  angle  of  triangle  in  front  wing  at  least  as 
distant  from  arculus  as  length  of  proximal  side  of  subtriangle; 
forking  of  Mi_3  and  M^  in  hind  wing  unsymmetrical. 

a.  Basal  antenodal  of  second  series  wanting;  anal  area  of  front  wing 
with  1  row  of  cells  throughout;  1  row  of  cells  between  Mj  and 
Mi,^  at  level  of  distal  end  of  stigma;  proximal  angle  of  triangle 
in  front  wing  at  least  as  distant  from  arculus  as  length  of  prox- 
imal side  of  subtriangle;  forking  of  M^_.^  and  M^  in  hind  wing 

unsymmetrical Mierogomphus 

hh.  Normally  with  1  cross  vein  (rarely  2)  between  Mi_3  and  M^  in  hind 
wing  and  4  or  less  in  front  wing;  Mi_3  and  M^  distinctly  separated 
at  ajid  beyond  their  origin  at  the  arculus;  forking  of  Mi_3  and 
M4  in  hind  wing  symmetrical  or  not  distinctly  unsymmetrical; 
stigma  with  or  without  brace  vein;  proximal  angle  of  triangle  in 
front  wing  not  as  distant  from  arculus  as  length  of  inner  side  of 
subtriangle.  & 

a  Characters  based  on  a  study  of  the  American  H.  brevistylus,  the  only  species  of  the 
genus  known  to  me. 

b  The  following  genera  form  a  group  of  great  venational  uniformity  marked  by 

many  minor  diversities.     At  least  2  of  them  are  of  very  wide  distribution  and  others, 

not  regional  and  not  here  considered,  find  their  closest  allies  here.     Genera  have 

developed  these  many  minor  venational  characters  independently,  at  least  in  many 

Proc.  N.  M.  vol.  xxxiii— 07 18 

274  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxm. 

i.  Stigma  long,  in  front  wing  equal  to  more  than  one-fourth  the  dis- 
tance from  nodus  to  distal  end  of  stigma;  triangle  in  hind  wing 
greatly  elongated,  the  upper  side  about  twice  as  long  as  the 
inner  side;  basal  antenodal  of  second  series  present  in  both 
wings;  M4  and  Cuj  in  front  wing  divergent,  3  rows  of  cells 
between  at  level  of  the  nodus;  2  rows  of  cells  between  M.^  and 
Mia  in  front  wing  at  level  of  distal  end  of  stigma;  2  rows  of  cells 
between  Mj  and  M2  in  front  wing  beginning  nearer  the  stigma 
than  the  nodus;  arculus  in  front  wing  at  or  proximal  to  second 
antenodal;  cubital  space  in  front  wing  with  1  cross  vein  in 
addition  to  the  inner  side  of  the  subtriangle;  anal  area  in  front 
wing  with  1  row  of  cells  jjroximal  to  the  triangle,  followed  by 
a  maximum  width  of  3  cells  or  more;  3  rows  of  postanal  cells  in 
hind  wing;  distal  angle  of  triangle  in  hind  wing  not  separated 
from  M4  by  a  distinct  stalk;  stigma  with  brace  vein. 

a.  Stigma  shorter,  at  the  most  equal  to  or  less  than  one-fourth  the 
distance  from  nodus  to  distal  end  of  stigma;  triangle  in  hind 
wing  with  upper  side  not  twice  as  long  as  the  inner  side;  basal 
antenodal  of  second  series  usually  absent. 
j.  Cubital  space  in  front  wing  with  2  cross  veins  in  addition  to  the 
one  forming  the  inner  side  of  the  subtriangle;  M4  and  Cu^  in 
front  wing  with  3  rows  of  cells  between  at  level  of  nodus;  2 
rows  of  cells  between  Mj  and  Mj^  in  front  wing  at  level  of  distal 
end  of  stigma;  arculus  in  front  wing  distal  to  second  antenodal; 
anal  area  in  fi-ont  wing  with  2  rows  of  cells  proximal  to  the  tri- 
angle, beyond  the  triangle  but  little  better  developed,  nor- 
mally only  2  cells  wide  at  the  maximum;  4  rows  of  postanal 
cells;   distal  angle  of   triangle   in   hind  wing   not   distinctly 
separated  from  M4;  brace  vein  of  stigma  apparently  variable. 

jj.  Cubital  space  in  front  wing  with  one  cross  vein  in  addition  to 
the  one  forming  the  inner  side  of  the  subtriangle. 
k.  Triangle  in  hind  wing  not  distinctly  separated  from  M^  by 
a  short  stalk;  usually  2  (sometimes  3)  cross  veins  between 
Mi_3  and  M4  in  front  wing. 
I.  A2  in  hind  wing  arising  near  the  middle  of  the  lower  side  of 
the  subtriangle,  postanal  cells  of  about  the  same  width 
throughout;  arculus  in  front  wing  at  or  proximal  to  second 
antenodal;  1  or  2  rows  of  cells  between  M^  and  Mi^  in 
front  wing  at  level  of  distal  end  of  stigma ;  2  cells  between 
Mj  and  M,  in  front  wing  beginning  nearer  stigma  than 
nodus;  stigma  with  brace  vein. 

cases,  and,  in  the  resulting  confusion,  relationships  are  almost  impossible  of  discern- 
ment. At  the  same  time  I  believe  the  genera  may  be  accurately  defined,  though 
their  proper  grouping  is  impossible,  by  venational  characters  alone.  Material  access- 
ible to  me,  as  ex^jlained  more  fully  in  the  following  pages,  has  been  such  that  I  have 
been  limited  to  a  first-hand  study  of  venational  characters  only,  in  the  case  of  many 
genera,  and  in  the  case  of  all  to  but  few  specimens  and  species.  It  is  to  be  expected, 
therefore,  that  the  arrangement  of  genera  is  not  entirely  a  natural  one  and  that  the 
definitions  in  many  cases  are  too  explicit  to  cover  all  the  species.  More  material, 
both  adult  and  nymphal,  than  that  to  be  found  at  present  in  all  the  collections  in 
the  world  and  the  tabulation  of  other  as  well  as  venational  characters  will  be  necessary 
for  the  ultimate  solution  of  the  relationships  of  these  genera. 

NO.  1571. 


VI.  Three  rows  of  postanal  cells  in  hind  wing. 

n.  Anal  area  in  front  wing  with  maximum  width  of  2  cells, 

distal  to  the  level  of  the  triangle  scarcely  2  cells 

wide,  and  that  only  for  a  short  distance;  M^  and  Cui 

in  front  wing  parallel  to  beyond  the  nodus,  2  cells 

between  at  level  of  nodus. 

0.  One  row  of  cells  between  Mi  and  Mi^  in  fi'ont  wing  to 

the  wing  margin;  anal  area  in  front  wing  with  1 

row  of  cells  proximal  to  the  triangle;  Cuz  in  front 

wing  ending  under  the  nodus.". .  .Anonnogomphus 

oo.  Two  rows  of  cells  between  Mi  and  Mi,^  in  front  wing 

at  level  of  distal  end  of  stigma;  anal  area  in  front 

wing  proximal  to  the  triangle,  2  cells  wide  for  a 

distance  of  1  cell  only,  or  only  1  cell  wide;  Cug 

in  front  wing  ending  ]jefore  the  nodus. 


nn.  Anal  aica  in  front  wing  with  a  maximum  width  of  3 

cells,  proximal  to  level  of  triangle  1  cell  wide;  M^ 

and  Cui  in  front  wing  divergent,  at  least  3  rows  of 

cells  between  at  level  of  nodus;  2  rows  of  cells  be- 

•      tween  Mi  and  Mi^  in  front  wing  at  level  of  distal  end 

of  stigma Platygomphus 

mm.  Four  or  more  rows  of  postanal  cells  in  hind  wing;  2  rows 
of  cells  between  Mi  and  Mi,^  in  front  wing  at  level  of 
distal  end  of  stigma;  anal  area  in  front  wing  proximal 
to  triangle,  2  (or  in  some  American  species  1)  cells 
wide,  distally  reaching  a  maximum  of  at  least  3  cells 
(2,  fully  developed,  in  some  American  species);  M4 
and  Cui  in  front  wing  divergent,  at  least  3  cells  be- 
tween them  at  level  of  nodus Gomphusa 

II.  A2  in  hind  wing  arising  near  or  proximal  to  the  inner  angle 
of  the  subtriangle,  Ai  or  AjOr  both  usually  decidedly  an- 
gled, at  least  4  rows  of  postanal  cells;  anal  area  in  front 
wing  proximal  to  the  triangle,  2  cells  wide  for  at  least  the 
length  of  1  cell,  followed  distally  l)y  a  maximum  width 
of  not  less  than  3  cells. 
m.  M4  and  Cui  in  front  wing  parallel  to  beyond  the  nodus,  2 
cells  between  at  level  of  nodus;  arculus  in  front  wing 
at  or  proximal  to  second  antenodal;  1  or  2  rows  of  cells 
between  Mi  and  Mi,^  in  front  wing  at  level  of  distal  end 
of  stigma;  2  cells  between  Mi  and  M2  appearing  first 
nearer  the  stigma  than  the  nodus  in  front  wing;  first 
postanal  cell  in  hind  wing  divided,  not  twice  as  wide  as 
the  second;  stigma  with  brace  vein.  ..Onychogomphus 
mm.  M4  and  Cui  in  front  wings  divergent,  4  rows  of  cells  be- 
tween at  level  of  nodus;  arculus  in  front  wing  distal 
to  second  antenodal;  3  rows  of  cells  between  Mi  and 
Ml,,  at  level  of  distal  end  of  stigma  in  front  wing;  2 
cells  between  Mi  and  M,  appearing  first  nearer  the 
nodus  than  the  stigma  in  front  wing;  first  postanal 
cell  in  hind  wing  divided,  twice  as  wide  as  the  sec- 

a  As  shown  by  Needham's  studies  of  some  of   the  North  American  species,  sub- 
groups are  definable,  but  more  material  is  needed  for  a  final  disposition  of  the  suljject. 




ond;  stigma  without  brace  vein  (in  cochinchinensis, 
the  only  species  of  the  genus  I  have  studied). 

kk.  Triangle  in  hind  wing  distinctly  separated  from  M4  by  a  short 
stalk  (the  extreme  development  from  the  condition  found 
in  Agriogomflms  and  Neogo7nphus ,  for  examples);  M4  and 
Cu,  in  front  wing  divergent,  4  cells  between  at  level  of 
nodus;  3  rows  of  cells  between  Mj  and  Mj^  at  level  of  distal 
end  of  stigma  in  front  wing;  2  rows  of  cells  between  Mj  and 
M2  in  front  wing  appearing  first  nearer  stigma  than  nodus; 
arculus  in  front  wing  distal  to  second  antenodal;  anal  area 
in  front  wing  with  2  rows  of  cells  proximal  to  the  level  of 
the  triangle,  followed  distally  by  a  maximum  width  of  4  or 
5  cells;  A,  in  hind  wing  arising  near  the  inner  angle  of  the 
subtriangle;  5  rows  of  postanal  cells;  3  or  4  cross  veins  be- 
tween Mi_3  and  M4in  front  wing;  stigma  with  brace  vein. 


Subfainily  OORr>XJIL.E&,A-STE;RI]Sr^E;. 

Genera  ALLOGASTER  De  Selys,  ANOTOGASTER  De  Selys 
anci    THECAGASTER  De  Selys. 

No  species  of  the  subfamily  Cordulegasterinse  have  been  reported 
for  Burma  or  Siam  and  none  is  represented  in  the  collections  accessible 
to  me,  though  representatives  of  three  genera  are  known  from  India. 

Fig.  4.— Wings  of  male  Anotogaster  sieboldii  from  Japan. 

These  genera  are  separated  by  De  Selys  as  follows:  Allogaster  is 
distinguished  by  the  greatly  developed  frons,  almost  as  wide  as  the 
eyes,  with  the  crest  as  elevated  as  the  base  of  the  occiput.  Only 
one  species,  latifrons  I)e  Selys,  from  Bengal,  is  Ioiomti.  In  Anoto- 
gaster the  stigma  is  long,  the  head  globose;  and  in  Tliecagaster  the 
stigma  is  short,  the  head  transverse.  Four  species  of  Anotogaster 
are  kno\Mi,  occurrmg  in  Nepal  and  North  India,  through  Tibet 
and  China  to  Japan.     A.  lasalis  De  Selys,  occurring  in  North  India, 



is  distinguished  by  De  Selys  from  nipalensis  De  Selys,  occurring  in 
Nepal,  as  follows:  By  yellow  venation  instead  of  black;  by  a  large 
yellow  ring  on  al^dominal  segment  10,  wanting  in  nipalensis,  and 
by  other  characters.  TTiecagaster  is  represented  by  two  species  from 
North  India  (North  India  and  Himalaya).  These  species,  originally 
placed  m  this  genus  by  De  Selys,  were  later  definitely  referred  l)y 
him  to  Cordulegaster  (Causeries  Od.  No.  7).  The  two  species,  hrevi- 
stigrna  De  Selys  and  parvistigma  De  Selys,  have  the  abdomen  black 
wdth  dorsal  spots  in  a  half  ring.  T.  hremstigm-a  has  14  or  15  ante- 
nodals  in  front  wing,  while  parvistigma  has  21.  Some  other  differ- 
ences mentioned  by  De  Selys  are:  T.  brevistigma  has  the  upper  lip 
bordered  with  black,  and  abdominal  segment  10  black  with  a  lateral 
longitudinal  yellow  spot;  parvistigma  has  the  upper  lip  not  bordered 
with  black,  and  10  without  yellow  markings.  Representatives  of 
the  subfamily  Cordulegasterina?  will  certainly  eventually  be  found  in 
Burma  and  probably  also  in  Siam.     (See  fig.  4.) 

Subfamily  OIILiORO&OM:PH:iJSr.fE. 

Genus  CHLOROGOMPH  US  De  Selys. 

This  genus   is  represented   by  two   species   confined   to   Sumatra 
and  Java. 

Fig.  5.— Wings  of  male  OROGOMPHrs  atkinsoni.    De  Selys'  collection. 

Genus  OROGOMPHUS  De  Selys. 

Three  species  are  known,  found  in  Luzon,  Bengal,  Tonkin,  and 
Burma.  The  three  species  are  distinguished  by  De  Selys  as  follows: 
0.  splendidus  De  Selys,  Luzon  and  Tonkin,  and  speciosus  De  Selys, 




Burma,  are  distinguished  from.  atJcinsoni  De  Selys,  from  Bengal,  by- 
having  the  frons  less  elevated,  entirely  black  in  front;  3  yellow 
lateral  thoracic  stripes,  the  middle  the  widest,  instead  of  2;  and 
the  end  of  the  abdomen  a  little  dilated.     (See  fig.  5-6.) 

Fig.  6. — Wings  of  female  Orogomphds  atkinsoni.    De  Selys'  collection. 

0.  splendidus  has  the  wings  marked  with  brownish  yellow,  the 
apices  reddish  brown,  and  abdominal  segments  3-7  black.  In 
speciosus  the  wings  are  hyaline,  and  segments  3-7  are  black,  with 
an  apical  yellow  spot  on  each. 


"Taho  en  Mars  (Fea)."  Known  only  from  the  female.  I  have 
not  seen  specimens.     Abdomen  57  mm.,  hind  wing  46  mm. 

Subfamily  GO]VIFIII]Sr.3±:. 

Genus  ICTINUS  Ram  bur. 

Fifteen  species  and  one  variety  of  the  genus  Ictiiius  are  at  present 
recognized,  or  twelve  species  and  four  varieties,  if  De  Sel^^s's  views  are 
followed.  Twelve  of  these  sixteen  occur  in  the  oriental  region. 
These  have  been  divided  into  two  groups  by  De  Selys,  defined  most 
readily  by  the  color  pattern  of  the  head,  thorax,  and  legs,  as  follows: 

First  group. — Face  largely  black;  posterior  edge  of  side  of  thorax 
black;  femora  largely  black  or  brown.  I.  tenax  Hagen  occurs  in  the 
Philippines.  It  has  been  described  from  a  single  male  and  an  incom- 
plete female.  Accordmg  to  De  Selys  it  is  distinct  by  havmg  the 
femora  with  an  external  double  yellow  stripe,  obliterated  on  the 
second  femora  of  the  female;  the  nasus  banded,  not  spotted,  with 
yellow;  abdominal  segment  7  spotted,  not  ringed,  with  yellow;  and 
the  inferior  abdominal  appendage  of  the  male  not  more  divaricate 


than  the  superior  appendages.  I.  decoratus  De  Selys  occurs  in  Java, 
Sumatra,  Borneo,  and  Tonkin.  It  may  be  recognized  by  the  asso- 
ciation of  the  following  characters:  Antehumeral  yellow  stripe 
slightly  or  not  interrupted;  frons  black,  with  a  narrow  yellow  line; 
a  yellow  stripe  betw^een  the  two  lateral  thoracic  sutures;  posterior 
edge  of  side  of  thorax  broadly  black;  and  femora  largely  brown. 
7.  melsenops  De  Selys  occurs  in  Indo-China,  Sumatra,  and  Borne©. 
It  is  distinct  from  all  by  having  the  antehumeral  stripe  reduced  to  a 
superior  spot  and  the  area  between  the  lateral  thoracic  sutures  uni- 
formly black,  or  with  1  or  2  small  superior  spots.  Of  the  remainmg 
four  oriental  species  (or  two  species  and  two  varieties)  of  this  group, 
yertinax  Hagen,  occurring  in  China  and  Tonkin,  is  separated  by  having 
the  nasus  without  a  median  yellow  spot,  abdominal  segment  8  later- 
ally spotted,  without  a  yellow  ring,  and  10  all  black.  7.  rapax 
Rambur,  known  from  India  and  Indo-China,  is  ver}^  closely  related 
to  prsecox  Hagen,  fi-om  India,  and  mordax  De  Selys,  from  India,  the 
latter  two  being  regarded  by  De  Selys  as  varieties  of  rapax.  I.  mor- 
dax may  be  recognized  from  the  fact  that  it  has  the  black  stripes  on 
the  lateral  sutures  joined  at  the  middle,  reducing  the  yellow  stripe 
between  them  to  a  superior  and  an  inferior  spot;  as  m  pertinax, 
abdominal  segment  10  is  black.  In  rapax  the  abdomen  is  47-52  mm., 
hind  wing  40-44  mm.;  in  prxcox  the  abdomen  is  50-53  mm.,  hind 
wing  39-40  mm.;  in  prxcox  the  basal  black  of  the  frons  connects 
at  the  middle  with  the  black  of  the  frons  in  front;  in  rapax  yellow 
occupies  the  basal  half  of  abdominal  segment  3  and  basal  two-fifths 
of  4-6;  in  precox  the  yellow  is  reduced.  Closely  related  as  these 
species  are,  Hagen' s  figures  in  Monographic  des  Gomphines  indicate 
differences  which  should  permit  of  more  decisive  definitions  if  material 
were  at  hand. 

Second  group. — Face  largely  yellow;  posterior  edge  of  side  of 
thorax  without  black;  femora  largely  yellow.  In  aiigulosus  De  Selys, 
from  India,  and  atrox  De  Selys,  from  India,  the  leaf-like  expansions  of 
segment  8  are  of  medium  size,  largely  or  entirely  l>lack;  in  davatus 
Fabricius,  fi'om  Japan,  China,  and  Tonkm,  and  pJialeratus  De  Selys, 
from  China  and  Tonkin,  the  expansion  is  larger,  yellow,  broadly 
bordered  with  black.  In  atrox  the  upper  lip  is  not  bordered  with 
black,  the  rear  of  the  head  is  black,  the  expansion  of  abdominal  seg- 
ment 8  is  yellow  at  the  base,  and  there  are  5-6  enlarged  spines  on  the 
posterior  femora;  in  angulosus  the  upper  lip  is  bordered  with  black, 
the  rear  of  the  head  is  black  and  yellow,  the  expansion  of  8  is  entirely 
black,  and  there  are  7-8  enlarged  spines  on  the  posterior  femora. 
7.  plialeratus  w^as  regarded  as  a  variety  of  davatus  by  De  Selys,  dis- 
tinguished by  a  smaller  expansion  of  segment  8,  by  having  segment  10 
without  a  dorsal  yellow  spot,  as  in  davatus,  and  by  having  the  triangle 
of  the  fi'ont  wmg  followed  by  3  cells  instead  of  4  as  m  davatus.     Three 



VOL.  xxxm. 

males  from  Tonkin  in  my  collection  have  segment  10  and  appendages 
as  described  for  -plwleratus,  but  are  otherwise  like  clavatus  excepting 
that  the  venational  character  mentioned  is  intermediate;  in  one 
specimen  the  triangle  in  both  front  wings  is  followed  by  3  rows  of 
cells,  in  another  specimen  by  4  rows,  and  in  the  third  specimen  one 
wing  has  3,  the  other  4  rows.  Either  such  a  species  as  jphaleratus 
does  not  exist  or  it  has  been  imperfectly  described. 

2.  ICTINUS  MELiENOPS  De  Selys. 

Trong,  W.  L.  Abbott,  collection  U.S.N.M.,  4  males,  12  females. 

Fig.  7.— Wings  of  male  Ictinus  meljlnops  from  Siam. 

Wings  more  or  less  fumose  in  one  male  and  nine  females.     Sub- 
trianorle  in  front   wins   2-celled  in   all  but   the  right  wins:  of  one 

Fig.  s.— Wings  of  female  Ictinus  mel.enops  from  Siam. 

male,  where  it  is  open,  and  one  mng  of  a  female  where  it  is  3-celled; 
subtriangle  in  liind  wmg  open  in  all.  Triangle  in  front  wang  2 
cells  long,  the  fii'st  cell  divided,  making  the  triangle  B-celled — in 


4  male  wings  and  10  female  wings  (in  three  cases  slightly  abnormal, 
the  divisions  obscured  or  disguised) ;  triangle  in  front  wing  3  cells 
long,  the  first  cell  divided,  making  the  triangle  4-celled — in  3  male 
wings  and  15  female  wings  (disguised  in  one  case) ;  triangle  in  hind 
wing  2  cells  long  and  2-celled — in  one  male  wing;  triangle  in  hind 
wing  3  cells  long  and  3-celled — in  5  male  wings  and  19  female 
wings;  triangle  in  hind  wing  3  cells  long,  the  first  cell  divided,  making 
the  triangle  4-celled — in  2  male  wings  and  5  female  wangs.  Upper 
lip  entirely  black  in  one  male  and  one  female;  upper  lip  with  2  basal 
yellow  spots,  more  or  less  distinct,  in  all  the  others.  Nasus  with  a 
more  or  less  distinct  yellow  spot  at  either  end  in  all.  Pale  area  of 
fi'ons  above  of  about  uniform  width  in  three  males  and  five  females; 
narrowed  or  divided  in  the  middle  in  one  male  and  seven  females. 
Ictinus  melsenops,  race  sumatranus  Kriiger  from  Sumatra  does  not 
seem  sufficiently  different.      (See  figs.  7  and  8.) 

3.   ICTINUS   PERTINAX   Hagen. 

One  male  from  Burma  collected  by  Earnshaw. 

This  has  the?  upper  lip  black,  with  two  small  squarish  basal  spots, 
separated  by  black,  about  equal  to  their  width;  the  antehumeral 
stripe  widely  divided.  I  have  two  adult  males  and  a  teneral  male 
from  Tonkin.  This  teneral  specimen,  which  I  refer  to  "pertinax,  has 
the  spots  on  the  upper  lip  larger  and  connected ;  and  the  antehumeral 
stripes  are  narrowed  but  not  divided  above. 

Genus  GOMPHIDIA  De  Selys. 

The  seven  described  species  all  occur  in  the  Oriental  region.  G. 
krugeri  Martin  is  rivalled  in  size  only  by  perakensis  Laidlaw.  It 
is  known  from  Tonkin;  abdomen  63  mm.,  hind  wing  50  mm.;  front 
wing,  antenodals  24,  postnodals  13-14;  distinct  from  all  the  others 
by  having  the  dorsal  thoracic  stripes  on  either  side  of  the  middorsal 
carina  joined  at  their  upper  end  with  a  spot  which  represents  the 
upper  end  of  the  antehumeral  stripe.  G.  conjiuens  De  Selys  occurs 
in  Central  China,  Tonkin,  and  Anam;  abdomen  53  mm.,  hind  wing 
48  mm.;  fi'ont  wing,  antenodals  19-20,  postnodals  11;  distinguished 
from  all  others  by  having  the  dorsal  thoracic  stripes  joined  below  with 
the  mesothoracic  half  collar.  G.  javanica  Foerster,  from  Java,  has 
the  abdomen  about  53  mm.,  hind  wing  40-43  mm.;  front  wing, 
antenodals  16-18,  postnodals  12;  it  is  peculiar  in  having  the  sub- 
triangle  of  the  front  wing  free,  not  divided  (the  sub  triangle  of  the  fi-ont 
wing  is  sometimes  free  in  maclacMani,  but  in  javanica  the  rhinarium 
is  yellow,  while  it  is  black  in  maclaclilani) .  G.  Mrsddi  De  Selys 
and  perakensis  Laidlaw  are  peculiar  in  having;  a  relatively  large 
number  of  postnodals.  G.  kirscliii  occurs  in  the  Philippines,  Borneo, 
and  Tonkin;  abdomen  45-48    nun.,    liind  wing  38-42  nun.;    front 


PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.xxxiii. 

wing,  antenodals  18-19,  postnodals  15-17;  on  the  sides  of  the 
thorax  in  the  black  area  between  the  two  lateral  sutures  is  a 
row  of  yellow  spots.  G.  perakensis  Laidlaw  was  described  from 
the  Malay  Peninsula;  abdomen  59  mm.,  hind  wing  54  mm.;  front 
wing,  antenodals  22-23,  postnodals  17-18;  the  abdomen  is  largely 
black,  with  the  dorsal  basal  one-third  of  7  yellow;  Doctor  Laidlaw 
compared  his  specimen  in  coloration  with  a  Macrogomphus  in  the 
British  Museum  erroneously  determined  as  quadratus;  there  is  no 
similarity  between  perakensis  and  quadratus.  The  two  remaining 
species  of  Gompliidia  are  separated  at  once  by  the  color  of  the  head. 
G.  maclachlani  De  Selys  occurs  in  Borneo,  Sumatra,  Tonkin,  and 
Anam;  abdomen,  male  51-55  mm.,  female  52  mm.;  hind  wing,  male 
38-43  mm.,  female  46  mm.;  front  wing,  antenodals  19-21,  postnodals 
10-14;  face  entirely  black  excepting  part  of  the  frons.  G.  t-nigrum 
De  Selys  is  known  only  from  North  India;  abdomen  52  mm.,  hind 
wing  39.5  mm.;  front  wing,  antenodals  15-16,  postnodals  9-10;  face, 
vertex,  and  occiput  largely  yellow.  An  eighth  species  is  described 
below  as  new,  from  a  specimen  fi'om  Siam. 

4.  GOMPHIDIA  ABBOTTI,  new  species. 

Abdomen,  male  without  appendages  50  mm.,  superior  appendages 
3.5  mm.;  hind  wing,  male  41  mm. 

Wings  hyaline,  without  trace  of  basal  spot;  membranule  white; 
stigma  very  dark  brown,  covering  4  or  5  cells,  brace  vein  present; 

Fig.  9.— Wings  of  male  Gomphidia  abbotti  from  Siam. 

antenodals,  front  wing  18-19,  hind  wing  12-13;  postnodals,  front 
wing  11,  hind  wing  10-11 ;  triangle  in  front  wing  3  cells  long,  the  first 
cell  divided,  making  4  cells  in  the  triangle,  followed  b}^  3  cells,  then  2 ; 
triangle  in  hind  wing  2  or  3  cells  long,  followed  by  3  or  4  cells,  then  2 ; 
sub  triangle  in  front  wing  once  divided,  in  hind  wing  free;  cubital 


space  in  front  wino^  with  3,  in  hind  wing  with  2  additional  cross  veins; 
1  or  2  supertrianguhxr  cross  veins  in  front  wing,  1  in  hind  wing;  6-8 
cross  veins  between  ]Mi_3  and  M^  in  front  wing,  4-5  in  hind  wing;  anal 
triangle  5-celled.      (See  fig.  9.) 

Lower  lip  dull  brownish,  the  adjacent  portion  of  the  rear  of  the 
eyes  dull  yellow;  remainder  of  the  head  black,  marked  mth  yellow 
as  follows:  Upper  lip  wdth  a  superior  spot  on  either  side,  separated 
by  more  than  their  own  length;  .base  of  mandibles,  margined  with 
black;  rliinarium;  a  very  small  inferior  lateral  spot  on  nasus;  a 
narrow  superior  line  on  the  frons  in  front;  the  anterior  half  of  the 
frons  above,  this  pale  area  nearly  or  quite  divided  by  a  broad  low 
triangle  of  black  continuous  with  the  basal  black  of  the  frons.  Occi- 
put high,  rounded,  with  short  cilia. 

Prothorax  ricli  dark  brown.  Thorax  of  the  same  color,  paler 
below,  marked  with  light  yellow  as  follows:  A  wide  mesothoracic 
half  collar,  divided  at  the  median  line;  short,  widely  divaricate, 
cuneiform  stripes  on  either  side  above,  beginning  just  in  front  of  the 
antealar  sinus  and  reacliing  about  half  way  to  the  mesothoracic  half 
collar;  antehumeral  stripe  entirely  wanting,  not  represented  by  a 
spot  or  line;  mesepimeron  with  a  stripe  a  little  more  than  1  mm.  wide, 
of  nearly  uniform  width  for  its  entire  length;  just  behind  the  extreme 
upper  end  of  this  stripe  a  minute  inconspicuous  spot  (probably  this 
is  variable  and  specimens  with  a  row  of  spots  in  the  black  area  would 
not  be  surprising) ;  metepimeron  with  a  stripe  not  quite  2  mm.  wide 
at  its  widest  part;  a  spot  between  the  front  mugs,  and  a  transverse 
row  of  3  spots  in  juxtaposition  between  the  bases  of  the  front  and 
liind  wings.     Legs  darlv,  brown,  apices  of  femora  and  the  til)ia?  black. 

Abdomen  brown  anteriorly,  black  posteriorly,  marked  with  yellow 
as  follows:  1  and  2  obscurely  marked,  1  with  a  dorsal  basal  spot,  2 
with  a  dorsal  median  spot,  the  auricles  dull  yellowish  tipped  mth 
black;  basal  dorsal  rings  on  3-7,  occupying  two-fifths  of  3,  one-third  of 
4-6,  and  nearly  one-half  of  7;  these  yellow  areas  minutely  punctate 
with  black  and  on  3-6  divided  posteriorly  in  the  median  line  by  the 
encroaching  black;  on  7  the  yellow  is  produced  slightly  posteriorly  in 
the  median  line;  8  with  a  small  obscure  basal  lateral  spot,  a  hint  of 
which  is  found  on  9;  10  with  an  obscure  dorsal  median  greenish  spot, 
the  spot  itself  with  a  median  black  spot;  appendages  black;  abdomen 
beneath  dark,  base  of  3,  vesicle,  and  portion  of  apices  of  genital 
hamules  pale.     (See  fig.  10.) 

Genital  lobe  represented  on  the  margin  of  the  segment  by  a  low 
ridge  w^th  4-6  short  black  teeth;  anterior  lamina  prominent,  the 
median  third  produced  posteriorly  as  a  smoothly  rounded  tubercle; 
hamules    thin,  plate-like,  extending  well  beyond  the  vesicle  of  the 




penis,  the  anterior  not  reaching  the  apex  of  the  posterior,  its  apical 
third  a  long  slender  hook;  posterior  hamule  elongated  triangular  in 
general  shape,  the  sides  somewhat  rounded. 

Described  from  a  single  male,  collection  U.S.N.M.,  collected  at 
Trong,  Lower  Siam,  Jan.-Feb.,  1899,  by  Dr.  W.  L.  Abbott,  for  whom 
this  fine  species  is  named. 

Tyj)e.^Ca,t.  No.  10449,  U.S.N.M. 

Contrasted  with  other  species  of  the  genus  certain  differences  may 
be  noted.  From  t-ni(jru7n  it  differs  hi  having  the  triangle  of  the  front 
wing  followed  by  3,  not  4,  cells;  the  face  largely  black;  anterior  fem- 
ora without  pale  stripe;  abdominal  segment  8  black,  with  a  lateral 
basal  pale  spot,  not  yellow  with  apical  one-third  black;  7  with  scarcely 
basal  half  yellow,  not  basal  three-fourths;  9  almost  entirely  black,  and 


Fig.    10.— GOMPHIDIA    ABBOTTI    FROM    SlAM.       A,   DORSAL,   AND     B,    LATERAL    VIEWS    OF  MALE    ABDOM- 

appendages  differently  shaped.  From  maclachlani  it  differs  by  having 
the  upper  lip  spotted  with  yellow  and  the  rhinarium  yellow;  the  abdo- 
men with  less  black,  and  the  appendages  differently  shaped.  From 
Jcirschii  it  differs  in  having  a  darker  nasus;  the  antehumeral  spots  or 
stripes  absent;  abdominal  spots  not  lateral  but  dorsal,  reduced  on 
8  instead  of  more  prolonged;  appendages  differently  shaped,  and  a 
smaller  number  of  postnodals.  From.  j^eraJcensis  it  differs  by  the  more 
extensive  yellow  on  abdominal  segments  3-6  and  the  smaller  number 
of  postnoclals.  From  confluens  it  differs  by  having  the  subtriangle  oi 
front  wing  2-celled,  not  3-celled;  by  the  differently  colored  face;  by 
the  isolated  dorsal  thoracic  stripes;  by  the  black  legs,  and  by  the  much 
darker  abdominal  segments  7-10.  From  l^rugeri  it  differs  by  the 
2-celled,  not  3-celled,  subtriangle  of  the  front  wing,  by  the  dorsal 



thoracic  pattern,  by  the  more  extensive  yellow  on  abdominal  segments 
3-6,  and  by  the  very  different  appendages.  From  javanica  by  having 
the  subtriangle  of  front  wing  divided,  not  free;  by  the  more  extensive 
yellow  on  abdominal  segments  3-6,  and  b}^  the  form  of  the  appendages. 

Genus  SIEBOLDIUS  De  Selys. 

Three  species  have  been  described  in  this  genus.  All  are  large 
insects,  abdomen  55-61  mm.,  hind  wing  47-55  mm.  S.  alhardse, 
De  Selys  occurs  at  Pekin;  japjjonicus  De  Selys  is  known  from  Borneo 
and  the  Malay  Peninsula;  and  grandis  Kriiger  has  been  described 
from  two  females  from  Sumatra.  S.  graiidis  is  based  largely  on 
characters  of  the  occiput  and  it  remains  to  be  seen  if  the  species  is 
separable  from,  jajj'ponicus.  Ijaidlaw's  record  of  grandis  from  the 
Malay  Peninsula  should  really  be  ja'pi)onia(s,  I  believe. 


Four  males,  Khow  Sai  Dow  Mountain,  1,000  feet,  Trong,  I^ower 
Siam,  Jan.-Feb.,  1899,  Dr.  W.  L.  Abbott,  collector,  collection 
U.S.N.M.     One  of  these  is  teneral.     All  agree  with  De  vSelys's  descrip- 

FiG.  11.— Wings  of  male  Sieboldius  japponicus  from  Siam. 

tion  in  Odonates  du  Japon  and  with  Laidlaw's  description  of  a  male 
"caught  at  the  foot  of  Gunong  Inas  (about  1,000  feet  above  sea  level) 
near  a  small  jungle  pool,  in  January,  1900."     (See  fig.  11.) 




Genus  HAGENIUS  De  Selys. 

In  addition  to  the  American  hrevistylus  De  Selys,  Martin  has 
described  a  second  species,  gigas,  from  Tonkin.  Martin's  species  is 
much  the  larger  of  the  two,  having  the  abdomen  71  mm.  and  the 

Fig.  12.— Wings  of  male  Hagenius  brevistylus  from  North  America. 

hind  wing  54  mm.,  and  the  dorsal  thoracic  stripes  are  joined  with 
the  mesothoracic  half  collar  and  not  isolated  as  in  brevistylus.  (See 
fig.  12.) 

Genus   DAVIDIUS   De   Selys. 

The  species  of  this  genus  are  all  small  or  of  moderate  size,  ranging 
from  abdomen  29  mm.  and  hind  wing  27  mm.  to  abdomen  44  mm. . 
and  hind  wing  40  mm.  There  is  great  indefiniteness  throughout  the 
genus  in  the  development  of  cross  veins  in  the  triangles.  In  nanus 
De  Selys,  from  Japan,  the  triangles  of  all  4  wings  were  crossed  in  the 
first  female  studied  by  De  Selys;  later  material  had  the  triangle  of 
front  wing  free  and  triangle  of  hind  wing  crossed  and  the  supertri- 
angle,  normally  free,  accidentally  crossed.  Of  hicornutus  De  Selys, 
from  Japan,  only  one  female  has  been  described,  and  this  has  the 
triangle  of  front  wing  free  and  triangle  of  hind  wing  crossed.  D. 
davidii  De  Selys,  known  from  two  females  from  Tliibet,  has  the  tri- 
angle of  front  wing  free,  of  hind  wing  crossed.  D.  ater  Hagen,  from 
Japan,  has  the  triangle  free  in  all  4  wings,  excepting  that  it  is  crossed 
in  one  hind  wing  of  a  female.  D.  frulistorferi  Martin,  from  Tonkin, 
in  6  specimens  has  the  triangle  of  front  wing  free,  of  hind  wing  crossed; 
in  a  seventh  specimen,  female,  all  the  triangles  are  crossed.  D.  aber- 
rans  De  wSelys,  known  fTom  a  single  female  from  the  north  of  India,  has 
the  triangle  of  one  front  wing  free,  the  other  triangles  crossed.  D. 
zallorensis  Hagen,  Himalaya,  known  from  a  single  male,  has  the  tri- 



angle  of  front  wing  free,  of  hind  mng  crossed.  None  of  the  species 
has  been  taken  in  Burma  or  Siam.  The  two  Indian  species  are  very 
similar  and  were  regarded  by  De  Selys  as  probably  the  sexes  of  a 
single  species.  They  are  separated  from,  frulistorferi  by  having  two 
pale  areas  on  either  side  of  the  thorax  above,  instead  of  one;  by  the 
presence  of  a  black  stripe  on  second  lateral  suture,  wanting  in 
frulistorferi;  in  aherrans  and  zallorensis  there  are  10-12  antenodals 
in  the  front  wing  (7  or  8  in  hind  wing  of  aherrans),  and  7-10  post- 


nodals;  in  /m/;-.s'^or/^ri  there  are  14-lG  antenodals  in  front  wing,  10 
in  hind  wing,  and  11  or  12  postnodals  in  front  wing  and  10  in  hind 
wing.  Characters  for  separating  the  two  Indian  species  are  not 
evident  in  the  descriptions.  In  both  the  abdomen  is  largely  black, 
1  and  2  largely  3'ellow,  and  the  following  segments  to  8  each  vnt\\  a 
lateral  basal  and  apical  spot.  The  type  of  aherrans  has  the  last  6 
segments  wanting.      (See  fig.  13.) 

Genus  MACROGOMPHUS  De  Selys. 

The  nine  species  belonging  to  this  genus  are  confined  to  the  Orient. 
In  addition  to  the  two  distinct  patterns  of  thoracic  colors,  separating 
these  species  into  two  grouj^s,  venational  differences  exist,  but 
whether  these  venational  differences  are  constant  for  the  two  groups 
I  do  not  know.  I  have  seen  only  one  species  of  each  of  the  two 
groups.  In  the  case  of  the  species  of  the  quadratus  group,  in  addition 
to  several  minor  differences,  the  greater  complexity  and  remarkable 
curving  of  the  sectors,  as  compared  mth  the  species  belonging  to  the 
farallelogrannma  group,  may  be  noticed. 

Quadratus  group. — Dorsum  of  thorax  black,  with  a  large  squarish 
yellow   spot   on   either   side   below.     In   quadratus   De   Selys,  from 




Borneo,  and  possibly  Sumatra,  the  yellow  dorsal  thoracic  spots  do 
not  extend  laterally  beyond  the  humeral  suture,  and  the  auricles  of 
the  male  are  entirely  black.  In  thoracicus  McLachlan,  from  the 
Malay  Peninsula  and  Sumatra,  the  thoracic  spots  extend  laterally 

Fig.  14.— Wings  of  male  Macrogomphus  quai>i;atus  from  Big  Tambelan  Island,  China  Sea. 

onto  the  mesepimeron,  and  the  auricles  are  largely  yellowish.  In 
abnormis  De  Selys,  probably  from  Borneo,  the  thoracic  spots  extend 
entirely  across  the  sides  of  the  thorax. 

Parallelogramma  group. — Dorsum  of  thorax  black,  with  yellow 
dorsal  stripes.  The  following  notes  are  from  De  Selys'  synopsis  of 
the  species  in  Quatrieme  Addition  au  Synopsis  des  Gomphines.     In 

Fig.  15.— Wings  of  female  species  of  Macrogomphus  from  Siam. 

annulatus  De  Selys,  from  India,  Tonkin,  and  Anam,  the  outer  and 
inner  branches  of  the  superior  appendage  of  male  are  about  equal 
in  length,  with  a  short  inferior  tooth;  inferior  appendage  seen  in  pro- 
file with  a  double  curve;  rear  of  occiput  of  female  with  a  median 



bifid  tubercle.  In  rohustus  De  Selys,  from  Thibet,  the  male  had  the 
appendages  destroyed,  while  the  female  is  not  known.  In  alhardse 
De  Selys,  from  Sumatra,  the  outer  branch  of  the  superior  appendage 
of  the  male  is  slightly  shorter  than  the  inner ;  branches  of  inferior 
appendage  straight;  a  small  tubercle  at  either  end  of  the  occiput  in 
the  female.  In  parallelogramma  Burmeister,  from  Java  and  Sumatra, 
.the  outer  branch  of  the  superior  appendage  of  the  male  is  slightly 
shorter  than  the  inner;  branches  of  inferior  appendage  straight;  rear 
of  occiput  of  female  slightly  elevated.  In  montanus  De  Selys,  from 
Assaui,  the  outer  branch  of  the  superior  appendage  of  the  male  is 
much  shorter  than  inner  branch;  branches  of  inferior  appendage 
straight;  rear  of  occiput  of  female  elevated  and  conical.  In  decem- 
lineatus    De  Selys,  from  Sumatra  and  Borneo,  the  outer  branch  of 

Fig.  If).— Macrogompiius  quadratus  from  Big  Tambelan  Island,  China  Sea.    A,  lateral,  and 

B,  dorsal  views  of  male  abdominal  appendages.   9  AND  lO,  abdominal  segments  9  AND  10. 

the  superior  appendage  of  the  male  is  much  shorter  than  the  inner; 
branches  of  inferior  appendage  straight;  female  not  known. 
The  color  differences  may  be  tabulated  as  follows: 

1.  Lips  and  face  black robustus 

Lips  and  face  black,  varied  with  yeWow .  .annu hit ics,  parallelo<p'amma,  decemlineatus 

Upper  lip  and  face  brown,  varied  with  yellowish alhardx 

Li})s  and  face  yellow,  varied  with  black inontaims 

2.  Sides  of  thorax  black,  with  2  isolated  oval  yellow  bands. 

robust  as,  annulatus,  albardx 

Sides  of  thorax  black,  with  3  equal  isolated  yellow  stripes decemlineatus 

Sides  of  thorax  yellow,  with  approximated  stripes  on  the  lateral  sutures  and  a  third 

stripe  at  the  posterior  edge parallelogramma 

Sides  of  thorax  yellow,  with  black  stripes  on  the  lateral  sutures montanus 

3.  Legs  black robustus 

Legs  black,  first  femora  pale  spotted  heweoXh..  .annulatus,  montanus,  decemlineatus 

Legs  black,  femora  shading  into  reddish albardx 

Legs  black,  femora  yellow parallelogramma 

Proc.  N.  M.  vol.  xxxiii— 07 19 


I  have  seen  only  three  specimens  of  Macrogomphus:  One  of  these 
is  a  male  of  guadratus  collected  by  Doctor  Abbott  on  Big  Tambelan 
Island,  China  Sea,  August,  1899.  The  other  two  are  females  of  a 
form  which  I  am  unfortunately  unable  to  refer  to  an}^  described 
species  and  which  I  hesitate  to  name  from  the  single  sex,  though 
the  specimens  show  many  characters  which  might  justify  this.  (See 
figs.  14,  15,  16.) 

6.   MACROGOMPHUS   SPECIES   (parallelogramma  group). 

Abdomen  without  a])pendages  45  nun.;  liind  wing  37-3.S  mm. 
Antenodals,  front  wing  17-18;  hind  wing  12-14;  postnodals,  front 
wing  12;  hind  wing  3  0-12.  Cubital  space  in  front  wing  witli  2 
additional  cross  veins.  Five  cross  veins  between  M^..^  and  j\T^  in 
front  wang  and  3  in  hind  wing;  basal  antenodal  second  series  present. 
Abdominal  segments  7-10  measuring;  7,  5  mm.;  8,  3.5  mm.;  9,  6  to 
6.5  mm.;   10,  1  mm. 

Rear  of  head  and  lower  lip  pale  dull  yellow,  darker  above  behind 
the  eyes;  face  in  front  obscure  bro^vn  without  markings,  shading 
continuousl}^  from  the  frons  into  paler  below,  so  that  the  upper  lip 
at  its  lower  edge  passes  into  the  color  of  the  lower  lip;  frons  above 
entirely  greenish  yellow;  vertex  black,  dull  yellow  at  the  base  of  the 
occipital  plate;  occipital  plate  dark  brown,  produced  in  the  middle 
in  a  two-pointed  tubercle. 

Thorax  black,  the  yellow  dorsal  stripes  almost  parallel,  beginning 
just  before  the  antealar  sinus  and  widened  below  to  form  a  meso- 
thoracic  half  collar,  interrupted  at  the  middle.  A  long  yellow  stripe, 
gradually  widening  below,  on  the  mesepimeron;  a  similar  but  wider 
stripe  on  the  metepimeron;  the  black  area  between  tlie  stripes  with 
a  superior  yellow  s]:)ot,  which  may  be  greatly  reduced  or  may  extend 
downward  half  the  length  of  the  spot  on  the  metepimeron.  Legs 
brown,  wdthout  distinct  markings;  tibise  and  apices  of  femora  black. 

First  3  abdominal  segments  obscurely  colored,  dorsum  of  2  and  3 
with  a  median  dorsal  stripe,  wide  on  the  basal  half  of  3,  reduced  to  a 
line  on  the  apical  half;  4-7  basally  annulate  with  yellow,  scarcely 
one- third  of  each  segment  on  4-6,  fully  one-half  on  7;  8  black;  9 
with  a  small  obscure  l)asal  lateral  spot;   10  ]>ale  obscure  yellow. 

Described  from  two  females,  Trong,  Lower  Siam,  Dr.  W.  L.  Abbott, 
collection  U.  S.  National  ^Museum.     The  head  of  one  s]:>ecimen  is  lost. 

This  species  is  separated  at  once  from  rohustus  by  the  color  of  the 
head.  From  annulatus  it  is  separated  l^y  several  characters:  Color 
of  head,  legs,  and  abdomen.  From  nlbardse  by  color  of  head  and 
abdomen,  and  form  of  occiput.  From  paralldogramma  by  color  of 
head  and  abdomen  and  form  of  occiput.     From  montanus  by  color 


of  head,  thorax,  and  legs,  and  form  of  occiput.      From  decemlineatus 
by  coKh'  of  head,  thorax,  legs,  and  abdomen. 

Genus  LEPTOGOMPHUS  De  Selys. 

The  ten  species  referred  to  tliis  genus,  some  with  considerable 
question,  are  all  members  of  the  oriental  fauna;  four  have  been 
recorded  for  Burma.  The  following  notes  gathered  from  the  litera- 
ture of  the  subject  may  be  of  value  in  separating  the  species: 

L.  assimilis  Kriiger.  Tentatively  proposed  hy  Krtiger  for  Su- 
matran  specimens  very  close  to  lansbergei.  The  size  is  somewhat 
smaller,  the  stigma  somewhat  shorter  than  the  figures  given  by  De 
Selys  for  lansbergei;  there  are  2  additional  postoccipital  spines;  the 
upper  lip  has  2  large  instead  of  2  small  yellow  spots;  the  prothorax  is 
more  yellow,  and  the  anterior  femora  are  yellow  beneath. 

L.  gestroi  De  Sel3^s.  Burma  and  Tonkin.  AbdomeU;  male  40-42 
mm.,  female  39  mm.  hind  wing,  male  34-35  mm.,  female  35  mm.; 
antenodals,  front  wing  15-16;  postnodals,  front  v/ing  11;  basal  ante- 
nodal  of  second  series  present  in  4  wings. 

L.  gracilis  Kriiger.  Sumatra.  Abdomen  without  appendages, 
male  27-28  mm.,  female  30  mm.;  hind  wing,  male  23-25  mm., 
female  25  mm.;  antenodals  12-13;  postnodals  10-12;  basal  ante- 
nodal  of  second  series  not  present;  between  Mj.  ^  and  M^  4  or  5  cross 
veins  in  front  wing,  3  or  4  in  hind  wing.  Kriiger  regards  nietneri 
and  gracilis  as  not  congeneric  with  sempei'i. 

L.  inclitus  De  Selys.  Burma  and  Moolai.  Abdomen,  female  36 
mm.;  hind  wing,  female  32-33  mm.;  antenodals,  front  wing  14-19; 
postnodals,  front  wing  9-11. 

L.  lelantanensis  Laidlaw.  Malay  Peninsula.  Abdomen,  31  mm.; 
hind  wing  26  mm.;  antenodals,  front  wing  11,  hind  wing  10;  post- 
nodals, front  wing  10,  hind  wing  10;  basal  antenodal  of  second 
series  wanting.  Laidlaw's  description  and  figure  of  venation  and 
his  description  of  male  appendages  clearly  indicate  the  genus  Lepto- 
gomplius  rather  than  (lomplms,  to  which  he  assigned  the  species. 
His  figure  represents  3  cross  veins  between  Mj..,  and  M^  in  front 
wing  and  3  or  4  in  hind  wing. 

L.  lansbergei  De  vSelys.  Java  and  Sumatra  (see  L.  assimilis  above) 
Abdomen,  female  39  nnn.;  hind  wing  35  nun.;  antenodals,  front 
wing  17-18;  postnodals,  fj-ont  wing  13  (De  Selys).  Al)domen  with- 
out appendages,  male  36-37  mm.,  female  36  mm.;  hind  wing,  male 
29  mm.,  female  33  mm.;  antenodals,  front  wing  14-16;  postnodals, 
front  wing  11-12;  basal  antenodal  of  second  series  present;  between 
Mj  3  and  M^  4  or  5  cross  veins  in  front  wing,  2  or  3  in  hind  wing 




L.  f  maculivertex  De  Selys.  Burma.  Abdomen,  female  33  mm. ; 
hind  wing,  female  31  mm.;  antenodals,  front  wing  15;  postnodals, 
front  wing  12;  basal  antenodal  second  series  wanting. 

L.  f  nietneri  Hagen.  Ceylon,  Burma,  Tonkin.  Abdomen,  male 
35  mm.;  hind  wing,  male  30  mm.;  antenodals,  front  wing  16-17; 
postnodals,  front  wing  11-14;  basal  antenodal  second  series  want- 
ing; cubital  space  of  front  wing  with  2  cross  veins. 

L.  iMvvus  Kriiger.  Sumatra.  Abdomen  without  appendages, 
male  27  mm.,  female  29.5  mm.;  hind  wing  21  mm.;  antenodals, 
front  wing  14-15;  postnodals,  front  wing  10-11;  basal  antenodal 
second  series  wanting;  between  Mj_3  and  M^  3  cross  veins  in  front 
wing,  1  in  hind  wing.  Kriiger's  description  of  venation  and  legs 
indicates  that  this  is  not  a  congener  of  semperi. 

L.  semperi  De  Selys.  Philippines,  Borneo,  Tonkin.  Aljdomen, 
male  39  mm.;  hind  wing,  female  33  mm.;  antenodals,  front  wing 
15-17;  hind  wing  12;  postnodals,  front  wing  12.     (See  figs.  17  and  18.) 

Fig.  17.— Wings  of  male  Leptogomphus  semperi  from  Borneo. 

The  species  may  be  grouped,  according  to  the  different  characters, 
as  follows: 

1.  Dorsal  thoracic  stripes  isolated (jestroi,  inclitus,  lanshcrgci,  nietneri 

Dorsal  thoracic  stripes  joined  below  with  the  mesothoracic  half  collar. 

(jracilis'hiditns,  helantanensis,  77}acHlivcrt('.v,  parvus 
Uncertain semperi 

2.  Antehumeral  yellow  stripe  present,  complete gestroi,  inclitns,  lansbergei 

Antehumeral  stripe  interrupted,  represented  by  one  or  more  spots. 

(jraciUs,  maculivertex,  nietneri,  parvus 
Uncertain semperi,  helantanensis 

3.  Abdominal  segments  3-7  with  dorsal  stripe  only  or  all  black. 

gestroi,  helantanensis,  maculivertex 
At  least  segments  3-5  with  lateral  spots  or  rings. 

gracilis,  incliius,  lansbergei,  nietneri,  parvus,  semperi 



■1.   Abdominal  sos^ents  8-10  black. 

(/cstroi,  (jracilis,  iiiclilus,  k'tlaiitaiicnsis,  hnislicn/n,  iikickUihtIcx 

SoHK!  yellow  on  at  least  one  of  segments  8-10 nictncri,  pcirriis,  snirprri 

5.  Legs  largely  black  or  dark;  yellow,  if  any,  confined  to  iirst  femora. 

(jestroi.  ijracilis,  lansbergci,  nietneri,  parvus 

Legs  with  much  yellow inclilns,  maculivertcx,  semperi 

Uncertain hhintanoisis 

Fig.  is.-- Wings  <if  malk  .species  of  TyEPTOGOMPHUs  from  Tonkin.    Martin's  collection. 

Deseril)ed  from  two  females  from  the  east  of  Burma  and  a  single 
female  from  Moolai,  but  not  mentioned  in  Odonates  de  Birmanie. 

Fig.  19. —Wings  of  male  Leptogomphls  jnclitus.    De  Selys'  collection. 

I  have  not  seen  specimens.     The  followinf2;  brief  description  is  con- 
densed from  De  Selys:  Lips  yellowish,  the  upper  bordered  with  black 




in  front;  rhinariinn,  nasiis,  and  frons  blackish,  center  of  nasus  yel- 
lowish, and  frons  above  with  yellow  anteriorly.  Thorax  black;  a 
dorsal  stripe,  confluent  l)elow  with  the  mesothoracic  half  collar  to 
form  a  7,"^  and  an  antehumeral  of  the  same  width,  yellow;  sides  and 
below  pale  yellow,  with  a  blackish  stripe  on  the  second  suture,  con- 
fluent above  with  a  black  area  which  occupies  the  upper  ends  of  the 
2  sutures  and  extends  to  the  posterior  edge  of  the  thorax.  Legs 
dusky  blackish,  the  lower  surface  of  the  first  4  femora  and  a  larger 
part  of  the  last  femora  j^ellowish.  Abdomen  with  1-7  each  with  a 
dorsal  yellow  longitudinal  stripe;  1  and  2  with  lateral  yellow  band; 
3-7  each  with  a  similar  but  reduced  and  interrupted  basal  yellow 
band.     (See  figs.  19  and  20.) 

Fig.  20.— Wings  of  female  Leptogomphus  inclitus.      I)e  Selys'  collection. 

"Leito,  a  la  fin  do  mai  (Fea)."  Not  represented  in  the  collections 
before  me.  The  following  brief  description  is  condensed  from  De 
Selys:  Head  pale  yellow,  black  as  follows:  Occipital  plate,  vertex 
on  either  side,  sutures  of  the  face,  rhinarium,  and  anterior  border  of 
upper  lip  whicli  is  obscurely  and  incompletely  traversed.  Thorax 
black  above;  a  short  mesothoracic  half  collar,  isolated  dorsal  stripe, 
and  an  antehumeral  stripe,  yellow;  sides  and  pectus  3'ellow,  first 
lateral  suture  with  a  black  stripe,  second  with  an  irregular  spot. 
Feet  black,  three-fourths  of  all  femora  and  inner  side  of  first  femora 
livid.  Abdomen  l)lack,  yellow  as  follows:  A  basal  spot  and  sides  of 
1,  a  trilobed  dorsal  spot  and  auricles  of  2,  a  dorsal  stripe,  not  reaching 
base  or  apex  of  each  segment,  on  3-7. 

a  Not  confluent  in  female  from  Moolai. 



"Meteleo,  iin  exemplairc  iiiii([iie  (female),  le  10  septembre,  1888 
(Fea) . ' '  Not  seen  by  me .  The  following  brief  description  is  condensed 
from  De  Selys :  Head  black,  yellow  as  follows :  A  transverse  band  above 
on  frons,  a  rounded  spot  on  each  side  of  nasus,  a  band  on  upper  lip, 
cheeks,  a  round  point  at  center  of  vesicle,  and  the  occipital  ]:)late. 
Thorax  black,  yellow  as  follows:  A  mesothoracic  half  collar,  nar- 
rowly interrupted  in  the  median  line,  joined  at  either  side  with  the 
dorsal  stripes  to  form  a  7;  a  narrow  antehumeral  stripe  terminating 
above  in  a  rounded  isolated  spot;  a  trace  of  pale  on  the  mid-dorsal 
carina;  sides  and  below  clear  yellow,  a  black  line  on  the  upper  half 
of  the  first  suture  and  a  complete  line  on  the  second  suture.  Legs 
black,  femora  yellow,  with  an  external  black  stripe.  Abdomen  black, 
marked  with  yellow;  3-7  with  dorsal  yellow  spots  not  reaching  the 
extremities  of  the  segments,  on  7  occupying  only  the  basal  two-thirds 
of  the  segment;  8-10  black. 


"Leito,  un  male,  uni([ue  pris  le  27  octobre  (Fea)."  Not  seen  by 
me.  The  following  l)rief  description  is  condensed  from  Hagen  and 
De  Selvs:  Lower  lip  j)ale  yellowish,  middle  lobe  apically  brown- 
ish; upper  lip  black,  with  2  large  yellow  basal  spots;  rhinarium 
and  nasus  black;  frons  black,  \vith  a  transverse  yellow  band  in  front 
above.  Thorax  black  above,  yellow  as  follows:  An  interrupted 
mesothoracic  half  collar,  isolated  oblique  dorsal  stripes,  and  a  superior 
antehumeral  spot;  sides  yellow,  with  a  black  stripe  on  each  lateral 
suture.  Legs  black,  femora  with  brown  markings.  Abdomen  black 
marked  with  yellow;  1-7  (1-6  De  Selys)  with  a  dorsal  stripe,  nar- 
rowed on  3-7;  on  6  and  7  a  larger  dorsal  basal  spot  (not  mentioned 
by  De  Selys);  yellow  markings  on  the  sides  of  1-3;  4-8  each  with  a 
short  linear  lateral  basal  spot  (not  mentioned  by  De  Selys) ;  a  lateral 
apical  yellow  spot  on  8  and  9  (not  mentioned  by  De  Selys).  A  com- 
l^^rison  of  Hagen' s  description  based  on  a  male  from  Ceylon  with 
De  Selys's  description  based  on  a  male  from  Burma  creates  some 
doubt  as  to  whether  the  2  specimens  really  represent  the  same  species. 

Genus   MICROGOMPHUS  De   Selys. 

Only  one  species  of  this  genus  is  known.  It  has  been  taken  in 
the  Malay  Peninsula  and  Sumatra.  M.  chelifer,T>e  Selys  is  a  small 
species,  abdomen  25  mm.,  hind  wing  18.5-22  mm.  The  face  is  black, 
marked  with  yellow.  Thorax  above  black,  with  a  pale  dorsal  stripe 
on  either  side  joined  with  the  interrupted  mesothoracic  half  collar; 




sides  yellow,  with  a  single  black  stripe.  Abdomen  black,  with  nar- 
row indistinct  basal  rings  and  narrow  mid-dorsal  stripes  as  far  as  7. 
(See  figs.  21  and  22.) 

Fig.  21.— Wings  of  male  Miceogomphus  chelifer.    De  Selys'  collection. 

Genus  CYCLOGOMPHUS  De  Selys. 

Six  species,  all  described  by  De  Selys,  are  known  from  India. 
C.  minus  cuius,  the  smallest  species,  may  be  known  at  once  by  its  size, 
abdomen  22  mm.,  hind  wing  21  mm.;  only  the  female  is  known.      C. 

Fig.  22.— Wings  of  female.  Microgomphus  chelifek.    De  Selys' collection. 

verticalis,  of   which  only  the   female  is  laiown,  has  the  abdomen  27 
mm.,  hind  wing  25  mm. ;  it  is  separated  from  all  the  other  species  by 



having  a  yellow  spot  on  the  vertex  between  the  eyes.  In  torquatus  antl 
hetfTostylus  the  black  on  the  sides  of  the  thorax  forms  a  distinct  Y.  C. 
loeterostylus,  of  which  the  male  has  been  described,  has  the  stigma  yellow, 
with  a  central  brown  spot;  torquatus  is  known  only  from  the  female. 

Fig.  23.— Wings  of  female  CYCL;)GGMi'Hr.s  iietekostylus.     De  Selys'  collection. 

In  vesiculos'us  and  ypsilon  the  black  on  the  sides  of  the  thorax  does 
not  form  a  distinct  Y.  f\  iH'sicidosus  has  the  abdomen  25  mm.,  hind 
wing  23  mm.,  the  female  is  not  known;  ypsilon  has  the  alxlomen  32 
mm.,  hind  wing  29  mm.     Only  in  the  case  of  ypsilon  are  botli  sexes 

Fig.  24.— Wings  of  ANisoGOMPiirs  occipitalis.     De  Selys'  collection. 

known;  lifterostylus  and  vfsiculosus  are  known  only  from  males,  and 
the  single  male  of  vesiculosus  has  the  last  5  abdominal  segments 
wanting;  minuscvlus ,  verticalis,  and  torquatus  are  known  from 
females  only.     The  abdominal  appendages  of  the  males  in  the  two 

298  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.        vol.  xxxin. 

species  known  arc  remarkal>l(>  by  the  small  size  of  the  superiois  and 
the  large  widely  divaricate  inferior,  which  is  one  and  one-l;alf  to 
twice  as  lonjj;  as  the  superiors.     (See  lig-.  2.S.) 

Genus  ANISOGOMPHUS   De  Selys. 

Five  or  six  species  hav(>  been  referred  at  difl'erent  times  to  this 
genus.  The  type  of  the  genus  and  anothcM*  sj^ecies  are  oriental,  the 
two  occiUTing  in  India.  A.  occij)ifalis  ])e  ScMys  and  hiviffafus  De 
Selys  aiv  al)oiit  (»f  the  sanic  size;  ocripifdlis  has  the  abdonuMi,  male 


33-35  mm.,  female  35-37  mm.;  hind  wing,  male  29-31  mm.,  female 
32-35  mm.;  hivittatus  has  the  abdomen,  female  38  mm.;  hind  wdng, 
male  29  mm.,  female  36  mm.  (De  Selys  was  not  certain  that  the  male 
on  which  the  description  of  that  sex  of  hivatfatus  was  based,  really 
was  hivittatus,  and  he  tentatively  proposed  the  name  Infrenatus  for 
this  specimen.  Syn.  Gomph.  and  Mon.  Gomph.).  In  occipitaHs  the 
nasus  is  black,  with  median  and  lateral  yellow  spots;  in  hivittatus 
it  is  largely  yellow.     (See  figs.  24  and  25.) 

Genus  ANORMOGOMPHUS  De  Selys. 

The  single  species  referred  to  this  genus  is  kiioA\m  only  from  India. 
A.  lietcroptcrus  De  Selys  is  a  small  species,  abdomen  25  mm.,  hind 
wing  22  mm.,  with  largely  3-pllow  coloration.      (See  fig.  26.) 

Genus  B  URMAGOM  PHUS,  new  genus. 

Type  of  tlie  genus. — Goinplius  vermiculafus  ^Martin." 
For  details  of  venation  see  key  to  genera  on  pages  272-275.     In  the 
front  mng  2  cross  veins  between  M^-g  and  M^  and  in  the  hind  W'ing  1, 

a  I  have  studied  specimens  from    Bm'ma  only.     These  have  been  identified  as 

Gomphus  vermiculatus  and  from  tlieiu  the  characters  of  the  genus  have  been  drawn. 

NO.  1571.      DRA  GON  FLIES  OF  B  URMA  AND  SI  AM—  WILLI  A  MSON. 


the  position  of  these  cross  veins  definite  and  .subject  to  but  .slight 
varinfion,  the  hrst  near  tlie  distal  end  of  the  sup('rtrian<j;!e;  .']  rows 

Fig.  20.  -Wings  or  m.vle  ANouMoGtjMPnus  hetf.ropterus.    De  Selys'  collection. 

of  postanal  cells,  the  first  2  umhvided,  siiuilar  in  size  and  .sliape,  the 
third  wider  and  once  divided;  \.,  in  liind  wing;  arisinij:;  near  the  middle 
of  the  lower  side  of  the  trian<rle;  area  included  between  Cu.,  and  A, 

Fig.  27.— Wings  of  male  Burmagomphus  vermiculatus  from  Burma. 

in  hind  wing  of  moderate  length,  at  the  margin  not  twice  as  long  as 
wide.  At  first  glance  the  venation  of  the  hind  wing  suggests  Gomphus 
with  the  anal  area  reduced.     Li  Lanthus,  an  American  genus  very 


PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NA  TIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

closely  related  to  Oomphus,  we  liave  2  sinall  species  a])Oiit  ecfiial 
in  size  to  BurTruujomphus  ve/nnieulatus ,  described  l)elow,  but  in  Lan- 
thus  no  such  reduction  of  the  anal  area  takes  })lace.  In  Goniphinai 
generally,  however,  small  size  is  associated  with  reduced  anal  area 
(there  are  notable  exceptions),  so  the  value  of  this  character  for 
generic  distinctions  is  open  to  question.  In  the  minute  Microgomphus 
reduction  of  anal  area  reaches  its  maximum  in  the  subfamily  and 
there  are  only  2  rows  of  postanal  cells.  In  the  venation  of  the  front 
wing  Burmagomplius  is  at  once  separated  from  Gomphus  by  the  paral- 
lelism of  M^  and  Cuj,  a  character  it  shares  in  common  with  several 

other  genera,  notahlj  OnycJiogom- 
pJius.  By  its  well-braced  stigma, 
strongly  and  symmetrically  forked 
Mi_2  and  Mg,  reduced  and  defi- 
nitely placed  cross  veins  between 
Mi_3  and  M^,  distinctly  and  strongly 
shaped  postanal  cells  in  the  hind 
wing,  paralleling  of  M^  and  Cu,  in 
front  wing,  undivided  triangles, 
supertri angles  and  subtriangles, 
and  absence  of  basal  ante  nodals 
of  the  second  series, Burmagomphus 
allies  itself  with  the  venationally 
highly  specialized  genera  of  Gom- 
phinse.  (See  "fig.  27.) 
The  relatively  greatly  developed  and  widely  divaricate  inferior 
abdominal  appendage  of  the  male  suggests  to  a  certain  extent  some 
species  of  Gomphus  and  the  following  genera:  Notogomplius,  Aniso- 
gompJius,  Neogomnplius,  and  Cyclogomphus.  Of  these  genera  I  know 
the  venation  of  all  but  Notogomphus,  in  which  there  is  not  the  great 
difference  in  the  length  of  abdominal  segments  9  and  10,  as  in  Burma- 
gomplms,  and  the  superior  appendages  are  about  twice  as  long  as  the 
inferior,  and  not  about  equal  as  in  Burmagomplius.  Moreover,  the 
color  patterns  of  both  thorax  and  abdomen  are  very  different  in  the 
two  genera.  In  the  thoracic  pattern  Burmagomplius  is  unique  among 
Gomphinre,  so  far  as  known  to  me,  in  having  the  dorsal  stripes  united 
below  on  either  side  with  the  antehumeral  stripes,  the  upper  end  of 
the  reduced  antehumerals  represented  by  a  rounded  spot. 

Abdominal  segments  8  and  9  about  equal,  about  two  and  two- 
thirds  times  as  long  as  10. 

Legs  short,  hind  femora  slender,  5  mm.,  reaching  to  base  of  second 
abdominal  segment,  armed  with  short  spines. 

Fig.  28.— HuRMAGOMrms  vermiculatus  from 
Burma.  A,  lateral,  and  b,  dorsal  views 
OF  male  abdominal  appendages.    C,  profile 



A  male  from  Burma  was  sent  to  M.  Martin,  who  writes  as  follows: 
''It  is  a  species  very  near  to  vermiculatus  but  slenderer,  the  stripes 
of  the  thorax  different,  the  inferior  appendage  slenderer  and  more 
divaricate."  Specimens  from  Anam  and  Tonkin  are  slightly  larger, 
abdomen  30-32  mm.,  and  the  antenodals  and  postnodals  are  more 
numerous;  as  described  the  nasus  is  not  spotted  and  the  pale  dorsal 
stripe  on  the  frons  is  divided;  the  black  stripe  on  the  first  lateral 
suture  is  forked  above,  not  reduced  as  in  the  specimens  from  Burma; 
and  the  color  pattern  of  the  abdomen  is  slightly  different,  with  9 
bearing  a  small  posterior  spine,  wliicli  is  not  represented  in  my 


Abdomen,  male  28  mm. ;  hind  wing,  male  23  mm.  Antenodals, 
fi'ont  wing  10,  hind  wing  8;  postnodals,  front  wing  8-9,  hind  wing 
8-10.  Second  thickened  antenodal  normally  the  fourth;  oblique 
vein  the  second  or  third  beyond  the  subnodus;  stigma  covering  3-4 
cells,  followed  in  the  front  wing  by  about  the  same  number;  triangle 
in  front  wing  followed  by  2  rows  of  cells,  in  hind  wing  by  3  rows, 
then  2  increasing;  anal  triangle  3-celled. 

Head  6  mm.  wide,  distance  between  eyes  above  at  closest  point  1 
nun.;  black  throughout  exce])t  as  follows:  Lower  lip  white  or  pale 
plumbeous,  paler  at  the  margins;  a  large  transverse  rectangular  green 
spot  on  either  side  of  the  upper  lip  at  its  base;  the  base  of  the  man- 
dibles green;  a  short,  narrow,  transverse,  median,  inferior  streak,  and 
a  large  rounded  spot  on  either  side  of  the  nasus;  frons  low,  yellowish 
green  above  in  front,  black  at  the  base,  the  black  extending  anteriorly 
at  the  middle  in  a  broad  low  triangle,  but  not  dividing  the  pale  area, 
and  widening  on  either  side,  giving  the  pale  area  a  rounded  posterior 
border  on  either  side  of  the  median  line;  eyes  in  dried  specimens 
chestnut  brown,  probably  in  life  blue,  shading  below  into  pale. 

Prothorax  black,  the  dorsal  anterior  border  narrowly  yellow;  a 
greenish-yellow  triangular  spot  on  either  side  of  the  posterior  border, 
and  a  smaller  spot  below  this  on  the  inferior  margin;  these  spots 
represented  below  by  a  short  pale  streak  at  the  bases  of  the  first 
legs.  Thorax  black,  marked  with  greenish  yellow  as  follows:  A 
mesothoracic  half  collar,  interrupted  l)y  the  merest  line,  wide  on 
either  side  of  the  median  line  and  tapering  to  an  acute  apex  at  either 
extremity;  widely  divergent  dorsal  stripes,  the  lower  portion  of 
which  really  consists  of  a  portion  of  the  antehumeral  stripes  (see 
diagram  of  thoracic  pattern,  fig.  29),  continued  below  as  a  pale 
stripe  extending  on  to  the  bases  of  the  middle  legs;  a  dorsal  ante- 
humeral  spot;  a  wide  stripe  on  the  mesepimeron,  joined  above  for 
about  one-third  its  length  with  a  wider  stripe  on  the  metepisternum, 
the  later  stripe  Extending  below  on  to  the  metinfrEepisternum  and 
with  its  upper  posterior  corner  more  or  less  isolated  by  a  narrow  black 


PROCEEDINQS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxm. 

Fig.  29.— Diagrams  representing  the  thoracic  color  pattern  of  some  oriental  Gomphin.e. 

1.  ictinls  clavatus,  tonkin.    2.  ictinus  pf.ktinax,  tonkin.    3.  ictini.s  mel^enops,  sla.m.    1.  gojiphidia  krugrei. 

Tonkin.    5.  Gomphidia  abbotti,  Siam.    0.  Davidius  fruiistouferi,  Tonkin.    7.  Sieboldius  japponicus,  Sia.ii.    8. 

Macrogomphus  qcadratus.  Big  Tambelan  Island,  China  Sea.    9.  Macrogomphus  species,  Siam.    10.  Blrslagom- 


Onyciiogompiius  saundersii,  Burma.    11.  Onyciiogomphus  species,  burblv. 
A.  Mesothouacic  half  collar.    B.  Dorsal  thoracic  stripe.    C.  Antehumekal  stkjpe  (in  literature  sometimes 
humeral  stripe  or  juxtaiiumeral  stripe).  Band  Contiiemeseplsterxum.  D.  Pale  stripe  on  the  mesepimeron. 
E.  Pale  stripe  ON  THE  metepisternum.    F.    Pale  .\rea  or  stripe  on  the  metepimeron.    G.  Mesinfr.episternum. 


suture.  Dotted  portion  of  No.  10  represents  the  pale  area  connecting  the  dorsal  and  antehumeral  stripes. 


stripe;  metepimeron  largely  pale,  narrowly  edged  in  front  with  black, 
and  a  small  black  spot  on  its  posterior  border;  pectus  shaded  with 
brown  and  black.  Legs  slender,  black,  the  first  femora  and  coxse 
with  an  inner  gray  stripe;  wings  hyaline;  stigma  brown. 

Abdomen  slender,  largest  basally,  slightly  dilated  apically ;  segments 
measuring  in  length  a})out  as  follows :  1,1  mm. ;  2,  2  mm. ;  3,  4  +  mm. ; 
4,4  +  mm  ;  5,  4.5  mm. ;  6,  4  mm. ;  7,  3  +  mm. ;  S,  2  +  mm. ;  9,2+  mm. ; 
10,  0.75  mm.;  appendages,  0.75  mm.  Color  black,  marked  with 
greenish  yellow  as  follows:  A  dorsal  spot  and  a  large  inferior  lateral 
spot,  not  reaching  the  anterior  border,  on  1 ;  a  narrow  dorsal  longi- 
tudinal trilobecl  spot,  a  lateral  spot  covering  the  auricles,  and  a  large 
subapical  lateral  spot,  the  2  lateral  spots  joined  along  tlie  inferior 
border,  on  2 ;  a  narrow  longitudinal  dorsal  stripe  on  3,  widening  basally 
and  not  reaching  the  apex;  a  similar  stripe  on  4  and  5,  the  dorsal 
stripe  shortened  apically  and  widened  basally  into  an  almost  complete 
ring;  on  6  the  basal  ring  is  practical!}^  complete,  about  one-eighth  the 
length  of  the  segment,  and  with  the  dorsal  stripe  reduced  to  a  small 
acute  triangle;  on  7  the  basal  ring  is  complete  (that  is,  extending  to 
the  inferior  margins  of  the  segment) ,  covering  about  one-sixth  of  the 
segment,  and  without  a  trace  of  the  dorsal  stripe;  8  with  the  merest 
trace  of  a  basal  ring;  9  with  a  little  less  than  the  apical  dorsal  half  or 
third  clear  yellow,  the  pale  area  a  low,  rounded  triangle  in  shape,  with 
its  apex  dorsal  and  anterior,  its  base  formed  by  the  posterior  edge 
of  the  segment  and  not  reaching  the  inferior  margin ;  this  spot  is  the 
striking  feature  iii  the  coloration  of  the  abdomen,  suggesting  Gomjihus 
melxnops  and  its  allies,  all  larger  species.  Appendages  black.  Con- 
siderable variation  in  the  development  of  the  longitudinal  middorsal 
abdominal  stripe  must  be  expected.      (See  fig.  28.) 

Described  from  three  males  collected  by  Mr.   R.  A.  Earnshaw.'* 

Genus  PLATYGOMPHUS  De  Selys. 

Thi-ee  species,  one  of  them  cjuestionably,  have  been  placed  in  this 
genus  by  De  Selys.  P.  dolabratus  De  Selys  occurs  in  India;  P.  fex 
De  Selys  in  Burma;  and  P.f  occultus  in  China.  In  dolahratus  the 
basal  yellow  rings  on  segments  3-7  are  confluent  with  the  dorsal 
lanceolate  spot  on  each,  segment;  in  occultus  the  dorsal  spots  are 
narrower  and  are  isolated;  and  in  fex  the  dorsal  spots  on  5-7  are 
wanting.     (See  figs.  30  and  31.) 

12.  PLATYGOMPHUS   FE^E  De  Selys. 

"Bhamo  en  juillet  et  aoiit  (Fea)."  Not  seen  by  me.  Only  the 
male  is  Imown.     The  followmg  brief  description  is  condensed  fi-oin 

o These  specimens  were  originally  described  in  this  paper  as  representing  a  new 
species.  In  the  opinion  of  Prof.  F.  Foerster,  with  whom  I  have  corresponded  on  the 
matter,  and  to  whom  I  have  sent  a  specimen  from  Burma,  the  species  from  Burma 
and  Tonkin  are  identical.  Moreover,  M.  Rene  Martin  seemed  undecided  as  to  the 
distinctness  of  the  two,  so  my  specimens  are  here  referred  to  vermiculatus. 




De  Selys:  Abdomen  35-37  mm.;  hind  wing  30-31  mm.;  antenodals, 
front  wing  12-13  mm.;  hind  wing  9-10  mm.;  postnodals,  front  and 
hind  wings  6-10  mm.  Sutures  of  the  face  without  black,  vertex 
without  a  central  j^ellow  spot.  Thorax  above  black,  with  small  oval 
or  triangular  isolated  dorsal  stripes  and  an  antehumeral  stripe  yellow ; 

Fig.  30.  —Wings  of  male  Platygomphus  dolabr.vtus.    De  Selys'  collection. 

sides  yellow,  with  a  stripe  on  the  second  suture,  this  stripe  forked 
above  a  branch  going  to  the  base  of  each  wing.  Abdommal  segments 
3-6  with  a  basal  yellow  ring,  prolonged  on  the  sides;  a  small  dorsal 
median  spot  on  3  and  4;  basal  half  of  7  yellow;  8  and  9  dilated,  the 
sides  largely  yellow;  10  light  brown. 

Fig.  31.— Wings  of  female  Platygomphus  dolabr.*.tus.    De  Selys'  collection. 
Genus  GOMPHUS  Leach. 

As  at  present  understood  but  two  oriental  species  are  certainly 
referable  to  this  genus.  For  a  discussion  of  G.  vermiculatus  Martin 
see  Burmagomplius;   for   G.    kelantanensis    Laidlaw    see   Leptogom- 



'phus;  and  for  G.  (Aeshna)  thmnassoni  Kirby  see  Onychogomphus. 
Gomphus  f  lyromelas  De  Selys,  from  India,  and  G  am  phus  ?  ceyloni- 
cus  Hagen,  from  Ceylon,  are  known  each  from  a  single  female,  in 
the  case  of  promelas  the  tyjie  lacking  the  last  7  abdommal  seg- 
ments. In  the  case  of  each  the  stigma  is  without  brace  vem ;  the 
yellow  dorsal  thoracic  stripes  are  isolated,  not  jomed  below  with  the 
mesothoracic  half  collar.  Each  has  the  abdomen  about  41  mm., 
liind  wing  38-39  mm.  The  stigma  is  blackish  in  promelas,  yellow 
in  ceylonicus;  the  mesothoracic  half  collar  is  scarcely  interrupted  m 
promelas,  widely  interrupted  in  ceylonicus:  and  the  dorsal  stripes 
are  more  widely  separated  from  the  half  collar  in  ceylonicus  than  in 
proTYielas.  The  two  species  above  referred  to  which  certainly  belong 
in  the  genus  Gomphus  are  personatus  De  Selys,  laiown  from  Assam, 
Bengal,  and  Tonkin,  and  a  new  species  described  below  from  Burma. 

Fig.  32.— Wings  of  male  Gomphus  xanthenatus  from  Burma. 

13.  GOMPHUS  XANTHENATUS,  «  new  species. 

Abdomen,  male  45  mm.;  hind  wing,  male  39  mm.  Antenodals, 
front  wing  16,  hind  wing  10-12;  postnodals,  front  and  hind  wings 
11-12.  Basal  antenodal  of  second  series  present  in  the  4  wings  of 
two  specimens,  present  in  front  wings  and  wantmg  in  liind  wings  of 
one  specimen,  and  wanting  in  4  wings  of  one  specimen.  (In  a  male 
of  melsenops  it  is  present  in  the  front  wings,  wanting  in  the  hind 
wings;  in  a  female  of  the  same  species  it  is  present  in  one  fi'ont  wing, 
wanting  in  the  other  3  wings.)      (See  fig.  32.) 

o  The  specific  name  refers  to  the  conspicuous  yellow  area  on  the  ninth  abdominal 

Pruc.  N.  ]M.  vol.  xxxiii— 07 20 

306  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

Head  black,  yellow  as  follows:  Lateral  lobes  of  the  lower  lip;  base 
of  mandibles;  a  basal  spot  on  either  side  of  the  upper  lip;  a  spot  at 
either  end  of  the  nasiis;  sometimes  a  trace  at  middle  of  rhinarimn 
and  middle  of  lower  edge  of  nasus;  the  upper  half  of  the  frons  in 
front  and  all  the  frons  above,  excepting  the  extreme  base;  the 
occipital  plate  at  the  middle,  or  entirely  black. 

Prothorax  black,  yellow  as  follows:  The  anterior  border,  a  geminate 
median  spot  on  the  middle  lobe,  a  small  spot  just  behind  it,  and  a 
large  spot  on  either  side.  Thorax  above  black,  largely  yellow 
between  the  wings;  middorsal  carina  with  its  extreme  edge  yellow 
for  a  short  distance;  straight,  slightly  divergent,  yellow  dorsal  stripes 
of  nearly  uniform  width  throughout,  almost  reaching  the  antealar 
smus  above  and  connected  below  with  the  slightly  narrower,  broadly 
interrupted,  mesothoracic  half  collar;  just  behind  the  upper  end  of 
the  dorsal  stripe  is  a  round  spot  representing  the  antehumeral  stripe; 
in  one  specimen  this  spot  is  prolonged  downward  about  two-thirds 
the  length  of  the  mesepisternum  by  the  faintest,  frequently  inter- 
rupted line;  in  another  case  the  spot  is  reduced  to  the  merest  pin  point; 
mesepimeron  with  a  broad  j^ellow  stripe,  represented  on  the  mesin- 
frgepisternum  by  an  isolated  spot;  metepisternum  with  a  narrow 
irregular  yellow  stripe  which  is  infringed  on  by  the  black  stripes  on 
the  2  lateral  sutures  and  which  ma}^  be  thereby  completely  obliterated 
excepting,  for  a  large  inferior  spot;  metepimeron  largely  yellow,  with 
the  black  of  the  second  lateral  suture  on  its  upper  edge,  and  a  slight 
trace  of  black  on  its  lower  edge.     Pectus  dark,  almost  or  quite  black. 

Legs  black,  venation  black,  or  dark  brown;  stigma  reddish  brown, 
surrounded  by  black  veins;  membranule  almost  wanting;  anal 
triangle  in  male  3-celled. 

Abdomen  slender,  7-9  moderately  dilated  for  the  genus;  black, 
yellow  as  follows:  A  dorsal  longitudinal  stripe  on  1  and  2,  trilobed  on 
2,  in  one  specimen  continued  as  the  merest  line  to  the  apex  of  3;  sides 
of  1  and  2  below  largely  j^ellow,  auricles  yellow,  genitalia  black;  3-7 
each  with  a  basal  yellow  ring,  not  quite  reaching  the  lower  edge  of 
each  segment,  narrowly  interrupted  in  the  middorsal  line  on  7,  widest 
on  3,  where  it  occupies  about  one-fourth  of  the  segment,  on  4-6 
occupying  scarcely  one-fifth,  and  on  7  about  one-fifth  of  each  seg- 
ment; 8  has  a  transverse  basal  linear  spot  on  either  side  (wanting  in 
one  sjiecimen),  representing  the  basal  ring  of  the  preceding  segments, 
and  a  small  lateral  apical  spot,  variable  in  size ;  in  one  specimen  8  has 
an  inferior  subbasal  lateral  spot  equal  in  size  to  the  more  suj^eribr 
lateral  apical  si:)ot ;  9  above  with  the  apical  half  or  three-fourths  yellow, 
the  yellow  area  widening  rapidly  posteriorly,  but  not  quite  reaching 
the  extreme  lower  edge  of  the  segment;  in  shape  this  yellow  area  is 
that  of  a  truncated  triangle;  10  and  appendages  black;  in  one  speci- 
men 10  has  a  small  round  apical  spot  on  either  side  of  the  dorsum 



at  the  base  of  the  superior  appendages.  Abdomen  black  beneath. 
(See  fig.  33.) 

Described  from  four  males  fi'om  Burma  sent  me  by  Mr.  R.  A. 
Earnshaw.  One  of  these  was  sent  to  M.  Rene  Martin  and  Professor 
Foerster,  who  regard  it  as  an  undescribed  species. 

Paratype. — Cat.  No.  10451,  U.S.N.M.  One  specimen.  The  type 
is  in  the  author's  collection. 

The  small  series  shows  an  extent  of  variation  in  color  remarkable  in 
a  species  of    Gomphus.     This  is  most  evident  on   tiie  sides   of  the 

Fig.  3:i.— Gomphus  xanthenatus  from  Burma.    A,  lateral,   ani>  B,-  dorsal  views  of  male 


thorax  and  on  abdominal  segments  8-10.  Throughout  the  descrip- 
tion the  pale  markings  have  l)een  described  as  yellow.  It  is  probable 
that  in  life  these  are  not  of  the  same  color  throughout,  tending  to 
greenish  on  the  thorax  and  to  orange  on  the  abdomen,  excepting  that 
the  pale  area  of  9  is  probably  clear  yellow,  paler  than  the  markings  of 
the  segments  anterior  to  it.  Venationally,  if  the  frequent  presence 
of  the  basal  antenodal  of  the  second  series  is  disregarded,  this  species 
and  the  Japanese  melsenops  De  Selys  are  similar  to  North  American 


PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

species  of  Needham's  subgenus  Stylurus  and  to  related  species  of 
which  fraternus  and  vastus  may  serve  as  examples.  G.  xanthenatus 
is  separated  at  once  from  melsenops  by  the  spotted  upper  lip,  by  the 
narrower  dorsal  thoracic  stripes,  not  widening  below,  by  the  absence 
of  a  distinct  pale  antehumeral  stripe,  by  the  wider  black  stripes  on 
the  lateral  thoracic  sutures,  by  the  annulation  of  segments  3-7,  and 
the  greater  extent  of  yellow  on  9.  G.  personatus  De  Selys  is  known  to 
me  only  from  the  description.  It  is  separated  from  xanthenatus  by 
the  presence  of  a  pale  antehumeral  stripe,  sometimes  interrupted,  by 
having  the  stripes  on  the  lateral  thoracic  sutures  very  narrow,  the 
first  interrupted,  by  the  pectus  largel}?-  yellow,  and  by  the  abdomen 
with  a  longitudinal  middorsal  stripe  and  not  annulated.  Gornphus 
pryeri  De  Selys,  from  Japan,  and  GompJius  scissusMcLachlan,  from 
western  China,  are  two  related  species  known  only  from  female 
specimens.  Both  are  distinct  from  xanthenatus  by  a  number  of 


Genus  ONYCHOGOMPHUS  De  Selys. 

Of  the  about  forty  described  species  in  this  genus,  seventeen  are 
oriental.     These  arranged  alphabetically  are: 

0.  annularis  De  Selys.  Known  from  two  incomplete  males  from 
North  Burma.  Abdomen  34-37  mm.;  hind  wing  29-32  mm.; 
abdominal  appendages  not  known.      (See  fig.  34.) 

0.  hiforceps  De  Selys.  Described  from  a  single  male  from  India; 
recorded  from  Tonkin  by  Martin.  Abdomen  41  mm.;  hind  wing 
32  mm.  (if  measurements  are  correct  the  abdomen  is  relatively  long) ; 
male  superior  abdominal  appendages  longer  than  9  +  10,  turned 
abruptly  downward  near  apex ;  inferior  appendage  equally  long,  near 
apex  curved  abruptly  upward,  the  two  branches  separated  for  a 
distance  near  the  base  to  inclose  an  oval  space. 


0.  histrigatus  Hagen.  Described  from  India.  (The  male  described 
by  De  Selys  in  his  wSecond  Addition  to  the  Synopsis  des  Gomphines 
is  not  certainly  histrigatus,  and  the  second  female  described  in  the 
Mon.  des  Gomphines  as  histrigatus  is  m-flavum."')  Recorded  from 
Anam  l)y  Martin.  Abdomen  30  nnn. ;  hind  wing-  33-34  mm. ;  male 
superior  abdominal  appendages  twice  as  long  as  10,  turned  down- 
ward at  apex;  inferior  appendage  slightly  shorter,  in  profile  with 
2  teeth,  one  at  the  first  third,  the  other  at  the  second  third;  female 
vulvar  lamina  half  as  long  as  9,  divided  at  apex  into  two  points. 

0.  camelus  Martin.  Tonkin  and  Anam.  Abdomen  50  mm.; 
male  abdominal  appendages  similar  to  hiforceps,  but  larger,  the 
branches  of  the  inferior  not  separated  at  base;  female  described 
as  similar  to  hiforceps,  but  vulvar-  lamina  and  occipital  ])late  not 

0.  cerastis  De  Selys.  India  and  Nepal.  Abdomen  40-43  mm.; 
hind  wing  34-37  mm.;  male  appendages  not  known;  female  vulvar 
lamina  small,  short,  one-fourth  the  length  of  9,  notched  for  one-half  its 
length;  female  occipital  plate  with  two  median  spines. 

0.  circularis  De  Selys.  North  Burma.  Abdomen  41  mm.;  hind 
wing,  male  32  mm. ;  female  38  mm. ;  male  sui>erior  abdominal 
appendages  equal  in  length  to  9  +  10,  curved  toward  each  other  and 
slightly  downward,  the  apex  beneath  emarginate;  inferior  appendage 
destroyed;  female  \T,ilvar  lamina  di\'ided  into  two  conical  contiguous 

0.  frontalis  De  Selys.  Described  from  a  teneral  female  from  India. 
Abdomen  29  mm. ;  hind  wing  25  mm. ;  vulvar  lamina  half  as  long  as 
9,  lanceolate,  the  apex  divided. 

0.  geometricus  De  Haan.  Java.  Abdomen  36-37  mm.;  hind 
wing  29-31  mm.;  male  superior  abdominal  appendages  twice  as  long- 
as  10,  curved  toward  each  other  and  apically  downward;  inferior 
appendage  little  shorter,  curved  strongly  upward,  and  bearing  a  tooth 
near  the  base;  female  vulvar  lamina  very  short,  its  apex  broadly 

0.  grammicus  Rambur.  India.  Abdomen  37-39  mm.;  hind 
wing  30  mm.;  male  superior  appendages  as  long  as  9  +  10,  in  profile 
strongly  curved,  the  apex  flattened  into  a  horizontal,  almost  bifid 
plate;  inferior  appendage  a  little  shorter,  enlarged  and  flattened 
basally,  then  curving  abruptly  upward  in  2  slender  contiguous 

0.  inscriptus  Hagen.  Known  only  from  the  female  from  Java. 
Abdomen  36  mm. ;  hind  wing  32  mm. ;  vulvar  lamina  short  and 
wide,  the  apex  truncated  and  emarginate. 

0.  lineatus  De  Selys.  India  and  Nepal.  Abdomen  33-35  mm.; 
hind  wing  27  mm. ;  male  superior  appendages  almost  as  long  as  9  +  10, 

aCauseries  Odon,  VII,  1894,  p.  170. 




almost  parallel,  apically  turned  rather  abruptly  downward ;  inferior 
appendage  not  (piite  half  as  long,  the  branches  inclosing  an  oval  space, 
in  profile  forming  a  semicircle ;  female  vulvar  lamina  short  and 
rounded,  divided  to  its  middle  by  a  narrow  incision;  occipital  plate  in 
both  sexes  bearing  a  number  of  small  spines. 

0.  madacMani  De  Selys.  Described  from  a  single  female  from 
North  Burma.  Abdomen  43  mm. ;  hind  wing  38  mm. ;  vulvar  lamina 
destro3^ed . 

0.  7n-Jlatnnn  De  Selys.  India.  Abdomen  38-39  mm.;  hind  wing 
33-36  mm.;  male  superior  appendages  longer  than  10,  curved  toward 
each  other  and  downward ;  inferior  appendage  of  equal  length,  almost 
entirely  divided  into  2  contiguous  branches,  seen  in  profile  curved 
upward,  bearing  near  the  middle  on  the  upper  surface  a  lateral  tooth; 
female  yulvar  lamina  very  long,  broad  at  the  base,  divided  into  2  con- 

FiG.  .35.— Wings  of  male  Onychogomphus  saundersii  from  Burma. 

tiguous  lanceolate  branches  of  which  the  acute  apices  reach  the  tenth 

0.  rnodestus  De  Sel}'S.  India.  Abdomen  27-28  mm. ;  hind  wing 
23-29  mm.;  male  superior  appendages  as  long  as  9  +  10,  slightly 
curved  toward  each  other  and  downward;  inferior  appendages  as 
long,  deeply  divided  into  2  contiguous  branches. 

0.  nigrescens  Laidlaw.  Described  as  a  variety  of  geoTnetricus,  from 
a  single  female  from  the  Malay  Peninsula.  Doctor  Laidlaw  agrees 
with  my  suggestion  to  him  that  this  is  really  saundersii.  The  ve- 
national  character  pointed  out  by  Doctor  Laidlaw  is  not  peculiar  to 
the  species,  but  is  common  to  a  large  group  of  genera. 

0.  reinwardtii  De  Selys.  Java.  Abdomen  33  mm.;  hind  wing 
26-29  mm.;  male  appendages  not  known;  female  vulvar  lamina  one- 
third  as  long  as  9,  triangular,  the  apex  bifid;  occipital  plate  in  both 
sexes  with  10-12  small  black  spines. 


0.  saunder^sii  De  Selys.  India  and  Indo-China.  Abdomen  37-39 
mm.:  hind  wino;  31-32  mm.;  male  superior  appendages  almost  as 
long  as  9  +  10,  curved  toward  each  other  and  downward;  inferior 
appendage  about  as  long,  in  profile  the  basal  two-thirds  nearly  straight, 
the  apical  third  turned  upward,  the  branches  slender  and  contigu- 
ous; female  vulvar  lamina  short,  apex  deeply  euiarginate.  (See  figs. 
35  and  36.) 

0.  thomassoni  Kirby.  Hainan  and  Tonkin.  Alar  expanse  74  mm. 
(hind  wing  35  mm.) ;  male  superior  ^ 
appendages  longer  than  10,  strongly 
curved  toward  each  other;  inferior  ap- 
pendage less  than  half  as  long  as  the 
superiors,  the  ])ranches  divaricate  and 
recurved  at  the  end.  On  the  basis  of 
specimens  of  both  sexes  Martin  takes 
this  species  from  GompJius  and  places  it 
in  Onychoqomphus:   his   description    of     F'^-  ai.-ONYCHOGOMPHus  saundersh 

,.».',  ,  ^  FROM  Burma,     a,  lateral  view  of 

the  interior  appendage  does  not  suggest  male  abdominal  appendages,  the 
Onychogom'phus,  however,  and  Kirby's  short  hairs  on  the  appendages  are 
figure,  in  the  pattern   of    the    thorax, 

strongly  suggests  Gomphus  pryeri.  The  details  of  venation  in  Kirby's 
figure  are  probably  not  accurate,  l)iit  the  anal  triangle  suggests 
0  n  yell  ago  m  pit  u  s . 

The  above  notes  have  been  compiled  from  the  literature  relating 
to  these  species.  On  the  same  basis  the  following  provisional  key 
has  been  prepared : 

n.  Dorsal  thoracic  stripes  on  either  side  of  the  niiddorsal  carina  isolated,  not  joined 
below  Avith  the  mesothoracic  halt  collar. 
b.  Above  described  stripes  short,  oval. 

c.  Abdominal  segment  9  l)lack;  abdomen  about  29  mm frontalis 

re.  Segment  9  with  some  yellow;  size  larger 

Vmeatus  (India  and  Nepal)  and  rr'niirardtii  (Java). 
hh.  Stripes  longer,  not  oval. 
r.  Abdominal  segments  3-G  black,  with  a  short  basal  dorsal  half  ring  of  yellow; 

abdomen  and  hind  wing  less  than  30  mm modesius 

cc  Segments  3-6  with  more  yellow:  size  larger. 
d.  Segments  3-6  basally  about  one-third  yellow. 

e.  Face  without  black  markings;  sides  of  thorax  dark,  with  2  oblique  yellow 

bands insniplus 

ee.  Face  with  black  markings;  sides  of  thorax  yellow,  sutures  with  black 

stripes cerasfis 

dd.  Segments  3-6  largely  yellowish gramminis 

aa.  Dorsal  thoracic  stripes  joined  below  with  the  mesothoracic  half  collar. 
b.  Abdominal  segment  6  one-half  or  more  yellow. 

c.  Segments  8-10  yellow,  dorsally  black;    femora  largely  yellow bisirigatus 

cc.  Segments  8-10  black;    femora  largely  black geometrinis 


hh.  Segment  6  more  than  one-half  black. 
c.  Black  stripes  on  the  2  lateral  thoracic  sutvu'es  confluent. 

d.  Size  very  large,  abdomen  abont  50  mm cainchi.s 

dd.  Size  smaller. 

e.  Abdominal  s(»gments  8  and  9  ])l:ick;  dorsal  thoracic  stripes  very  wide. 

ee.  Segments  8  or  9  or  botli  with  lateral  basal  yellow  spots. 

/.  Segments  3-7  with  basal  one-fifth  yellow viaclachlani 

Jf.  Segments  3-6  with  basal  one-fourth,  7  with  basal  one-half  yellow. 

cc.  Black  stripes  on  the  2  lateral  thoracic  sutures  not  confluent  for  their  entire 

d.  Face  largely  yellow,  nasus  yellow  marked  with  black cirndaris 

dd.  Face  largely  black,  nasus  black  or  black  marked  with  yellow. 

e.  Abdominal  segments  8-10  all  black annularis 

ee.  Segments  8-10  black,  8  with  lateral-  l)asal  yellow  spots biforceps 

ee.e.  Segments  8-10  with   yellow  laterally m-Jlavum. 

Four  species  of  tlie  genus  are  certainly  known  to  occur  in  Burma: 
a  fifth  species  probably  is  an  Onychogomphus. 


"Bhamo.  Un  couple  en  juillet  et  aout  (Fea)."  I  have  a  single 
male  from  Earnshaw.  This  is  the  onh  Onychogomphus  known  from 

Head  largely  black;  upper  lip  with  a  basal  spot  on  each  side, 
almost  all  rhinarium,  a  lateral  spot  on  the  nasus,  and  a  band  above 
on  the  frons  anteriorly  yellow;  female  with  black  more  restricted, 
the  yellow  on  the  frons  descending  a  little  in  front  and  upper  lip 
yellow  with  a  black  border.  Pale  antehumeral  stripe  reduced  to  a 
line  below  and  a  spot  above.  Sides  of  thorax  largely  black,  a  yel- 
low stripe  on  the  mesepimeron  and  a  wider  one  on  the  metepimeron. 
Legs  black,  first  femora  with  inner  surface  pale. 


^'Patrie:  Nord  de  la  Birmanie.  Un  couple  uni([ue.  (Coll.  Mc- 
Lachlan)."     Recorded  from  Tonlvin  by  Martin. 

Face  3"ellow,  black  as  follows:  Upper  lip  bordered  and  traversed, 
rhinarium  margined,  nasus  at  the  center,  and  the  suture  between 
nastis  and  frons.  Antehumeral  stripe  reduced  to  a  trace.  Sides  of 
thorax  yellow,  with  black  stripes  on  the  two  lateral  sutures.  Femora 
yellow,  with  brown  and  black  markings.  Abdomen  black,  varied 
with  yellow;  3-7  with  3'ellow  basal  rings,  larger  on  .3  and  7;  3-5 
with  dorsal  lanceolate  spots;  8  with  dorsal  and  lateral  spots;  9  and 
10  black. 


^'Patrie:  Le  Nord  de  la  Birmanie.  Deux  males  (a  abdomen 
incomplet).  Commimi(|ue  par  M.  McLachlan."  A  female  in  my 
collection  from  Earnshaw. 


Antenodals,  front  wing  14-16;  hind  wing  9-11  ;  postnodals, 
front  wing  9-10;  hind  wing  10.  Head  black,  yellow  as  follows:  Two 
spots  on  upper  lip,  rhinarium,  a  small  spot  at  the  iij^per  end  of 
nasus,  frons  above  with  a  s})ot  on  each  side;  lower  lip  ])ale.  A 
narrow  pale  antehuineral  stripe,  widened  into  a  spot  above.  Sides 
of  thorax  yellow,  the  two  lateral  sutures  with  black  stripes,  wider 
on  the  first.  Legs  black.  Abdomen  with  basal  rings  on  3-7  narrowly 
interrupted  above,  about  one-third  to  one-fourth  the  length  of  each 
segment,  largest  on  7;  median  dorsal  spot  on  3  and  4  and  a  trace 
on  5;  8-10  black.  Female  vulvar  lamina  one-fourth  length  of  9, 
rounded  triangular,  apex  notched;  female  occipital  plate  with  hind 
margin  almost  straight,  slightly  lower  at  the  middle;  female  abdomi- 
nal appendages  a  little  longer  than  10,  yellow,  a  short  black  tubercle 
between  them.  The  venation  of  the  female  figured  in  this  paper 
is  peculiar  for  the  genus,  so  far  as  known  to  me,  by  the  position  of  the 
arculus  in  the  front  wing,  slightly  beyond  the  second  antenodal,  and 
by  having  the  second  postanal  cell  in  the  hind  wing  divided. 


^'Patrie:  Le  Nord  de  la  Birmanie.  Une  female  unique  (collect. 

Head  black,  frons  above  with  an  anterior  yellow  stripe  nar- 
rowed at  the  middle.  Sides  of  thorax  black,  with  a  yellow  stripe  on 
the  mesepimeron  and  metepimeron.  Legs  brownish  black.  Abdom- 
inal segments  3-7  with  basal  yellow  rings  occupying  about  one-fifth 
of  each  segment:  S  with  a  small  basal  spot  on  each  side  replacing 
the  ring. 


A  single  male  in  fragments  from  Earnshaw  in  my  collection. 

Hind  wing  33  mm.  Antenodals,  front  wing  13,  hind  wing  10; 
postnodals,  front  wing  10,  hind  wing  9. 

Lower  lip  pale  yellow ;  upper  lip  yellow,  bordered  basally  and  ante- 
riorly and  traversed  medianly  ^vith  black;  rhinarium  yellow,  below 
on  either  side  black;  nasiis  black,  a  narrow  margin  below  at  the 
middle  and  a  large  spot  at  either  end  yellow;  frons  yellow,  in  front 
the  lower  half  and  above  a  median  basal  triangular  spot,  not  dividing 
the  yellow,  black;  occiput  nearly  straight,  yellow,  black  against 
the  eyes;  rear  of  head  black. 

Prothorax  black,  margined  with  yellow.  Thorax  above  black, 
middorsal  carina  below  narrowly  yellow;  yellow  stripes  joined  below 
with  the  uninterrupted  mesothoracic  half  collar  to  form  a  7  on  each 
side  of  the  carina;  the  antehumeral  yellow  stripes  represented  by  a 
spot  above  and  a  smaller  one  below;  first  lateral  thoracic  suture  with 
a  black  stripe  interrupted  to  form  3  short  stripes;  second  lateral  suture 


with  a  continuous  but  little  wider  black  stripe;  no  trace  of  black 
posteriorl3^  Costa  yellow,  stigma  black.  Femora  largely  yellow, 
apically  and  externally  with  some  brown;   tibia?  black. 

Abdominal  segment  1  with  a  dorsal  interrupted  crescent  of  brown, 
the  ends  of  the  crescent  reaching  backward  and  downward ;  2  yellow, 
wdth  a  superior  lateral  brown  stripe  which  at  the  apex  of  the  segment 
meets  its  fellow  dorsally;  3  yellow,  black  as  follows:  A  very  narrow 
basal  ring,  an  interrupted  median  ring  and  a  lateral  apical  triangular 
spot  which  meets  its  fellow  dorsally;  4  similar  to  3;  5-7  similar,  the 
apical  black  spots  confluent  dorsally  to  form  apical  rings  covering 
about  one-half  the  segment;  7  with  the  median  transverse  black 
line  reduced  to  a  trace;  8-10  black;  8  with  a  large  lateral  basal  yel- 
low spot,  the  merest  trace  of  which  exists  on  9;  the  suggestion  of  a 
dorsal  basal  spot  on  8. 

Superior  appendages  twice  as  long  as  10,  simple,  slender,  tapering, 
curved  toward  each  other  and  downward,  the  extreme  apex  with  a 
shining  black  tooth,  the  lower  external  edge  on  the  curve  before  the 
apex  minutely  denticulate;  brown  at  base,  shading  at  once  into  light 
yellow.  Inferior  appendage  a  little  more  than  one-half  as  long, 
broadly  bifid  for  more  than  one-half  its  length,  the  branches  simple, 
rounded,  tapering,  widely  and  continuously  divaricate,  but  little 
recurved  dorsally,  terminating  apically  in  a  minute  tooth;  color 
similar  to  the  superiors. 

While  the  single  male  has  served  for  a  fairly  complete  description, 
its  condition  is  such  as  to  make  figures  of  the  appendages  of  ques- 
tionable accuracy,  and  future  study  by  others  of  this  specimen  will 
be  difficult.  For  this  reason  it  is  unnamed,  though  M.  Martin,  who 
has  seen  it,  pronounces  it  as  certainly  new. 

As  to  its  generic  position  some  discussion  is  necessary.  I  should  refer 
it  to  Onychogomphus  without  question  were  it  not  that  Foerster  has 
described  as  Heterogomplius  naninus  a  male  from  Tonkin  which  is  a 
darker  colored  but,  I  believe,  closely  allied  species  to  the  one  described 
above.  In  actual  usage  describers  of  new  species  have  defined  Ony- 
chogomphus  solely  by  one  character,  the  form  of  the  inferior  appendage 
of  the  male ;  and  De  Selys  in  naming  species  based  on  female  speci- 
mens alone  has  followed  the  generic  name  Onychogomphus  with  a 
question  mark.  In  this  Burman  specimen  the  superior  append- 
ages are  similar  to  the  form  found  in  a  number  of  species  of  Onycho- 
gomphus, and  had  the  inferior  been  lost,  few  would  hesitate  to  refer 
the  specimen  to  Onychogomphus.  Moreover,  the  form  of  the  inferior 
appendage  throughout  the  genus,  as  heretofore  understood,  can 
hardly  be  defined  as  of  one  type,  if  we  may  use  Hagen's  figures  in 
Monographic  des  Gomphines  for  comparison.  The  figure  of  0.  jiexu- 
osus  certainly  shows  a  decided  step  away  from  0.  saundersii,  for 



example,  towaril  the  condition  found  in  the  species  described  above. 
Opposed  to  tliis  weak  negative  evidence  of  the  form  of  the  inferior 
appendage  against  referring  this  specimen  to  Onychogotuphus,  is  the 
very  positive  evidence  for  such  a  relationship  shown  by  the  venation 
which  is  figured  in  this  paper.  Compared  with  saundersii,  which  is 
also  figured,  there  are  some  very  slight,  and,  I  believe,  unimportant 
differences.  In  Onycliogomphus?  species  in  front  wing  the  first  cells 
included  between  Cui  and  Cu,  are  relatively  short  in  the  antero- 
posterior direction,  and  the  number  of  cells  between  these  2  veins 
at  the  wing  margin  is  larger  in  botli  front  and  hind  wings.  In  the 
hind  wing  of  Oriycfiogompliusf  species  there  is  a  single  row  of  cells 
between  M^  and  Mj^,  excepting  that  the  marginal  cell  is  divided. 
There  are  also  slight  difi"erences  in  the  shape  of  the  triangles  and 
subtriangles,  and  other  equally  slight  differences  might  be  pointed  out. 
(See  fig. ^^7.) 

Fig.  37.— Wings  of  male  species  of  Onychogomphus  from  Burma 

Genus  HETEROGOMPHUS  De  Selys. 

Seven  species  have  been  named  in  this  genus.  Foerster  regards 
cochincMnensis  De  Selys  from  French  Indo-China,  and  also  probably 
sommeri  De  Selys  from  China,  as  probably  races  of  smitJiii  De  Selys 
from  Silliet.  These  three  are  large  species,  with  the  abdomen  about 
55  mm.  or  more  in  length  and  the  hind  wing  47  to  55  mm.  In 
smitliii  abdominal  segments  3-7  have  the  orange  more  extensive  than 
the  black;  in  cocliincliinensis  and  sommeri  black  predominates  on 
3-6  and  7  has  about  the  basal  half  yellows  The  character  men- 
tioned hj  De  Selys  for  separating  sommeri  and  cocliincliinensis  is 
the  coloration  of  the  frons  above;  in  cocliincliinensis  the  yellow  area 
on  the  frons  above  is  not  divided  medianly  by  black  as  in  sommeri. 
Foerster  has  described  a  male  specimen  from  Tonkui  as  Hetero- 




gompJius  naninus,  which  is  unique  in  the  genus  by  its  small  size 
(abdomen  43  mm.,  hind  wing  32  mm.)  and  by  the  simple  structure 
of  the  inferior  appendage,  the  apices  of  which  are  not  bifid  or  toothed, 
as  is  the  case  in  all  the  other  known  males.  (See  discussion  under 
Onychogomfhus'^:  species,  p.  313.)  The  remaining  three  species  are 
intermediate  in  size.  All  are  distinguished  by  pale  indefuiite  colora- 
tion, and  all  may  be  in  reality  the  same  species.     (See  fig.  38.) 

H.  icterops  Martin,  from  Java,  is  briefly  described  in  "Mission 
Pavie"  from  a  specimen  in  De  Selys's  collection.  Abdominal  seg- 
ment 7  is  largely  yellow,  and  this  character,  may  separate  it  from 
the  other  two.  The  first  described  species  of  this  group  of  three  is 
sumatranus  Kriiger  from  Sumatra.  The  remainmg  species  is  unicolor 
Martin,  described  from  Siani. 

Fig.  38.— 'Wings  of  m\lk  IIeterogomfiius  cochinchixen.sis  from  Tonkin. 


"Un  male  unique  de  Siam,  Museum  de  Paris."  Abdomen  52 
mm.,  hind  wing  48  mm.  Face  and  frons  entirely  yellow.  Thorax 
brown,  with  a  poorly  defined  darker  brown  humeral  stripe.  Abdo- 
men brown,  tinged  above,  especially  toward  the  end,  with  blackish; 
7  tinged  with  ^^ellowish. 

H.  sumatranus  is  somewhat  smaller;  abdomen  about  50  mm., 
hind  wing  42  mm.  From  the  descriptions  no  defuiite  distinguishing 
characters  are  recognizable,  and  it  is  probable  that  unicolor  is  a 
synonym  of  sumatranus. 

Genus  MEROGOMPHUS  Martin. 

The  single  species,  paviei  Martin,  is  known  only  from  Tonkin 
(presumably,  since  in  the  description  of  both  genus  and  species  no 
locality  is  given).     This  is  a  large,  handsome  species;  abdomen  48 



mm.,  hind  wing  40  mm.     I  am  indebted  to  Monsieur  Martin  for  a 
beautiful  male  specimen  in  mj^  collection.     (See  fig.  39.) 


Eleven  genera  and  19  species  of  the  subfamilies  discussed  in  this 
paper  are  known  from  Burma  and  Lower  Siam.  In  the  preparation 
of  this  paper  34  specimens  from  these  localities  have  been  studied. 

Fig.  39.— Wings  of  male  Merogompiius  paviei  from  'I'onkin. 

Of  the  19  species  I  have  seen  specimens  of  only  10.  Of  the  21  species 
of  Calopterygma>  known  from  Burma  and  Lower  Siam  I  had  seen 
17  and  studied  233  specimens.  Many  more  specmiens  of  Caloptery- 
gina3  have  been  received  from  Mr.  Earnshaw  during  the  preparation 
of  this  paper.  Further  comment  on  the  relative  numbers  of  speci- 
mens in  the  different  subfamilies  and  on  the  unavoidable  mcom- 
pleteness  of  this  paper  is  unnecessary.     V 


By  David  Starr  Jordan  and   Robert  Earl  Richardson, 

Of  Stanford  UniviTsitij,  California. 

We  have  recenth^  received  from  Mr.  Herbert  Brown,  of  Tucson, 
Arizona,  6  specimens  of  a  small  killifish  of  the  genus  Lucania,  taken  by 
Mr.  Brown  from  a  hot-water  sprino;  in  northeastern  Lower  California. 
Being  unable  to  identify  these  with  any  hitherto  described  species, 
we  here  describe  them  as  new,  and  propose  for  them  the  name  of 
Lucania  browni. 

LUCANIA    BROWNI,   new  species. 

Head  3.3  in  length  without  caudal;  depth  3.3  (3.5  in  males) ;  D.  10, 
A.  10,  scales  28  (25);  depth  of  caudal  peduncle  1.9  in  head;  breadth 
of  head  1.6;  eye  3;  interorbital  space  equal  to  eye;  nose  4  in  head; 
mouth  very  small  and  quite  oblique;  maxillary  equals  pupil,  the  tip 
of  the  upper  lip  slightly  below  upper  rim  of  pupil ;  teeth  sharp,  pointed, 
equal,  in  a  single  row  on  each  jaw;  gill  membranes  connected  for  a 
short  distance,  the  gill  openings  not  restricted  above;  intestine  not 
longer  than  body;  dorsal  inserted  slightly  behind  ventrals,  a  little 
nearer  base  of  caudal  than  end  of  snout;  anal  fin  not  modified  into  an 
intromittent  organ  in  males,  its  length  when  depressed,  in  female  1.3 
in  head,  in  male  equal  to  head;  pectoral  1.4  in  head;  ventrals  very 
small,  2.75  in  head. 

Color  of  fi'esh  specimens  in  formalin:  Females  olivaceous,  each 
side  of  Ijody  with  about  8  large  Idotches  of  darker  color,  forming  a 
broken  lateral  band  in  adults;  the  blotches  continued  downward  on 
bell}'^  as  cross  bands  in  half-grown  sj^ecimens;  3  diffuse  clusters  of 
punctulations  on  the  belly  just  in  front  of  and  above  anal  fin;  dorsal 
punctulated  with  dusky  in  both  membranes  and  rays,  with  a  con- 
spicuous dark  blotch  behind,  between  the  sixth  and  tenth  rays; 
caudal  pale,mth  two  crescentric  cross  bands  across  its  base,  the  inter- 
space between  them  pale;  ventrals  and  anal  pale;  pectorals  ol)Scurely 

Proceedings  U.  S.  National  Museum,  Vol.  XXXlll— No.  1572. 

320  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

])unctiilate  in  the  rays.  Males  darker  in  color,  with  the  side  ])lotches 
less  distinct  and  with  the  fins  more  dusky,  and  with  both  the  dorsal 
and  the  anal  tipped  heavily  with  dusky  behind. 

Described    from     6 
specimens, 0.50  to  0.84 
inch  long,  taken  at  a 
point    20   feet    below 
the  outbreak  of  a  hot 
spring  on  the  eastern 
margin  of  the  salt  lake 
that  lies  between  the 
Coast    and     Cocopah 
ranges,  in  northeast- 
ern Lower  California. 
The  salt  lake  is  said 
by   Mr.    Brown,  who 
collected    the     speci- 
mens, to  lie  about  40 
miles  south  of  the  in- 
ternational  line,    and 
is  stated  by  him  to  be 
I     undoubtedly    below 
I     sea  level.    The  species 
:i     is  oviparous.    The  two 
d     largest   specimens  are 
^     gravid    females,     the 
largest   eggs   being   1 
mm.      in      diameter. 
Three    examples    are 
well      developed     fe- 
males,   0.66    to    0.78 
inch  in  length,  two  of 
them  apparently   ap- 
proaching nuptial  col- 
oration.   A  sixth  spec- 
imen is  half-grown. 

These  specimens  ap- 
pear to  differ  from 
other  described  spe- 
cies of  Lucania  in  their 
shorter  ventral  fins 
and  in  details  of  color- 
ation. The  type  is 
Cat.  No.  57838,  U.S.N.M.  Cotypes  are  in  the  collection  of  Stanford 
University,  No.  20171.  Named  for  Mr.  Herbert  Brown,  of  Tucson, 


The  water  from  which  these  specimens  were  taken  is  thus  described 
by  Mr.  Brown : 

The  surface  cif  the  water — er,  rather,  luueh  of  it — was  covered  with  a  tough  thick 
growth  of  green  and  sulphur  colored  algae.  The  temperature  was  taken  in  water 
from  which  the  algfe  had  been  removed .     The  register  was  128°. 

The  temperature  was  taken  by  Mr.  Godfrey  Sykes,  an  engineer  well  known  through 
this  section  of  country,  in  the  presence  of  myself  and  Dr.  D.T.  MacDougal,  director 
of  the  Carnegie  Bota.nical  Laboratory  at  this  place.  It  was  with  a  laboratory  instru- 
ment that  the  temperature  was  taken.  With  the  exception  of  an  open  strip  of  water 
about  2  or  3  feet  wide,  the  surface  of  the  flow  from  the  spring  was  covered  with  a  thick 
growth  of  algge.  A  portion  of  the  algae  was  removed,  and  the  temperature  taken  in  the 
hole  so  made.  The  temperature  was  undoubtedly  hotter  ther(>  than  it  was  on  the 
open  edge  of  the  water,  but  the  fish  darted  in  and  out  under  the  algae  and  because  of 
doing  so  were  not  easily  caught.  The  water  certainly  was  as  hot  under  the  unbroken 
algae  as  it  was  where  the  thermometer  was  placed.  At  this  particluar  place  the  flow 
was  about  10  or  12  feet  wide,  and  was  about  20  feet  from  the  point  where  the  water 
broke  out  of  the  ground.  Lower  down  the  escaping  water  widened  out  and  ran  thinner 
over  the  surface.  A  bottle  of  the  water  was  brought  away  and  an  analysis  was  made 
of  it  by  Prof.  R.  E.  Forbes,  chemist  at  Territorial  University.  It  contained  2^  per 
cent  of  soluble  salts,  of  which  salts  2  per  cent  were  common  salt  and  \  per  cent  calcium 
chloride.  It  also  contained  a  trace  of  lithium.  I  would  like  to  add  here  that  the 
water  teemed  with  insect  life.  A  second  spring,  of  about  an  equal  volume  of  water 
and  not  more  than  20  feet  away  anct  running  parallel  with  the  first,  contained  no  fish. 
The  fish  were  captured  and  placed  in  a  can  with  a  closed  top  about  10  a.  m.  We  were 
then  on  the  move  and  my  formaldehyde  was  in  a  large  tank,  and  as  I  did  not  care  to 
put  the  little  fellows  in  it  I  carried  them  for  nearly  two  days  in  the  can  in  which  they 
were  first  placed.  It  was  in  February  and  the  night  was  cold,  but  when  I  examined 
them  the  next  morning  they  appeared  to  be  as  lively  as  ever.  The  following  afternoon 
they  were  still  living,  but  were  not  so  lively  as  in  the  morning.  I  then  placed  them  in 
formaldehyde.     They  had  lived  in  about  a  quart  of  water  from  their  native  sj^ring. 

Proc.  N.  M.  vol.  xxxiii— 07 21 


PARTS  3  AND  4.     A    REVISION    OF    THE    PANDARIN.E    AND   THE 


By  Charles  Branch  Wilson. 

Department  <>/  Bi'oloytJ,  State  NoDiuil  School,  ]V(slJi.eld,  ^klssachusetts. 


The  present  is  the  sixth  paper  in  the  series  based  upon  the  collec- 
tion of  the  U.  S.  National  Museum  and  finishes  the  family  Caligidse. 
For  many  reasons  a  large  amount  of  careful  and  painstaking  collating 
has  been  rendered  necessary  before  this  paper  could  be  published. 
And  in  consequence,  as  its  title  indicates,  it  lias  taken  the  nature  of  a 
thorough  revision  of  the  two  subfamilies  which  it  includes.  Such  a 
revision  was  found  to  be  absolutely  demanded  for  any  intelligent 
discussion  of  the  group,  and  especially  for  its  accurate  systematization. 

In  the  first  place,  up  to  the  present  time  we  have  been  acquainted 
with  both  sexes  of  but  one  or  two  species  in  the  entire  subfamily 
Pandarina3.  Of  all  tlie  other  forms  either  the  male  or  the  female 
have  been  described  alone. 

This  has  been  due  not  to  any  scarcity  of  the  missing  sex,  as  might  be 
supposed,  but  to  the  fact  that  when  found  it  was  located  elsewhere  on 
account  of  the  great  morphological  dissimilarity  between  the  sexes. 
So  that  we  find  repeatedly  the  anomaly  of  a  female  classified  under 
one  genus  and  subfamily,  while  the  male  is  located  under  an  entirely 
dift'erent  genus,  and  often  in  another  subfamily. 

Furthermore,  all  previous  attempts  to  bring  together  the  sexually 
separated  species  have  been  confined  to  individual  cases  or  to  closely 
related  forms.  And  there  has  been  in  these  attempts  such  an  utter 
disregard  of  morphological  and  developmental  data  that  they  have 
only  served  to  render  the  confusion  worse  confounded.  To  the  best 
of  the  author's  knowledge  the  present  paper  is  the  first  to  systematize 

Proceedings  U.  S.  National  Museum,  Vol.  XXXIII— No.  1573. 


324  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 

the  group  upon  a  morphological  basis.  As  will  be  seen  the  structure 
in  a  few  instances  supports  the  suggestions  that  have  been  made 
regarding  the  identity  of  sexes,  while  in  the  great  majority  of  cases  it 
is  directly  opposed  to  them.  It  is  obvious,  however,  that  any  sugges- 
tion of  species  identity  which  is  not  supported,  or  which  may  even  be 
contradicted  by  the  anatomy  of  the  two  sexes,  is  worthy  of  very  little 

And  it  is  really  surprising  how  much  similarity  a  careful  examination 
reveals  when  we  remember  that  the  two  sexes  have  been  considered 
generically  distinct.  The  differences  are  found  to  be  much  more 
apparent  than  real,  and  this  is  particularly  true  of  the  appendages 
which  afford  a  ready  clew  for  the  determination  of  the  genera,  as  can 
be  seen  from  the  key  which  follows  (p.  345). 

There  is  of  course  no  expectation  of  being  able,  in  this  initiatory 
effort,  to  reach  a  final  conclusion  respecting  all  the  Nogaus  species. 
Considerable  additional  information  will  be  needed  before  that 
becomes  even  possible.  But  at  least  a  good  beginning  can  be  made, 
and  the  treatment  of  the  species  can  be  placed  upon  a  rational  and 
scientific  basis,  which  will  yield  good  results  in  the  future. 

Each  male  has  been  included  in  the  genus  to  which  it  belongs,  so  far 
as  this  is  positively  known,  and  its  characteristics  have  been  given 
under  the  genus  diagnosis. 

There  are  here  described  twenty  species,  of  which  one  is  new  to 
science,  namely,  EcJdhrdgaleus  tor'pedinis ,  while  two  others,  Echthro- 
galeus  denticulatus  Smith  and  Nesipp^is  alatus  Wilson,  are  figured  for 
the  first  time,  the  latter  including  both  sexes. 

In  addition  the  males  of  eight  of  the  other  species  have  been 
definitely  located,  described,  and  figured,  four  of  them  being  new  to 
science,  while  the  other  four  have  been  boarding  around  among  the 
various  genera  as  w^as  formerly  the  custom  with  the  teachers  in  our 
old-fashioned  country  schools. 

The  males  of  the  three  species  belonging  to  the  Cecropinse,  of 
Gangliopus  pyrnformis,  and  of  Pandarus  hicolor  were  already  known 
so  that  we  now  have  the  males  of  14  of  the  20  species,  including  at 
least  one  for  every  genus. 

And  lastly,  much  the  hardest  task  of  all,  in  the  discussion  of  the 
genus  Nogaus,  which  is  made  up  entirely  of  males,  34  species, 
described  by  half  as  many  authors  and  in  seven  different  languages, 
have  l^een  carefully  contrasted  with  one  another  and  with  the  types 
here  established,  so  far  as  the  data  given  made  this  possible. 

It  has  been  found  necessary  to  change  the  names  of  two  genera  on 
account  of  preoccupation.  The  name  Lepidopus,  proposed  by  Dana  in 
1852,  had  been  used  by  Gouan  for  a  fish  genus  in  1770.  In  its  place  is 
suggested  the  name  Pliolidopus  which  has  the  same  meaning,  namely, 


The  name  Stasiotes,  proposed  by  Wright  in  1877,  had  been  used  by 
Jan  for  a  snake  genus  in  1862.  In  its  place  is  suggested  the  name 
Prosaetes,  from  Ttpoaalrr/g,  a  beggar,  who  torments  one  by  his 

A  complete  life  liistory  is  also  presented  by  using  different  stages 
of  development  from  different  genera,  but  as  none  of  the  developmental 
stages  have  ever  been  described  even  tliis  is  a  consideral)le  advance. 

Part  3.— THE   PANDARINvE. 


The  Pandarinas  are  peculiarly  shark  parasites,  the  genera  and 
even  the  species,  almost  without  exception,  infesting  some  one  of 
the  numerous  selachians  along  our  coasts.  In  general  the  females 
remain  throughout  life  fixed  in  the  same  position  on  their  host,  and 
even  the  males  are  rarely  found  swimming  about  freely.  And  yet 
upon  occasion,  as  will  be  seen  later,  these  males  can  swim  as  well 
as  any  of  the  Caliginse.  Hence  it  is  not  a  case  of  necessity  but  one 
of  choice  that  keeps  them  in  close  proximity  to  the  fixed  females. 

In  this  connection  Hesse  writes:'' 

Les  poissons  sur  lesquels  on  les  trouve  n'etant  pas,  comme  ceiix  des  autres  especes, 
enduits  d'une  secretion  mucilagineuse  qui,  en  lubrifiant  la  peau,  la  rend  j^lus  souple 
et  plus  penetrable  et  facilite  ainsi  les  fonctions  des  organes  destines  a  la  perforer. 
Prives  de  ces  avantages  et  insuffisamment  fixes  sur  une  enveloppe  ej^aisse  et  coriace, 
ils  ne  tardent  pas,  lorsqu'ils  sent  sortis  de  I'eau,  a  s'en  detacher  et  a  tomber  a  terre, 
ou  dans  le  fond  des  bateaux,  et  alors,  a  raison  de  leur  extreme  petitesse,  il  est  bien 
difficile  de  les  retrouver. 

This  statement  might  give  the  impression  that  the  Pandarinse 
are  outcasts  among  the  parasites,  unable  to  find  anything  better 
in  the  way  of  hosts,  and  so  compelled  to  put  up  with  these  thick- 
skinned  sharks.  But  such  does  not  seem  to  be  the  case;  the  shark's 
skin  is  tough,  but  is  not  particularly  thick  for  so  large  a  fish,  and 
it  is  certainly  covered  with  mucus  the  same  as  that  of  other  fishes. 
It  is  therefore  as  easy  to  penetrate  as  the  skin  of  a  fish  covered  with 
heavy  scales. 

Furthermore,  as  Hesse  himself  says,  immediately  after  the  passage 
quoted,  these  Pandarinse  seek  out  those  places  on  the  shark's  body 
where  the  skin  is  the  thinnest,  such  as  the  fins,  the  inside  of  the 
operculum,  the  border  of  the  anal  and  genital  orifices,  and  even 
the  eyes.  In  fact  this  same  preference  is  shown  by  all  the  Caligidse, 
and  is  just  as  pronounced  on  a  scaly  fish  as  on  these  selachians, 
for  the  skin  in  the  localities  mentioned  is  always  soft  and  tender 
enough,  even  on  a  shark,  to  be  easily  penetrated,  especially  by  such 
large  parasites   as   the  Pandarinse.     Hence   the  reason  implied  by 

«Annales  des  Sciences  Naturelles  (6),  XV,  Article  3,  p.  39. 

32  G 



Hesse,  and  stated  clearly  in  a  footnote  at  tlie  bottom  of  the  page 
just  referred  to,  can  not  be  the  only  one.     He  says  in  the  footnote: 

C'est  sans  doute  a  raison  de  la  plus  grande  epaisscur  de  leur  pcau  que  je  n'ai  jamais 
rencontre  ccs  parasites  sur  les  Scyllium  canicula,  catulus  et  annulatus,  qui  cependant 
sont  des  Squales  que  Ton  trouve  plus  frequemment  que  les  autres  dans  notre 

It  is  very  doubtful  if  the  skin  of  these  sharks  he  mentions  is  any 
thicker  than  that  of  the  dusky  shark,  Oarcharhinus  obscurus,  and 
other  large  sharks  of  our  own  coasts  which  are  commonly  infested 

with  these  parasites.  And  even  if 
it  were  thick  and  tough  enough  else- 
where, it  would  still  be  thin  and 
soft  at  the  localities  mentioned,  and 
easily  penetrated  by  the  sharp  pro- 
bosces  of  these  large  Pandarids. 
Some  other  reason  must  be  found 
to  account  for  the  lack  of  parasites 
on  the  sharks  mentioned. 
Again  Hesse  writes :  "■ 

Fig.  1.— Photograph  of  dorsal  fin  of  sand 


J'ai,  en  effet,  visite,  avec  le  plus  grand 
soin  et  depuis  un  assez  grand  nombre 
d'annees,  lespoissons  de  toiltesles  espfeces 
qui  frequentent  nos  cotes  et  je  suis  parvenu 
a  trouver  vingt  Caliges  differentes,  ainsi 
que  dix  Trebles;  et  toutes,  sans  aucune 
exception,  ont  ete  recueillies  sur  le  corps 
ou  sur  les  brancliies  de  poissons  a  peau 
molle,  consequemment  autres  que  les 

The  sharks  along  ovir  Atlantic 
coast  must  be  very  different  from 
those  on  the  coast  of  France,  since  the  author  has  found  two  of  the 
Argulida?,  Argulus  laticauda  and  A.  7negaIops,  two  of  the  Caliginae, 
Caligus  rapax  and  Lepeoplitheirus  edwardsi,  and  two  of  the  Eury- 
phorinse,  Alehion  gracilis  and  A.  glaher,  very  commonly  upon  them. 
The  two  last  mentioned  species  are  ])ractically  confined  to  the  Dog- 
fish and  Sand  Shark,  and  are  found  all  over  the  outside  surface  of 
these  fishes,  apparently  never  hunting  for  any  thin  places  in  the  skin. 

Furthermore  the  Caliginse  are  common  also  upon  Skates  and 
Rays,  whose  skin  is  as  tough  and  leathery  as  that  of  the  sharks,,  at 
least  six  species  being  found  on  these  fish. 

We  may  reasonably  conclude,  therefore,  that  the  sharks  are 
selected  by  these  parasites  as  their  chosen  hosts.  And  there  is  no 
reason  for  believing  that  they  do  not  prove  as  satisfactory  as  any 
bony  fish  (fig.  1). 

"  Sain(>  article,  j).  30. 

NO.  L-s-za.  I'ARAtilTIC  COPEPODS— WILSON.  327 

We  have  already  stated  that  the  females  remain  throughout  life 
fixed  ill  one  position  upon  their  host.  This  is  true  of  all  the  genera 
belonging  to  the  subfamily  a".:<:l  constitutes  a  fourth  step  in  degener- 
ation as  well  marked  as  the  three  which  have  preceded  it." 

The  last  three  of  these  steps,  however,  and  a  part  of  the  first  one, 
have  been  confined  to  the  female,  while  the  male  has  escaped  their 

As  a  result  we  find  in  the  present  subfamily  the  greatest  sexual 
dissimilarity  in  the  entire  family  of  the  Caligidi©. 

Indeed,  the  two  sexes  of  every  genus  in  the  PandarinjB  are  so  unlike 
that  the  males  have  been  considered  a  separate  genus  from  the 
females.  And  not  only  so,  but  the  males  of  all  the  genera  have  been 
made  congeneric,  and  grouped  together  under  the  single  genus  ''  No- 
gagus.'^  Furthermore,  this  male  "genus"  has  been  ]:)laced  by  the 
great  majority  of  writers  in  the  subfamily  Caligin?e  rather  than  in 
the  Pandarina?,  where  the  females  all  belong.  This  will  be  more  fidly 
discussed  under  the  genus  name  Nogaus  (see  p.  439).  It  serves  here 
simply  to  emphasize  the  sexual  difi^erences,  and  to  make  it  evident 
that  in  considering  their  ecology  as  well  as  their  morphology  most 
if  not  all  of  the  statements  must  be  understood  as  confined  to  a  single 
sex.  The  first  step  in  degeneration,  as  already  noted  under  the  Cali- 
ginse,  was  the  mechanical  hindrance  afl'orded  by  the  egg  strings,  and 
the  strong  incentives  for  remaining  on  the  body  of  the  host.  Of 
course  the  latter  was  the  only  one  operating  upon  the  male,  and  it 
did  not  exert  much  influence  so  long  as  the  female  retained  the  power 
of  free  swimming. 

As,  however,  this  power  gradually  weakened  in  the  Caligiiiie  and 
still  more  in  the  Euryphorinse,  the  incentive  for  the  male  to  remain 
upon  the  host  with  the  female  became  stronger. 

And  here  in  the  Pandarina?,  where  the  female  has  become  a  fixed 
form  and  correspondingly  degenerate,  the  incentive  operates  with 
its  full  power  on  the  male,  and  we  find  him  in  the  same  condition  as 
were  the  females  of  Lepeoj^htheirus  and  other  Caligids,  that  is,  capable 
of  swimming  freely  but  under  ordinary  conditions  remaining  upon 
the  same  fish,  along  with  the  female,  during  his  entire  life.  Wliile 
the  male  has  thus  resisted  the  degenerative  influences  so  much 
longer  than  the  female,  yet  when  he  once  yields  the  transition  is 
more  rapid,  and  in  the  very  next  subfamily,  the  Cecropinae  (see  p  465), 
we  find  the  male  degenerated  into  a  fixed  form  exactly  like  that 
of  the  female. 

a  The  three  previous  steps  are:  (1)  The  mechanical  hindrance  afforded  by  the  egg 
strings  and  the  lack  of  incentive  to  free  swimming;  (2)  the  loss  of  the  lunules  on 
the  frontal  plates,  and  the  consequent  restriction  of  the  free  scuttling  motion;  (3)  the 
development  of  dorsal  plates  on  the  thorax  segments,  thereby  diminishing  the  freedom 
of  bodily  movement. 

328  PROCEEDINOS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM.         vol.  xxxiii. 


The  female  has  entirely  lost  the  power  of  free  swnnining,  and 
almost  entirely  that  of  moving  about  on  her  host.  She  can  and  does 
change  her  position,  but  only  for  the  most  strenuous  reasons  and 
during  the  earlier  stages  of  development.  Such  motion  is  of  neces- 
sity very  slow,  since  it  involves  the  loosening  and  refastening  of  the 
hold  maintained  by  the  different  prehensile  organs.  Some  of  them 
must  remain  fastened  all  the  time,  and  the  only  progress  made  is  the 
distance  that  can  be  covered  by  the  stretching  of  the  body  between 
the  alternate  fastenings.  When  removed  from  the  fish  and  placed 
in  an  aquarium  these  females  simply  lie  upon  their  backs,  moving 
the  swimming  legs  spasmodically,  but  producing  no  change  of  position 
at  all.  The  males,  on  the  contrary,  can  swim  as  freely  as  0 aligns, 
and  when  placed  in  an  aquarium  with  the  latter  they  resemble  them 
so  closely  in  form  and  movements  as  to  be  distinguished  only  by 
carefid  scrutiny.  Accordingly  we  should  expect  to  find  some  of  the 
males  swimming  about  freely  at  the  breeding  season,  like  those  of 
Caligus,  and  there  are  in  the  U.  S  National  Museum  collection 
several  specimens  so  recorded. 

None  of  either  sex,  so  far  as  known,  have  lunules  on  the  frontal 
plates,  and  hence  they  do  not  exhibit  the  scuttling  movements 
characteristic  of  Argulus  and  Caligus.  And  yet  they  can  move  about 
easily  and  rapidly  over  the  outside  of  the  shark's  body  and  are  by 
no  means  confined  to  tne  immediate  vicinity  of  the  females.  This 
motion  is  accomplished  b}^  means  of  the  adhesion  pads,  maxillipeds, 
and  swimming  legs.  The  former  hold  the  copepod  to  the  skin  of  its 
host,  while  the  latter  push  the  body  forward.  Instead  of  a  scutthng 
movement,  therefore,  each  side  of  the  body  being  advanced  alter- 
nately, there  is  a  forward  gliding  motion  of  the  entire  body,  similar 
to  that  shown  in  swimming.  All  four  pairs  of  swimming  legs  in 
these  males  are  biramose,  and  the  rami  are  wide  flattened  laminae 
which  propel  the  animal  swiftly  through  the  water. 

There  is  no  broad  basal  apron  coimecting  the  third  legs  across  the 
mid  line,  which  was  characteristic  of  the  Caliginge,  but  this  is  largely 
compensated  by  the  fact  that  the  fourth  legs  are  as  broad  and  pow- 
erful as  the  third  pair,  while  in  the  Caliginse  they  were  of  no  actual 
service  for  swimming. 


The  organs  of  prehension  include  adhesion  pads,  claws,  and  mod- 
ified chelae.  The  adhesion  pads  are  common  to  all  the  genera  and 
to  both  sexes;  they  arise  as  accessory  organs  in  connection  with  the 
various  appendages,  and  are  usually  of  different  shapes  in  the  different 
genera  and  even  in  the  different  species,  thereby  affording  good 

NO.  1573. 



supplementary  means  of  differentiation.  In  the  genus  Pandarus, 
which  may  be  taken  as  the  type  of  the  subfamily,  there  are  four  pairs 
of  these  pads  (fig.  2). 

The  first  pair  are  connected  with  the  bases  of  the  first  antemia?, 
are  elliptical  or  oval  in  outline,  and  stand  close  to  the  lateral  margins 
of  the  carapace,  sometimes  even  projecting  beyond  the  margin. 
The  second  pair  are  connected  similarly  with  the  bases  of  the  second 
antennge,  are  usually  circular  or  oval  in  outline,  and  stand  inside  of 
and  posterior  to  the  first  pair.  The  long  diameters  of  both  pairs 
are  parallel  with  the  body  axis,  as  a